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f;binted by william blacjcwood and sons, EpraBUEQH. 




F, R. P. S. F. R. S. S. A. 















§ 1. Sketch of the Histobt of Culinary Vegetables, 

2. Disposition of the Chops in the Kitchen Garden, 

3. The Quantities of Seeds and Roots necessary to Crop a Garden, 

4. Rotation of Crops, ...... 

5. Transplanting Culinary Esculents, .... 

6. Proposed Arrangement, . . . . 



CHAPTER.!.— Alliaceous Plants, 
§ 1. The Shallot, 

2. Garlic, 

3. Rocambole, 

4. The Onion, 

5. The Leek, . 

6. The Chive, 

CHAPTER II. — Leguminous Plants, or the Pulse Tribe, 
§ 1. The Pea, ....... 

2. The Bean, ...... 

3. The Kidney or French Bean, 

4. The Scarlet Runner, ..... 

CHAPTER III. — Brassicageous Plants, or the Cabbage Tribe, 
§ 1. The Cabbage, 

2. The Portugal Cabbage, 

3. Red Cabbage, 

4. Brussels Sprouts, 

5. The Broccoli, 

6. The Savoy, 

7. The Cauliflower, 

8. The Sea-Kale, 

9. The Borecole, 

CHAPTER IV.— Asparaginous Plants, 
§ 1. Asparagus, 

2. The Alisander, 

3. The Cardoon, 

4. The Artichoke, 

5. The Hop, &c.. 


















CHAPTER v.— Spinacbous Plants, . . . . 

§ 1. Spinach, ... . . 135 

2. Wild Spinach, . . 137 

3. French or Mountain Spinach, . . 138 

4. New Zealand Spinach, ib. 

5. Garden Patience, &o., . . . ib. 

6. The White ok Sicilian Beet, . . 139 

CHAPTER VI. — AcETABiACEous OR Salad Plant, 

§ 1. Celery, . . ... 141 

2. Celeriac, ok Turnip-rooted Celery, . . . ISO 

3. The Lettuce, . . 151 

4. Endive, . . .158 

5. Succory, ..... 164 

6. Dandelion, Taehagon, &c., . . . 166 

7. White and Black Mustard, . . 167 

8. Cresses, . . . .168 

9. Purslane, Chervil, &c. . 171 

10. Rape, Corn-Salad, &c., . ib. 

11. The Radish, ... 172 

CHAPTER VII. — Esculent-rooted Plants, .... 

§ !. The Carrot, . . . . 176 

2. The Turnip, ..... 183 

3. The Potato, . .... 199 

4. The Jerusalem Artichoke, . . 223 

5. Red Beet, ... . . 226 

6. Salsify, Skirret, &c,, . . 228 

7. The Parsnip, . ... 229 

CHAPTER VIII. — Olekaceous Plants, or Pot-Hebbs, comprising such 


§ 1. Parsley, . . . 232 

2. Dill, Borage, &o., . . 234 

3. Sage, Balm, Mint, &c., . 235 

4. Basil, Savory, &c., . . . . 237 

CHAPTER IX.— Medicinal Plants, .... 

CHAPTER X.— Edible Fungi, 

§ 1. The Mushroom, . 243 

2. The Morel, . . . 252 

3. The Trueele, . 253 

CHAPTER XI. — Miscellaneous Vegetables, "... 

§ 1. Rhuearb, ..... . 266 

2. The Tomato and Eqo-Plant, . 258 

3. The Gourd and Pumpkin, . . . 259 

4. Capsicum, .... . 260 

5. Rosemary and Lavender, . . ib. 

6. The Horse-Radish, . . . 261 

CHAPTER XII.— Soils, ... 

§1. Their Origin AND Nomenclature, . . 263 

2. Determination op their Nature, &c., . 270 

3. Their Improvement, . . 277 

4. Watering, . . . 284 









CHAPTER XIII.— Manures, .... 

§ I. lUNDS OF THEM, &C., .... 

2. Oesanic Manhees, 

3. Inoeganic Manubes, 


§ 1. Selection of Kinds, kc, 

2. The Oeigin of New Fruits, 

3. On the DnEATiON, in a healthy state, of Fkuit Teees, 

(CHAPTER I.— Propagation, 
§ 1. Propagation by Seed, 

2. Crossing oe Hybeidising, 

3. Peopagation by Geafting, 
i. Peopagation by Budding, 

5. Propagation by Cuttings, 

6. Peopagation by Layees, . 

CHAPTER II.— Planting, ... . . 

CHAPTER III.— Pruning and Tbaining, 

CHAPTER IV.— The Apple, 

CHAPTER V.-The Peak, 

CHAPTER VI.— The Peach and Nectaiune, 
§ 2. FoEoiNG the Peach and Nectarine, 

CHAPTER VII.-The Apricot, 


CHAPTER IX.— The Cherry, 

CHAPTER X.— Forcing the Apricot, Plum, and Cherry, 


CHAPTER XII.— The Almond, Quince, Medlar, &o., 
§ 1. The Almond, ... 

2. The Quince, 

3. The Medlae, 

4. The Walnut, 

5. The Chestnut, ok Spanish or Sweet Chestnut, 

6. The Filbert, 

CHAPTER XIII. — The Cukrant, Raspberry, Gooseberry, 

BERRY, &C., 

§ 1. The Red, White, and Black Currant, , 

2. The Raspbeery, 

3. The Gooseberry, ... 

4. The Stbawbbrry, 

5. The Mulbeeey, 

6. The Ceanbeery, 
















CHAPTER XIV.— The Grape Vine, . 
CHAPTER XV.— The Pine Apple, 
CHAPTER XVI.— The Cucumber and Melon, 

§ 1. ThB CnOUMBEU, ..... 

2. The Melon, . ... 

CHAPTER XVII.— Management of the Fruit-Room, 






CHAPTER I.— Plant-Houses, 
§ 1. Camellia-House, 


3. BnLB-HoDSE, 

4. Okanqebt, . 

5. Heath-House, 

6. Aquabium, 

7. The Stove or Tropical Plant House, 

8. Succulent-House, 

9. The Conservatory, 

10. The Greenhouse, . 

11. Flowbe-Forcing House or Pits, . 

12. Cold or Conservative Pits, 

13. Conservative Wall and Border, Protection of half- 

Trees AND Plants, 

14. Miscellaneous Observations, 

CHAPTER II.— The Open Flower-Garden, 
§ 1. American Garden, 


3. The Lawn, .... 

4. The Shrubbery, 

5. The Flobists' Flower Garden, 

6. The Alpine Garden and Eockery, 

7. The Perennial-Plant Flower Garden, 

8. The Parterre Garden, 

9. The Eebbrve Garden, 
10. Insects injurious in the Plant-Houses and Flowbr-Garden, 






GLOSSARY op some op the most important Technical Terms employed 

IN THIS Work, ... .... 837 

INDEX TO Select Lists of Vegetables and Fruits, 

INDEX TO Select Lists op Plants, 




In presenting to the public the first part of the Practical or Cultural 
volume of The Book of the Garden, we have only a few remarks to 
premise as to the general plan of arrangement we have employed, and the 
reasons which have induced us to adopt an arrangement which is, to a great 
extent, a departure from that hitherto followed in similar books. 

Works on Practical Gardening have, for the most part, been arranged in 
the calender form, no doubt with a view to render them, in the estimation 
of their authors, more convenient for reference. There are, however, objections 
to this mode of arrangement, which we think may be avoided by adopting 
the sectional or separate garden division, as the operations in any of these 
departments may be carried on irrespective of the others — a mode of culture 
which is, in fact, practised in our largest and best-managed establishments, 
in all of which the subdivision of labour is found to be admirably adapted 
for facilitating the multifarious operations of the whole. Besides, some 
people have a predilection for one of these departments more than for 
another, and many are content with one of them only. 

"We had hoped that a seasonal arrangement might have been adopted, and 
that it would have combined all the advantages of the calender form, and 
have avoided its principal defects. The attempt to carry out this scheme 
has, however, shown us that it inevitably involved a want of connection and 
a degree of confusion, which could not be otherwise than most embarrassing 
to the reader, while it necessitated an amount of repetition which would 
have made it impossible to comprise the cultural department of the garden 
in a single volume, without sacrificing that minuteness of detail which is 
essential to the highest value of such a work. 

By the mode of arrangement we have finally resolved on, the reader 
will more readily find the information he seeks ; each subject assumes 
a more connected form when treated on as a whole, than if it were referred 



to in diflferent places; and the necessity for frequent reference and much 
repetition is wholly done away. On these grounds we think the advantage 
will be sufficiently apparent of treating on the operations of the Kitchen 
OR Culinary Garden, the Hardy Fruit Garden, the Forcing Garden, 
and the Flower Garden, including Plant-Houses and Pleasure Grounds, 
&c., as distinct in themselves. 

In discussing the various subjects which collectively constitute any of 
these general divisions, we have adopted a mode of arrangement which we 
believe to be as complete as is attainable; — our great object being to 
systematise the whole, by bringing together, in our accounts of their culture, 
such productions as have a natural affinity to each other. 

As regards the descriptive lists of the most approved Fruits, Vegetables, 
Flowering Plants, and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, &c., we avail ourselves 
of the present as a fit opportunity for correcting former lists, and adding 
those of recent introduction or origin, when of sufficient merit, to the lists 
of a similar nature which have appeared in practical works such as " The 
Book of the Garden" professes to be. This is the more important, 
because, with the exception of Mr Hogg's excellent work, " British Pomo- 
logy," which treats on the apple exclusively, there has been no book of a 
similar description to the present published in Britain since our " Practical 
Gardener " and " The Orchard," both of which, in this respect, are now very 
far behind the requirements of the present age. The excellent descriptive 
" Fruit Catalogue of the London Horticultural Society," and the no less valu- 
able " Orchard," by the late Mr G. Lindley, and " The Fruit Cultivator," by 
the late Mr Eogers, stand in a similar position to the works already named. 
The only channels through which the new and improved varieties of Fruits, 
Vegetables, and Plants of general interest have reached the public, (since 
the " Practical Gardener " was last revised by us, more than twelve years 
ago,) have been the horticultural periodicals, and the nurserymen's and 
seedsmen's trade catalogues ; although, during this period, more important 
additions have been made to all of these classes than during any former period 
of the same extent. These lists, valuable as they certainly have been in 
making us acquainted with every novelty as it appeared, have, from their 
nature, scattered the information sought for over a wide extent of volumes 
and tracts, which renders the task of referring to them expensive and often 
exceedingly difficult. To these additions we may add the many fine fruits of 
American origin, and the vast number of new ornamental plants which, at 
the date of the works referred to, were wholly unknown in this country. 


From them, selected lists of such varieties as are suitable to our climate, &c., 
will be made. 

The arrangement of these lists will be as follows : — 

The most approved and recently introduced Esculent Seeds and Roots 
will accompany the articles to which they respectively belong in 
the Culinary Garden. 

The most approved and recently obtained Hardy Fruits will in like 
manner be found in the Hardy Fruit Garden. 

The Tropical Fruits in the Forcing Garden. And 

The more rare, choice, and interesting Trees of Ornament, &c.. Flower- 
ing Plants, &c., will accompany the Flower Garden. 

We have given some brief details of the practices of the London market- 
gardeners, who, it must be admitted, are the best culinary gardeners in the 
world. This is a subject scarcely hinted at by authors on gardening since the 
days of Abercrombie, the merits of whose excellent works (we mean the 
original editions) are mainly owing to the copious details he gave of the 
market-gardening of his day. As nearly a century has now elapsed since he 
wrote his first work, and as during that period a corresponding improvement 
has taken place in that department, as well as in that of private gardening, a 
work of this kind would be incomplete without a notice of these excellent 
modes of culture. 

Little or nothing has been published concerning the London practice since 
that time, and private gardeners, in general, know little how things are there 
managed. There has been a reserve on the part of the former in affording 
information, and an unwillingness on the side of the latter to undergo the 
hard work to which they would be subjected, were they to spend a year in a 
mariset-garden, rather than two or three loitering about a nursery — ^too often 
a tax upon the proprietor, and losing much of their own valuable time. We 
here allude to young gardeners only, who would acquire a much greater 
amount of useful information in the general routine of their profession were 
they to spend a year in a first-rate London market-garden, than they could do 
in a dozen years, toiling nearly as hard, in very inferior places in the country. 
We are far from insinuating that a nursery is a bad school f6r a young gar- 
dener ; on the contrary, no man can have much pretension to a thorough 
knowledge of his business, unless he has spent a part of his career in a first- 
rate establishment of that kind. In it he learns what he could not do in a 
private garden ; he learns the most approved methods of propagation, has many 


opportunities of studying the nomenclature of Fruits, of attaining a general 
knowledge of Plants, and the best modes of taking up and packing Trees, and 
of becoming acquainted with the new and rarer ornamental and useful Trees 
and Shrubs, upon which decorative gardening is destined in future so much 
to depend. In many of these establishments he may obtain some practice 
in laying out grounds, as nurserymen of high repute are often employed as 
landscape-gardeners. In fact, every gardener wishing to excel in his pro- 
fession, should spend a couple of years in such establishments, and one at 
least in a London market-garden. 

To one department of great importance, both to the practical gardener and 
the amateur, and which has hitherto hardly received the attention it merits 
in practical works — that of the diseases, insects, and other enemies, to the 
attacks of which the various products of the garden are liable — especial 
attention has been paid. Full descriptions have been given of these from the 
best authorities, supplemented by actual observation, and also full details of 
the most approved methods of prevention and cure ; while the insects in 
particular have been much more extensively figured than has, it is believed, 
ever before been done in any single work, and this on a scale and with a 
minuteness which will make the identification of them easy even to a com- 
paratively superficial observer. 

We have thought it expedient to give the European names of culinary 
vegetables and fruits, more especially the former, on account of our increas- 
ing intercourse with the Continent, and the quantities of seeds which are 
yearly brought or sent into this country, and often put into the hands of 
those unacquainted with the language in which the names are given. 
Eeaders of such popular Continental works as the "Bon Jardinier," the 
" Utrechtsche Hovinier," " Garten Zietung," " Verstandige Gartner," and 
similar books on gardening, may be assisted by a reference to the paragraph 
General Remarhs at the end of each section. 

Throughout the whole of this department of our subject, it will be our 
special aim to enter into all necessary minuteness of detail; to avoid all techni- 
calities of term, or, wherever we are compelled to employ these, to append full 
explanations of them ; and, in short, to make the " Book of the Gaeden " 
as to its cultural department, so precise and complete in all its directions, 
that it may suffice to the tyro as his guide, from the most rudimental opera- 
tions of gardening onward, and render the amateur in a great degree inde- 
pendent of other assistance ; while, to the experienced gardener, we trust it 
will be found the best and most practical work of reference extant. 








The culinary or kitchen garden, {jardin 
potager of the French,) with all its varied 
productions, if not the most ornamental, 
will be admitted to be the most useful of 
all the departments of gardening. Many 
of the crops cultivated in those of the 
present day were raised, and we have no 
great right to suppose otherwise than 
that they were so to a very creditable 
extent, although upon much less scienti- 
fic principles, soon after the Deluge, if 
not prior to that epoch. They are early 
mentioned in the histories of the nations 
of the greatest antiquity. The onion, the 
leek, the cucumber, and the garlic, were 
in extensive cultivation in Egypt long 
before the exodus of the children of Israel ; 
and herbs for seasoning cooked dishes 
were also well known at an equally early 
period. Of the means employed in their 
production we have no records left earlier 
than the date of the foundation of Eome. 
Soon after that period we find the envi- 
rons of that city in a state of cultivation 
much like what exists around large towns 
and cities of our own time — namely, as 
market-gardens, in which were cultivated 
many of the culinary vegetables such gar- 
dens at present produce. One important 
difference, however, may be remarked — 
the culinary gardens around ancient Eome 
were cultivated by the chief men, who 
were also the proprietors, and they them- 
selves, wrought the ground with their 

own hands; and hence several of the 
most celebrated families — the Pisones, the 
Cicerones, the Fabii, the Lentuh, &c. — 
derived their patronymics from ancestors 
who had distinguished themselves in the 
cultivation of culinary vegetables. Thus, 
Pisum, a Pea ; Cicer, a Chick-pea ; Faha, a 
Bean ; Lentulus, a Lentil, (fee. 

Nor did some of their greatest histo- 
rians consider it beneath their literary 
dignity to record many interesting hints 
regarding the modes of culture employed. 
Cato, Varro, Columella, Palladius, Pliny, 
Virgil, Martial, ifec, have left us quite 
enough, in those portions of their writings 
which have been handed down to us, to 
satisfy us that the culture of culinary 
vegetables was well understood and fully 
appreciated in their days. The former 
of these has left us in detail the Eoman 
mode of cultivating asparagus, which was 
the last vegetable written upon by him, 
and may serve as a pretty good example 
of ancient Eoman gardening. " You 
must work a spot that is moist, or which 
has richness and depth of soil. Make the 
beds so that you may be able to clean 
and weed them on each sidej let there be 
a distance of half a foot between the 
plants. Set in the seed, two or three in a 
place, in a straight line, cover with mould, 
then scatter some compost over the beds. 
At the vernal equinox, when the plants 
come up, weed often, and take care that 
the asparagus is not plucked up with the 
weeds. The year you plant them, cover 
them with straw during the winter, that 


they may not be killed. In the begin- 
ning of the spring after, dress and weed 
them. The third year after you have 
sown them, burn the haulm in the begin- 
ning of the spring. Do not weed them 
before the plants come up, that you may 
not hurt the stools. The third or fourth 
year you may pluck them close by the 
root ; if you break them off, they yield 
side-shoots, and some will die. You may 
take them until they run to seed. The 
seed is ripe in autumn. When you have 
gathered the seed, burn the haulm, and, 
when the plants begin to shoot, weed and 
manure. After eight or nine years, when 
the beds are old, lay out a spot, work and 
manure it well, then make drills where 
you may plant some roots ; set them well 
apart that you may dig between them. 
Take care that they are not injured. 
Carry as much sheep's dung as you can 
on the beds : it is best for this purpose ; 
other manures produce weeds." 

The globe artichoke is said by Pliny, 
book xix. chap, viii., to have been more 
esteemed, and to have obtained a higher 
price, than any other garden herb. He 
also informs us that the commoners of 
Rome were prohibited by an arbitrary 
law from eating this vegetable. He, at 
the same time, censures his countrymen 
for their vanity and prodigality as re- 
gards the serving up such things to their 
tables £is the very asses and other beasts 
refuse to eat, for fear of pricking their 
lips. The same writer, book xii. chap, 
iv., tells us that asparagus, which for- 
merly grew wild, was, in his time, care- 
fully cultivated in gardens, particularly 
at Ravenna, where the heads were so 
large that three of them would weigh a 

Basil, which stands now so high in the 
gastronomic art, that a new-made alder- 
man would spurn a basin of turtle if not 
seasoned with it, was condemned by 
Chrysippus, more than two hundred years 
before Christ, as an enemy to the sight 
and a robber of the wits. Diodorus and 
Hollerus entertained equally superstitious 
notions regarding it. Philistis, Plisto- 
nicus, and others, extolled its vitrues, 
and recommended it as strongly as it had 
been formerly condemned. Pliny says, 
the Romans sowed the seeds of this plant 
with maledictions and ill words, believing 
that the more it was cursed the better it 

would prosper; and when they wished 
for a crop, they trod it down with their 
feet, and prayed to the gods that it might 
not vegetate ! 

The bean was cultivated both by the 
earlier Greeks and by the Athenians, 
who offered them as oblations to the 
gods — a practice, according to Pliny, after- 
wards followed by the Romans ; and 
Lempriere states that bacon was added 
to the beans in the offerings to Carna — 
not, as he says, so much to gratify the 
palate of the goddess, as to represent the 
simplicity of their ancestors. The beet 
was highly prized by the Greeks, who 
used to offer it on silver to Apollo at 
Delphos. They used also to eat the leaves 
in preference to lettuce, and, by laying a 
small weight on the plant, they blanched 
it, much as gardeners of the present 
day lay a tile over endive plants for a 
like purpose. Pliny says, beets are, of 
all garden herbs, the lightest roots ; that 
they are eaten, as well as the leaves, with 
lentils and beans; and that the best way 
to eat them is with mustard, to give a 
taste to their dull flatness. So highly 
was the cabbage esteemed by the an- 
cients, that two of their leading physi- 
cians each wrote a book on the properties 
of the plant. Phillips tells us that the 
ancient Romans, having banished physi- 
cians out of their territories, preserved 
their health for six hundred years, and 
soothed their infirmities, by the use of 
this vegetable alone. Pliny goes to great 
length on the use and culture of the cab- 
bage, which, he says, may be cut as cole- 
worts at all times of the year; so may 
they be sown and set all the year through ; 
but he adds that the most appropriate 
season is after the autumnal equinox ; and 
also remarks that, after the first cutting, 
they yield abundance of excellent tops. 
Powdered nitre, sea-weed, and asses' dung, 
were used as a fitting manure for them. 
" There are," Pliny remarks, "many kinds 
of cole worts at Rome," and amongst 
them, one received in his time " from the 
vale of Aricia, with an exceedingly great 
head and an infinite number of leaves, 
which gather round and close together" — 
probably the first type of our hearting 
cabbage, for those previously described 
by him appear to have been open-hearted 
or true coleworts. He afterwards, how- 
ever, says, "there are some coles which 


stretch out into a round shape, others 
extend in breadth, and are very full of 
fleshy brawns, and some possess heads 
twelve inches thick." He also remarks, 
that all the varieties eat sweeter from 
being touched with the frost, an o^pinion 
prevalent at the present day. In the 
Roman culture we find that the sprouts 
were plailted as well as the young plants — 
a disemery made a few years since, arid 
recorded in one of our most costly horti- 
cultural works, and described nearly as 
Columella did many hundred years 

Fennel was cultivated largely by the 
Romans as a garden herb, and so much 
used in the kitchen that there were few 
meats seasoned or vinegar sauces served up 
without it. "A good housewife," says 
Pliny, " will go into her herb -garden 
instead of a spice-shop for her season- 
ings, and thus preserve the health of 
her family by saving her purse." 

From an anecdote related by Herodo- 
tus, in connection with the murder of 
Smerdis by his brother Carnbyses, it is 
quite evident that lettuces were served at 
the royal tables of the Persian kings five 
hundred and fifty years before Christ. 
The ancient Romans, however, appear to 
have known only one sort, which Pliny 
describes as a black variety. Suspicion 
prevailed of their having a deleterious 
effect; but, after Antonius Musa cured the 
Emperor Augustus Csesar by means of 
this plant, that suspicion vanished, and, 
as Pliny says, men began to devise means 
of growing them at all seasons of the 
year. The variety of lettuce cultivated 
by the Greeks is stated to have grown 
" high and large." Those employed by 
the Romans in the days of Pliny were 
the purple sort, with a large root, the 
Egyptian, Cilician, Cappadocian, &c. 
Great pains, he says, were taken t6 make 
them cabbage, and they were earthed up 
with sea-sand to blanch them and give 
them heart. The white lettuce was no- 
ticed as being the least hardy even in 
that mild climate. 

Salads were much esteemed amongst the 
ancients, and even poets sang their praises. 
Ovid, in his " Philemon and Baucis," 

" A garden salad was the third supply, 
Gf endive, radishes, and succory." 

And Columella also thus notices the 
endive — 

"And endives, which the blunted palate please." 

The endive is said by modern botanists 
to be a native of the East Indies. This 
Would lead us to believe them little ac- 
quainted with European historical authors; 
for, besides Ovid and Columella, Pliiiy 
also mentions endive in the eighth chapter 
of his twentieth book. Horace alludes to 
the plant under the name of cicorea, in 
lib. i. ode 31; Virgil makes special men- 
tion of the marigold in the second eclogue 
of his " Bucolics;" and Catullus thus no- 
tices the marjoram, in the " Epithala- 
mium of Julia and Manlius " — 

" Bind your brows with the sweet-smelling mar- 

Mint is equally honoured by Ovid's 
notice of it, from which we learn that the 
humbler classes used to perfume their 
tables by rubbing the plant upon them 
before serving their supper ; and so 
highly was mint thought of at Rome, 
that Pliny says, " you will not see a hus- 
bandman's board in the country, but all 
the meats, from one end to the other, are 
seasoned with mint." The humble creep- 
ing Penny Royal formed the subject of a 
consultation of physicians held in Pliny's 
chamber, the result of which was, that 
they agreed that a chaplet of this plant 
was, without comparison, far better for 
giddiness and swimming of the head than 
one of roses. We have met with no ac- 
count of the cultivation of the mushroom 
in the authors of antiquity, but that they 
were in extensive use is quite evident, had 
we no better authority than the circum- 
stance of one of them, the Agaricus Cassar- 
eus having been made the vehicle of poison 
by Agrippina for her husband, Tiberius 
Claudius. That they were as highly prized 
amongst the epicures of ancient Rome as 
they are by those of modern London, is 
evident from what Pliny says of them, in 
his 6th book, chap. 8, " the last device of 
our epicures to sharpen their appetites, 
and tempt them to eat inordinately, is the 
cooking of mushrooms ;" and, in the 23d 
chap, of his 22d book, he adds, " there are 
some dainty wantons of such fine taste, 
and who study their appetite to such ex- 
cess, that they dress mushrooms with their 
own hands, that they may feed on the 




odour during the time they are handling 
and preparing their food." 

Mustard must have been cultivated 
in Syiia while our Saviour was upon 
earth, as it is mentioned in one of His 
beautiful parables as being the least seed 
that was sown in the field. The mustard 
here referred to does not appear, from the 
circumstance of the size of its seed, to be 
the mustard of our times. This has led 
to various conjectures, none of which have 
much plausibility. The mustard of the 
present time was cultivated in Rome, in 
Pliny'stime, to the extentof threevarieties. 

The origin or native country of the 
well-known onion is unknown. Pliny, 
in book 20, chap. 5, enumerates all the 
countries from whence the Greeks as well 
as the Romans procured different varieties 
of this root, but declares he could never 
discover where they ever grew wild. Pal- 
ladius, a Greek physician, recommends 
the onion ,to be sown with savory, in 
which curious opinion Pliny agrees, ob- 
serving that onions prosper better when 
savory is sown with them. It was a cur- 
rent opinion, we should state, in those 
days, that certain plants had an antipathy 
to, or a sympathy with, each other. How- 
ever absurd such an idea may appear to 
us, we should take into consideration that 
the opinions of the ancients may not have 
been faithfully handed down to us, or that 
their works may admit of a somewhat i 
different construction. " We find," Phil- 
lips observes, " that all the plants which 
they recommend to be sown or planted 
together are of very opposite natures ; and 
there may be more reason in the system 
pursued by the ancients than is generally 
allowed ; for plants drawing the same juice 
from the earth must naturally weaken 
each other; whereas those requiring dif- 
ferent nutriment may, in some degree, 
assist each other, each feeding on juices 
that are prejudicial to plants of the other 
species." In this there is great truth. 
The garlic was in use at as early a time as 
the onion ; the want of both was lamented 
by the Israelites in the wilderness. The 
Egyptians worshipped it, and are said to 
wish that they may enjoy it in paradise. 
The Greeks held it in such abhorrence, 
that those who ate it were regarded as 
profane. The Romans gave it to their 
labourers to strengthen them, to their 
soldiers to excite courage, and fed their 

game-cocks on it previous to fighting 
them. The eschalot (or shallot, as it is 
often written) is a species of onion, and 
was well known to both the Greeks and 
Romans. Pliny states, book 19, chap. 6, 
that the best leeks were brought from 
Egypt, and names Aricia, now called 
Ricoia, in Italy, as celebrated for them in 
his time, and says, " it is not long since 
leeks were brought into great notice and 
esteem by the Emperor Nero, who used 
to eat them for several days in every 
month to clear his voice, eating them 
with oil only, and abstaining from bread 
on those leek-eating days," which ab- 
surdity led his people to give him the 
cognomen of Porrophacfus. Pliny, book 
20, chap. 11, informs us that parsley was 
in great repute in his time, all classes 
partaking of it largely in their pottage, 
and that there was not a salad or sauce 
presented at the table without it. The 
Emperor Tiberius held parsnips in high 
repute, and had them annually brought 
to Rome from Germany, from the neigh- 
bourhood of Gelduba on the Rhine, where 
they were said to have been grown in 
great perfection. The Greeks sowed their 
pease in November ; the Romans did not 
plant theirs tiU the spring. 

So highly did the ancient Greeks esteem 
the radish, that, in offering their oblations 
to Apollo, they presented turnips in lead, 
and beet in silver, whereas radishes were 
presented in beaten gold. The Greeks 
appear to have been acquainted with three 
varieties of this plant; andMoschian, one 
of their chief physicians, wrote a whole 
book on the radish alone, so highly did 
he think of it. Pliny obsei-ves, that 
radishes grow best in saline soils, or when 
they are watered with salt-water; and 
hence, he says, the radishes of Egypt are 
better than any in the world, on account 
of their being there supplied with nitre. 
He gives some account of the kinds grown 
at Rome in his day, one of which he 
describes as being so clear and trans- 
parent that one may see through them. 
The transparent variety of our day has 
not this property to the same extent. 
The size also to which the radishes of 
those days are said to have attained far 
exceeded those of the present, nor do 
we think such would be appreciated 
by our modern radish-eaters. Tragus 
mentions radishes that weighed 40 lb.; 


and Amatus states, he has seen some of 
60 lb. ; while Matthiole declares having 
met with them 100 lb. each. Some- 
what in accordance to views recently pro- 
mulgated in regard to increasing the size 
of roots, these monster radishes are said 
to have been produced by carefully taking 
off the leaves. The ancients used them 
boiled; the Eoman physicians, however, 
directed them to be eaten raw with salt, 
as in our modern practice, and that they 
should be taken in the morning before 
any other food. 

Savory and lavender are recommended 
by Virgil as fitting plants to be set near 
bee-hives — 

" The verdant lavender must there abound, 
There savory shed its pleasant sweets around." 

They were used by the Eomans to mix 
with cool salads, such as lettuce and 
radishes. Vinegar flavoured with savory 
and other aromatic herbs was much used 
by the ancients to dip their animal food 
in previous to eating, or as we now 
do mint-sauce, with lamb. Sorrel was 
cultivated in Pliny's time, as he makes 
mention of " garden sorrel, or sour dock." 
Thyme was imported to Eome from Attica, 
and cultivated for the sake of bees. Water- 
cress was eaten by the ancients along 
with lettuce, to counteract the cold nature 
of that vegetable. 

We have above given a cursory view of 
the ancient history of culinary vegetables. 
That we have improved in culture, and 
in the production of superior varieties, is 
undeniable ; but that we have not added 
very greatly to the number of species is 
equally apparent. The periods when in- 
digenous vegetables became reclaimed, or 
brought into a cultivated state, as well as 
the dates of the introduction of exotic 
ones, will be found under their respective 


A sj/stematic mode of arranging the con- 
tents of the kitchen-garden, although no 
one can doubt the propriety of such a 
course, has, in the majority of cases (not 
even excepting some of our very best gar- 
dens), been next to disregarded. The 
plants cultivated rank as either peren- 

nials of several' years' standing, or as 
annuals, and some few biennials occupying 
the same ground only one, or at most two 
years. We see, therefore, no good reason 
why two distinct classes of arrangement 
should not be formed ; but as it occurs 
in practice, as will be hereafter shown, 
that the annuals and perennials com- 
prising our olitory or sweet herbs are 
more conveniently cultivated when set 
apart by themselves, we shall exclude 
them from our present arrangement, 
adding, however, the strawberry, goose- 
berry, currant, and raspberry, which be- 
long properly to the fruit-garden, but are 
in general cultivated in the quarters of 
the kitchen-garden. By such an arrange- 
ment, a better rotation of crops may be 
followed out, and the garden made to 
assume a more methodical appearance. 
Where, however, sufficient slips of ground 
surround the main garden, these pei-en- 
nial crops may be therein planted, and, 
having stood their allotted time, succes- 
sional plantations of them may be made 
to occupy one or more of the quarters 
within the main garden, in extent 
according to the quantity required to 
meet the demand. When these are thus 
removed (which removal, in the case of 
the gooseberry, currant, and raspberry, 
should take place at periods of from 
seven to twelve years), the ground they 
occupied will be in a very fit state to 
afibrd a change of soil to some of the 
annual crops cultivated during that time 
on the ground now to be occupied by the 
others. The perennial crops to which we 
refer (exclusive of the fruits above) are, 
asparagus, sea-kale, rhubarb, and globe 
artichokes. Where the three former are 
forced upon the taking -up plan, an 
annual change of soil is attained; and 
as artichokes and strawberries should 
be replanted yearly, or in most cases 
once in two years, this increases the 
opportunity of carrying out rotation. No 
doubt the three first, in good soils, and 
where they are allowed to come into use 
at their natural seasons, will last for from 
seven to twelve years, or even much 
longer, but we see no advantage in con- 
tinuing them beyond the last-named 
period. For these reasons, we would 
group the gooseberry, currant, and rasp- 
berry in a plot by themselves, and not 
dispose them in the scattered manner 


they usually are met -with, occupying 
more room, less conveniently protected, 
exposed, to having their roota mutilated 
by, digging about them, and, last of all, 
affording by their removal no useful rotar 
tion, The pther perennial crops may be 
planted next to them, and, if allowed to 
remain, either to be forced on the ground, 
(as is usually done in the case of the sea- 
kale and rhubarb in particular, and in 
that of the asparagus occasionally), or to be. 
allowed to come in at their natural sea- 
son, then the whole quarter may be de- 
stroyed at once (presuming a succession 
is established in that adjoining), and the 
ground they occupied cropped with, 
annual crops, for which the manurial 
applications hitherto given wiU render it 
exceedingly fit, particularly foj" carrots, 
onions, &c., which seldom succeed on 
newly-manured ground. That, however, 
occupied with the gooseberries, currants, 
and raspberries, being less enriched, must 
now have manure applied to it. The 
strawberry crop will now, by about the. 
seventh year, have travelled, by yearly 
changes, to the further side of the adjoin- 
ing quarter, followed up by the succes- 
sional crops of sea-kale, asparagus, and 
rhubarb, and, last of all, by currants, 
gooseberries, and raspberries. In this 
way, these crops may be made to circulate 
round the quarters or divisions of the 
main garden ; and if the changes appear , 
to be too rapid, an occasional shift to the 
sHps may be had recourse to. 

No doubt an excellent rotation is 
afforded^ when a portion of these crops is . 
taken up annually for forcing, the ground 
vacated being next occupied with .annual 
crops ; but this rotation, although equally 
good in principle, is less systematic in 

The extent of ground occupied by any one 
species of esculent must ever depend on 
the quantity of the particular sort re- 
quired to meet the demand. The follow- 
ing is about the proportions : Pease occupy, 
in general, the largest breadth in most 
gardens ; always so, when the family are 
resident in the country ; somewhat less, 
when they only arrive about the 1st of 
August (a very usual period), as crops 
before that are not required. The cab- 
bage tribe comes next in order, and would 
occupy the larger space, were it not that 
the crops for the latter end of winter and 

early spring are planted on the ground 
from which the first crops of pease have 
been gathered. Turnips would stand 
next, were it not that asparagus, sea-kale^ 
and rhubarb, to be forced during winter 
on the taking-up principle, require to be 
extensively grown, on account of the roots 
being destroyed when the crop is gathered; 
and this is more especially the case when 
a femily requires them throughout the 
winter and in . spring from the open 
ground also. Potatoes would rank next, 
were it expedient to grow them in gar- 
dens (beyond the early crops), which it 
is not; for, from, some hitherto unex- 
plained cause, they never are of so good 
a quality in richly-manured gardens, as 
in the less highly manured , fields. Car- 
rots, leeks, and onions follow — the former, 
however, being a precarious crop. Celery 
and spinach would occupy as large a 
space as the last, were it not that the. 
latter, particularly for winter crops, which 
are the principal, is not sown till the 
latter end of July or beginning of August, 
on ground from which probably the early 
crop of pease has been removed. Garden 
and kidney beans, and scarlet runners, 
follow — the two latter having a preference, 
in most gardens, to the former. Parsnips, , 
globe artichoke, and beet are the next in . 
order, followed by parsley, endive, salsify,, 
skirret, scorzonera, and Jerusalem arti- 
chokes; garlic, shallot, rocambole, succory, 
chervil, and all manner of pot and sweet 
herbs, find a place in the oUtory or herb- 
garden; and lastly, lettuce, of which there 
is a perpetual sowing and planting, being 
usually, unless grown upon a very large 
scale, accommodated with room amongst 
other crops, as its duration in sum- 
mer is short — and during winter it is 
placed in sheltered places, by the bottoms 
of walls, &c. 


The young gardener will find himself, 
upon taking, charge of a garden for the 
first time, in a much greater dilemma, 
when abont to make up his seed order; 
for the ensuing year, than in any other 
part of his charge. To order without 
some certain knowledge of the quantities 


required, entails not only an unnecessary 
expense on the owner, but if the quantities 
be not properly proportioned to each 
other, and each in as near a proportion 
as possible to the quantity of produce 
required, he will be in a second dilemma, 
when he finds he has more of one sort 
than he requires, and too little of some 

Various estimates have been formed, 
and scales of quantities drawn out, ever 
since the days of Gordon of Fountain 
Bridge, who published his " Pocket Dic- 
tionary" in 1774. That great difificulty 
attends even an approximation to the 
truth, so as to be of universal application, 
will be suflSciently evident, when we take 
into consideration that some families use 
a greater quantity of vegetables than 
others j some requiring them all the 
year over, while others are content to 
have them at such times as they are pro- 
duced naturally in the open air. Some 
prefer more of one sort than of others, 
and there are many esculents which some 
reject altogether. Much also depends on 
whether an English or French cook steers 
the helm of affairs in the kitchen : the 
former, we have invariably found, uses 
the greater quantity ; while the latter, 
while he uses them in less bulk, is far 
more particular in having them young, 
and in proper season. 

Again, there is the nature of the soil 
and the situation to be taken into con- 
sideration, as well as whether the garden 
is protected from game, or open to their 
attacks. With these data all to be taken 
into account, it is quite clear that only 
an approximation to the exact quantities 
can be arrived at, even by the most' 
conversant in those matters ; but that 
approximation is better than none at all. 
Before, however, stating what we conceive 
to be the necessary quantities under these, 
circumstances, we must premise a few 
words of warning to those gentlemen 
who make up their own seed-lists, and 
who are always on the look-out for cheap, 
houses, and advertised seed sales by auc- 
tion — in too many cases got up by a set 
of swindlers, whose chief personal cha- 
racteristics are a pair of huge mustaches, 
and an affectation of being totally ignorant 
of the English language. To such we 
say, Take the responsibility upon your- 
selves ; and when you find no crop forth- 

coming, blame neither your gardener nor 
your soil. The more respectable the 
firm you purchase from is, the more 
certain you may be of avoiding disap- 
pointment. Besides, you have a remedy 
against the one ; none whatever against 
the other. Th« law will afford you pro- 
tection, and award you full and fair com- 
pensation for loss in the one case, but 
you may whistle for it in the other. Be- 
sides, firms of respectability have a 
character to maintain, of far more impor- 
tance to them than any gain that could 
arise out of any fraudulent transaction. 

We greatly object to most of the former 
seed estimates published, because they 
are in general below the mark; and 
much as we deprecate thick sowing, still, 
seeds are now so cheap that it were false 
economy to have such a deficient supply 
at first, as to be compelled to re-sow a. 
crop cut off by insects, frost, or other: 
accidents, to which all such crops are 
liable; or to be without a supply at hand, 
in the event of the crop being entirely 

We give below the seed estimate of 
Gordon, of 1774, to show the quantities 
he allows, but more particularly to show 
that many of the vegetables still popular 
with us were so nearly a century ago. 

" A seed bill for a private family, calcu- 
lated to crop a garden consisting of an acre 
of ground. — 4 lb. early Charlton pease ; 4 
lb. Nicol's early Hotspur do. ; 4 lb. 
golden early do.; 4 lb. common Hasting, 
or Essex Reading do. ; 4 lb. Turkey Hot- 
spur, or long marrow- fat do. ; 4 lb. dwarf 
marrow-fat do. ; 4 lb. Leadman's long, 
dwarf do. ; 1 lb. early Mazagan beans ; 
1 Ib^ early Lisbon do. ; 2 lb. long-podded 
do.; 4 lb. Tokar do.; 4 lb. Windsor or 
Turkey do.; ^ lb. Barbary kidney do.; 
\ lb. Battersea do.; ^ lb. Strasburg 
onion ; 3 oz. red Spanish do. ; 1 oz. silver- 
skinned do.; 4 oz. London leek; 4 oz. 
orange carrot; 1 oz. early horn do.; 2 
oz. Dutch parsnip ; \ lb. early Dutch tur- 
nip; 2 oz. yellow do.; 2 oz. red- topped 
do. ; ^ lb. shallot ; \ lb. garlic ; 4 oz. 
early London short-topped radish ; 2 oz. 
salmon do.; \ oz. turnip-rooted do.; 
1 oz, black Spanish do.; 6 dr. cabbage, 
lettuce ; 4 dr. ice or white Cos do. ; 2 dr. 
Silesia do.; 2 dr. tennis-ball do.; 2 dr. 
brown Dutch do. ; 4 oz. curled cress ; 2, 
oz. broad-leaved do.; 4 oz. common do.; 



4 oz. Indian do. ; 2 oz. curled parsley ; 
2 oz. common do. ; ^ lb. white mustard ; 
^ oz. curled endive ; 4 dr. Italian celery ; 
4 dr. long green cucumber ; 4 dr. short ' 
prickly do,; 2 dr. best melons; 1 lb. 
round spinach ; | lb. prickly do. ; 1 oz. 
French or Mountain do. ; 1 oz. white 
beet ; 1 oz, green do. ; 2 oz. red beet, or 
beet-rave ; ^ oz. cauliflower ; ^ oz. white 
broccoli ; ^ oz. purple do. ; 1 oz. early 
Yorkshire cabbage ; 1 oz. sugar-loaf early 
do. ; ^ oz. red Dutch do. ; 4 oz. late Aln- 
wick do. ; I lb. green savoy ; 2 oz. yellow 
do. ; 2 oz. Kilmaurs kale ; 4 oz. scarlet 

Our own estimate, in a similar case, is 
tliis ; but as the varieties of cultivated 
vegetables are now so numerous, we shall 
omit specifying them, referring the reader 
to our select lists, which will be found 
appended to each subject, as well as leav- 
ing unnoticed some few kinds not gene- 
rally expected to be found in a garden of 
the limited extent of one acre : Pease, 36 
qts. ; garden beans, 10 qts. ; French or 
kidney beans, 4 qts. — provided none are 
forced. Scarlet runners, 2 qts. ; cabbage 
of early sorts, 8 oz, ; savoys, 4 oz, ; Brus- 
sels sprouts, 3 oz. ; cauliflower, 4 oz. 
broccoli of sorts, 8 oz. ; borecoles, 4 oz. 
red cabbage, 2 oz. ; late or drumhead 
do., 2 oz. ; kohl-rabi, 2 oz. ; onions, 12 oz. 
carrots, 8 oz. — if none are forced. Turnip, 
white sorts, 16 oz, ; yellow do., 6 oz. 
celery, 2 oz. ; spinach, 8 qts. ; red beet. 
4 oz. ; yellow do., 2 oz. ; leeks, 4 oz. 
parsnips, 4 oz. ; salsify, 2 oz. ; skirret, 
2 oz. ; scorzonera, 2 oz. ; endive, 4 oz 
lettuce, 4 oz. ; radish, 3 pts, — if none are 
forced. Mustard, li qts., and cress the 
same — if neither are forced. Parsley, 4 
oz. — 2 oz. curled, and 2 oz. plain. Of roots, 
early potatoes, 1^ bush. ; of late do., 3 
bush. ; Jerusalem artichokes, 1 pck. ; 
garlic, \ lb. ; shallots, 2 lb. 

It does not, however, exactly follow that a 
garden of 20 acres extent requires twenty 
times the quantities shown above ; this, 
however paradoxical it may appear to the 
uninitiated, is well known to the practical 
cultivator. An example may be given in 
the case of a seed-bed of cabbage, cauli- 
flower, leeks, &c. A first planting is taken 
from the most forward plants, which, in 
general, are those arising from seed of the 
preceding year, or of those of that year 
most fully matured, compared with less 

perfectly ripened seeds, even of the same 
year's growth. They also arise from seed 
of the previous year's production being 
stronger than seeds of one or two year's 
standing, thus producing a very necessary 
succession in the hands of those who know 
how to manage matters rightly ; and, con- 
sequently, the experienced gardener, avail- 
ing himself of the knowledge of which he 
has long been possessed, will and does 
take such plants in succession, as he 
well knows, under favourable circum- 
stances, the stronger plants will come 
first to maturity, or else they will run to 
seed, and be useless. This misfortune is, 
however, made up for in the second plant- 
ing, and this is succeeded by the third. 
In the meanwhile, let us endeavour to 
set aside the too prevalent opinion that 
seed of the previous year's growth alotie 
should be sown, with some few exceptions. 
Than this a more erroneous notion could 
not, we think, have been driven into the 
craniums of those of our wiseacres, " the 
advocates for new seed." The honest 
seedsman does an act of great kindness, 
and confers an important benefit on his 
customers, when he mixes seeds of 1851, 
1852, and 1853 together; for, provided 
they have been well kept, the advantage in 
the case of many seeds (take the whole of 
the Brassicse as an example) is very much 
in favour of the purchaser. For our- 
selves, we would not thank any man for 
seeds of cauliflower, broccoli, turnip, &c., 
of last year's production; and to avoid 
the chance of disappointment from this, 
we invariably keep by us in stock seeds 
of this natural order, of from two to five 
or six years. Our older gardeners, while 
they have handed down to us volumes of 
rules, have been very sparing in paying us 
the same compliment in regard to reasons. 
We have hardly had one assigned for the 
invariable rule of their carrying their 
cucumber and melon seeds in their 
pockets for months before they com- 
mitted them to the soil. An ancient 
sage says, "there is reason in the boiling 
of an egg ; " so is there in carrying the 
seeds referred to in the warm dry atmos- 
phere of a pocket. It is in consequence 
of the genial heat bringing about a 
state of maturity in the seed, which 
our cold climate, compared with Persia, 
the country of the melon, is incapable 
of doing; and hence the practice of 



keeping such seeds for years, until they, 
as it were, arrive at maturity in conse- 
quence of age, or are brought artificially to 
that state by the means (or other means 
similar) above stated, which is correct in 
principle. In the case of the natural 
order above referred to (the Brassica)), 
seeds of three ages have been found of 
vast advantage — a circumstance, if we 
recollect rightly, brought before the 
public some years ago by Mr Archibald 
Gorrie, who, in reference to the turnip 
(and all the Brassicte may be taken 
in the same category), says the plants 
from seeds of the previous year, being 
stronger, vegetate first, and afford food for 
the fly, while those from the seed of the 
year previous to that follow in succession ; 
and if vegetation be going on rapidly, 
these may escape wholly the attacks of 
insects ; if not, the older seed of all, which 
vegetates last, is certain to escape, because 
the fly has had wherewithal to satiate its 
voracious appetite ; and by the time the 
third in succession comes into leaf, the 
insects have undergone their transfor- 
mation. This is also a reason for thick- 
sowing under peculiar circumstances. 
Nor is the preservation from the fly 
all that arises from fully matured seed. 
If we only take a crop of early Dutch 
turnip as an example, it will be found 
that the plants raised from seed of the 
previous year will be exceedingly prone 
to run to seed without bulbing ; and 
should they even do so, the bulbs will 
be neither so firm nor so well shaped as 
those from seed of two, three, or more 
years' saving. The tops, in the former 
case, will be large, and consequently 
monopolise for themselves much of the 
material which ought naturally to have 
gone to the bulb ; in the latter case the 
tops will be small, the bulbs large and 
well formed ; — indeed, the proper prepon- 
derance will be, in this case, maintained 
between bulb and leaves. Cauliflower 
coming prematurely into flower — or what 
is technically called buttoning, because 
the abortive flower produced is not much 
larger than a good-sized biitton, and seldom 
worth half as much — may be offered as 
another example. Many other cases might 
be given ; these, however, may sufiice. 

Eeturning, however, to how an expert 
gardener manages with less seed, in pro- 
portion to his wants, than one of less 

experience, and in a more humble way 
of business : tiie former has a gradual 
succession to maintain, which scarcely 
admits of separate sowings to supply the 
niceness of his calculations ; he therefore 
trusts to the three gradations, in which 
his seed-bed seldom disappoints him. 
He acts accordingly, and instead of taking 
the largest and strongest plants only, he 
takes part of all the three, and thus fills 
a much greater space of ground than he 
who calculates only on one crop, and con- 
tents himself with the first and strongest 
plants his bed produces, and, regardless of 
the others, digs them down, and trusts to 
another sowing, perhaps a month or more 
hence ; which sowing, by the way, may 
suit his looser way of doing business. 
The gardener who has the superintendence 
of first-rate gardens is supposed to have a 
much greater knowledge of the principles 
of his profession — at least he should have 
so — than one whose field of operations is 
limited to a quarter of an acre, and who is 
often from circumstances ignorant of the 
rudimentary principles upon which ho 
should act. These and amateurs are the 
class to which the sin of extravagance and 
too thick sowing is chargeable, and they 
in general consume far more seed, from 
misapplication, than is necessary. Fearful 
at sowing, either from want of confidence 
in the seed itself, or from being ignoi'ant 
of the mode of proving its quality pre- 
vious to sowing, they console themselves 
in either case with the certainty of being 
safe, and therefore sow unreasonably 
thick. There are, no doubt, on the other 
hand, some who, from penuriousness, err 
in sowing too thin, and not taking into 
calculation the losses by insects, frosts, 
and the doubtful quality of the seed, 
which such a class is of all the most like- 
ly to experience, having purchased cheap; 
and, in consequence, they find that their 
crop is a total failure. There is, how- 
ever, no doubt that thin-sowing is pre- 
ferable to thick-sowing, so far as the plant 
is concerned ; and if seeds are to be de- 
pended upon, and were they of sufficient 
value to make it a measure of economy 
to plant them singly, instead of sowing 
them in the usual manner, there is no 
doubt, barring accidents, that the former 
mode would be preferable to the latter, 
and therefore one quarter of the seed 
usually ordered would suffice. 




, The necessity of a rotation of crops — 
that is, not sowing or planting the same 
ground with the same species of seed or 
plants from which it has been cleared, 
but introducing a succeeding crop of as 
dissimilar a kind as possible — is founded 
upon two facts, namely, the excrementi- 
tions of the plants, and the exhausting of 
the soil by them. Brugmanns supposed 
he had discovered that some plants exude 
an acid fluid from their spongioles, which 
may be regarded as a peculiar kind of 
excretion, which becomes obnoxious to 
roots of the same kind, but not so to those 
of another species; and Macaire asserts that 
this property is almost general throughout 
the vegetable kingdom. De Candolle was 
of this opinion, and conjectured that the 
soil was not only rendered unfit for the 
growth of the same species in consequence 
of these excretions, but believed that, 
acting as a manure, they improved the 
soil for other species. This, coupled 
with the supposition that plants cannot 
digest their own excretions, seemingly ex- 
plains to us why the soil becomes dete- 
riorated by one kind of plant having long 
grown in it, and its unfitness to support 
a crop of the same kind until the fecal 
matter in it shall have become decom- 
posed. Daubeny and Gyde deny this, 
and say that these excretions are not in- 

Gyde's opinion was, that though plants 
have no power of selection, " but take into 
their texture any solution offered to theuf 
roots, they have little or no power of 
again excreting it; that any excretions 
are only of the true sap ; and that plants 
watered with excretions receive no injury 
by it." This opinion has occupied, to 
some extent, the attention of physiologists 
within these two or three years, but, as 
it appears, as yet without any conclusive 
result having been arrived at. 

In connection with this, Dr Lindley 
remarks ("Theory of Horticulture," p. 
21), "In addition to their feeding proper- 
ties, roots are the organs by which plants 
rid themselves of the secreted matter, 
which is either superfluous or deleterious 
to them. If you place a plant of succory 
in water, it will be found that the roots 
will, by degrees, render the water bitter, 
as if opium had been mixed with it ; a 

spurge {Euphorbia) will render it acrid, 
and a leguminous plant mucilaginous; 
and if you poison one half of the roots 
of any plant, the other half will throw 
the poison off again from the system. 
Hence it follows, that if roots are so cir- 
cumstanced that they cannot constantly 
advance into fresh soil, they will, by de- 
grees, be surrounded by their own excre- 
mentitious secretions. It would also seem 
to follow that, under the circumstances 
just named, they would be poisoned, be- 
cause they have little power of refusing 
to take up whatever matter is presented 
to them in a fitting state. But it is by 
no means certain that the excrementitious 
matter of all plants is poisonous either 
to themselves or to others ; and there- 
fore the consequences of roots growing in 
soil from which they cannot advance are 
uncertain, and only to be judged of by 
actual inquiry into the nature of the se- 
cretions." On the power of selection of 
food, the same high authority observes 
(p. 18), "Powerful as the absorbing action 
of roots is found to be, those organs have 
little or no power of selecting their food; 
but they appear in most cases to take up 
whatever is presented to them in a suffi- 
ciently attenuated form. Their feeding 
properties depend upon the mere hygro- 
metrical forCe of their tissue, set in action 
in a peculiar manner by the vital prin- 
ciple. This force must be supposed to 
depend upon the action of the capillary 
tubes; of which every part of a vegetable 
membrane must of necessity consist, al- 
though they are in all cases invisible to 
the eye, even when aided by the most 
powerful microscopes. Whatever matter 
is presented to such a set of tubes will, 
we must suppose, be attracted through 
them, provided its molecules are suffi- 
ciently minute ; and as we have no reason 
to believe that there is, in general, any 
difference in the size of the molecules of 
either gaseous matter, or fluids consisting 
principally of water, it will follow that 
one form of such matters will be absorbed 
by the roots of plants as readily as an- 
other. For this reason plants are pecu- 
liarly liable to injury from the presence 
of deleterious matter in the earth ; and it 
is probable that, if in many cases they 
reject it, it is because it does not acquire 
a sufficient state of tenuity, as iu the case 
of certain coloured infusions. 



This, aldiough apparently a general 
rule, is not without its exceptions. If a 
pea and a grain of wheat are planted in 
the same soil, and placed in the same 
circumstances, it wlU be found that the 
latter will absorb silex from the soil, 
the former none; and this shows pretty 
clearly the power of selection. Dr Dau- 
beny has shown that certain plants will 
not absorb strontian; and Saussure that 
the spiral-rooted polygonum, while it 
took up common salt (muriate of soda) 
freely, refused to absorb a solution of 
acetate of lime. " It is a curious fact," 
Dr Lindley remarks, "that the poisonous 
substances which are fatal to man are 
equally so to plants, and in nearly the 
same way; so that by presenting opium 
or arsenic, or any metallic or alkaline 
poison, to its roots, a tree may be destroyed 
as readily as a human being." 

Cropping the same ground year after 
year with the same species of plant, or 
replanting a forest with the same spe- 
cies of trees, or indeed planting a young 
fruit-tree in the same situation and soil 
from which another had been removed, 
is attended with failure, for, in addi- 
tion to the cause assigned above, the soil 
becomes exhausted of those parts it ori- 
ginally contained and has given out 
for the support of the previous crop, 
though it may still retain material of 
a different character, sufficient to enter 
into the constitution of a crop of a dis- 
similar kind. "As the inorganic mate- 
rials which enter into the composition 
of plants vary much in their nature 
and relative proportions, it is evident 
that a soil may contain those necessary 
for the growth of certain species, while 
it may be deficient in those required 
by others. It is on this principle," says 
Professor Balfour, "that the rotation of 
crops proceeds — those plants succeeding 
each other in rotation which require dif- 
ferent inorganic compounds for their 
growth. In ordinary cases, except in the 
case of very fertile virgin soil, a crop, by 
being constantly grown in successive years 
in the same field, will deteriorate in a 
marked degree. Dr Daubeny has put 
this to the test of experiment, by causing 
plants to grow on the same and on 
different plots in successive years, and 
noting the results : — 








Average of 5 years. 
; in the same plot, 72.9 lb. tubers, 
in different plots, 92.8 „ ,, 

same, . . 15.0 „ 

different, . 19.9 „ 

same, . . 32.8 „ 

different, . 34.8 „ 

same, . . 30.0 „ 

different, . 46.S „ 

same, . . 104.0 „ 

different, . 17B.0 „ 

same, . . 28.0 „ 

different, . 32.4 „ 

"This shows a manifest advantage in 
shifting crops, varying from 1 to 75 per 
cent, the deficiency of inorganic matter 
being the chief cause of difference." — 
Manual of Botany. 

" The prevaiUng opinion," Loudon re- 
marks, " has long been that plants exhaust 
the soil generally of vegetable food, parti- 
cularly of that kind of food which is pe- 
culiar to the crops growing on it for the 
time being. For example, both potatoes 
and onions exhaust the soil generally ; 
while the potato deprives it of something 
that is necessary to insure the reproduction 
of a good crop of potatoes, and the onion 
of something which is necessary for the 
reproduction of a large crop of onions. 
According to the theory of De CandoUe, 
both crops exhaust the soil generally, and 
both render it unfit for the particular kind 
of crop ; but this injury, according to his 
hypothesis, is not effected by depriving 
the soil of the particular kind of nutriment 
necessary for the particular kind of spe- 
cies, but by excreting into it substances 
peculiar to the species with which it has 
been cropped; which substances render it 
unfit for having these crops repeated." — 
Siib. Hort., p. 436. Both these theories 
have been disputed, and this by practical 
reasoners, who naturally enough ask, How 
do they apply to plants long confined to the 
same soil — an orange tree, for example — 
which has luxuriated, without being either 
poisoned or starved, within the hmits of 
a three-feet square box for a score of years? 
and how do perennial plants exist in the 
same soil for as gi-eat a length of time 1 
The advocates of the one theory say the 
annual dropping and decay of the foliage 
supply at once general and particular 
nourishment. This does not, we suspect, 
apply to the orange tree we have taken as 
an example, because the leaves, if they 
even fell on the surface of the soil in the 



box, would be daily removed. The others 
say the same droppings of the leaves, by 
the general nourishment which they 
supply, Tieutralise the particular excre- 
tions. Liebig advocated the exhausting 
principle, and showed, chemically, that 
the roots of trees and plants in time ex- 
haust those principles contained in the 
soil which are most conducive to their 
respective wants. This appears to be 
both a conclusive and simple way of 
settling the question. He afterwards 
modified these views, and remarks, p. 33, 
edit. 1843, "Transformations of existing 
compounds are constantly taking place 
during the whole life of a plant, in conse- 
quence of which, and as the results of 
these transformations, there are produced 
gaseous matters which are excreted by the 
leaves and blossoms, solid excrements de- 
posited in the bark, and fluid soluble sub- 
stances which are eliminated by the roots. 
Such excretions are most abundant imme- 
diately before the formation and during 
the continuance of the blossoms; they 
diminish after the development of the 
fruit. Substances containing a large pro- 
portion of carbon are excreted by the 
roots and absorbed by the soil. Through 
the expulsion of these matters, unfitted 
for nutrition, the soil receives again, with 
usury, the carbon which it had at first 
yielded to the young plants as food, in 
the form of carbonic acid. The soluble 
matter thus acquired by the soil is still 
capable of decay and putrefaction, and, 
by undergoing these processes, furnishes 
renewed sources of nutrition to another 
generation of plants, and becomes humus." 
We have many instances in practice, 
where the same crop has been grown on 
the same soil for many successive years, 
vide article Onion; and many others 
of a like kind could be adduced. Mr 
Stephens, in his excellent "Book of the 
Farm," vol. ii. p. 455, reasons on this 
subject practically, and we think judi- 
ciously. He says, " Experience has de- 
monstrated that one crop after another of 
the same kind greatly reduces the fertility 
of all classes of soils. This conclusion 
might be drawn from reason as well as 
experience, since it is reasonable to sup- 
pose that crops of the same kind take 
the same sort of food out of the same 
kind of soil. Experience has also demon- 
strated that one crop after another, of a 

different kind, does not materially reduce 
the condition of soils. This deduction, 
then, seems fair, that the condition of the 
soil is best maintained by taking different 
crops after one another; and as every 
crop, though of different kind, and deriv- 
ing support from the soil, assists in ex- 
hausting it, a limit must be put to the 
number of crops that should follow one 
another. Though all crops derive food 
from the soil, one kind appropriates food 
in a different degree from another; and 
even the same crop takes food in different 
quantities, according to the state its pro- 
duct is allowed to proceed." Plants which 
ripen their seed, as cabbages, turnips, &c., 
when the ostensible object is to produce 
seed, draw more strongly on the soil than 
those which are grown for their leaves 
and bulbs only, as spinach and beet, (fee. 
Hence the practice, in gardens, of uselessly 
allowing plants to shoot up into flower, 
much less seed, in spring, cannot be too 
severely reprobated. 

The excrementitious theory is ingenious, 
if not even correct, and has occupied 
the attention of the chemist for many 
years. At the request of De Candolle, M. 
Macaire of Geneva instituted a series of 
experiments, which led him to conclude 
that, in the formation of the seed, or other 
nutritious parts of plants, the sap is di- 
gested; that it takes up certain elements, 
and deposits others, which are the residue 
of the process ; and these, being no longer 
necessary for the formation of the seed, 
are rejected by the vital action of the 
plant, and exude by the roots. " Our 
ignorance of the functions of vegetable 
life prevents us from seeing the effects 
produced on the sap by the expansion of 
the blossoms, or the ripening of the seed; 
but experience leads us to perceive that 
certain plants thrive best after certain 
others, and that in this case they are 
always of distinct and different natures, 
and of different natural botanical families. 
Macaire and other scientific men observed 
the change that took place in the water 
in which wheat had been made to grow. 
They found a deposit in the water of the 
nature of bitter extract, and this they 
concluded to be excrementitious. Beans 
grew well in this water; and, on the other 
hand, wheat throve in the water in which 
beans had grown." — Donaldson on Soils 
and Manures, p. 30. The effects of fal- 



lowing land, or deep-digging, ridging, 
and trenching, are said to be the sweet- 
ening the soil, because the excrementitious 
matter becomes washed out by the rains, 
decomposed by the action of light and air, 
or buried beyond the reach of the roots, 
and may remain so until decomposed 
or completely changed by some unseen 
and as yet imperfectly understood cause. 

The alternation of crops becomes also 
necessary, as a safeguard against the at- 
tacks of insect enemies. Thus, some of 
the insects which are most injurious to 
the Brassica tribe, for example, by de- 
positing their eggs in the soil, when the 
period of their own brief existence ter- 
minates, secure by this means a numerous 
progeny to commit their baneful depre- 
dations on the succeeding crop; whereas, 
if a different kind of plant were substi- 
tuted, it is, in many cases, certain that 
they would die of starvation, rather than 
feed on food of a character different from 
that destined for them by nature. Take, 
for example, a plant of their own natural 
order, the black mustard, (Sinapis nigra,) 
which has been recommended to be sown 
on ground infected with the larvse of in- 
sects feeding on the cabbage tribe : the 
roots of the mustard being too acrid for 
them, they have actually died of starva- 

As a restorative or compensation to 
the soil for a continued cropping with the 
same species of crops, certain materials, 
forming in themselves the inorganic con- 
stituents of plants, have been recommend- 
ed. Indeed, chemically speaking, one piece 
of ground may possibly/ be made to pro- 
duce the same species of crop ad infini- 
tum. To carry out, however, these ideas, 
it will be necessary to ascertain the mat- 
ter abstracted from the soil by such crops, 
and then to add to them, at each sowing 
or planting, an equivalent, and something 
more, of the ingredients of the same na- 
ture as that of which the ground has been 
robbed by the preceding crop. This is, 
however, only meeting the subject mid- 
way, if even so much. 

To ascertain correctly what is the food 
of plants, we must first ascertain what 
they themselves are composed of; for 
whatever elements constitute their struc- 
ture, these elements are their true food ; 
therefore it is the plant more than the" 
soil whose component parts should be 

determined. Chemists have laboured for 
years in determining the qualities of soils 
and manures, while they have by far too 
much neglected the analysis of the plants 
themselves, which is the first and most 
important consideration. 

It is a pretty generally received opinion 
amongst many cultivators that each 
species of plant requires a distinct species 
of food to be presented to it from the 
soil ; but vegetable physiologists have 
shown that the organs of one plant derive 
their food from substances which concur 
in the true nutrition of plants generally; 
or, that is to say, plants of the most 
opposite characters and properties, as 
articles of food or vehicles of poison, will 
not only exist, but flourish in the same 
flower-pot of earth or of manure — a cir- 
cumstance opposed to the theory that 
each species requires a different element 
of food. 

M. Boussingault favoured the opinion 
that there was no absolute necessity for 
a rotation of crops " when dung and 
labour can be readily procured. Never- 
theless," he says, "there are certain 
plants which cannot be reproduced upon 
the same soil advantageously, except at 
intervals more or less remote. The cause 
of this exigence on the part of certain 
plants is still obscure, and the hypo- 
theses propounded for clearing it up are 
far from satisfactory. One of the marked 
advantages of alternate culture is the 
periodic cultivation of plants which im- 
prove the soil. In this way a sort of 
compensation is made for exhaustion. 
The main thing to be secured, in the rota- 
tion of crops, is such a system as shall 
enable the husbandman to attain the 
greatest amount of vegetable production 
with the least manure, and in the shortest 
possible time. This system can alone be 
realised by employing, in the course of 
rotation, those plants which draw largely 
from the atmosphere. The best plan. of 
rotation in theory is that in which the 
quantity of organic matter obtained most 
exceeds the quantity of organic matter 
introduced into the soil in the shape of 
manure. This does not hold in practice. 
It is less the surplus amount of organic 
matter over that contained in the manure, 
than the value of the same matter, which 
concerns the cultivator. The excess re- 
quired, and the form in which it should 



be produced, must vary widely according 
to locality, commercial demand, and the 
habits of the people, considered wholly 
apart from theoretical provisions. One 
point in theory which should agree with 
practice is this, that in no case is it pos- 
sible to expect more organic matter, and 
particularly more azotised organic mat- 
ter, than the excess of the same matter 
contained in the manure which is con- 
sumed in course of the rotation. By 
acting upon another presumption, the 
productiveness of the soil would be in- 
fallibly lessened. Hence it may be in- 
ferred how closely the study of rotations 
is connected with that of the exhaustion 
of the soil." 

Such is a brief epitome of the two lead- 
ing theories — hypotheses, perhaps, more 
properly they should be caUed. The 
practical deductions to be drawn from 
them differ little, and add as little to 
what observing cultivators have long been 
taught by experience — namely, that crops, 
the plants of which have a close affinity 
to each other, belong to the same natural 
order, or resemble each other in structure 
or habit, should not follow each other in 
cultivation. Cruciferous plants — that is, 
the cabbage, kale, or turnip tribe — should 
be followed by those of the leguminous 
order, or the pea and bean tribe, and mce 
versa. Deep-rooting plants, like the beet, 
carrot, parsnip, (fee, should be followed 
by such as spinach, lettuce, &o., and 
vice versa. Again, plants which have been 
grown for their fruit, such as seed- 
cabbage, and even pease, beans, scar- 
let runners, although the three latter 
do not remain to ripen their seeds, 
take more from the soil than cabbage, 
celery, or spinach, which are grown for 
their leaves alone. Perennial plants, such 
as sea-kale, asparagus, globe artichoke, 
&o., should never succeed each other, but 
should be succeeded by onions, leeks, or 
other annual crops of short duration, of 
essentially different characters. Indeed, 
no two exhausting crops should siicceed 
each other, but rather the least exhaust- 
ing, such as lettuce, endive, &c., should 
be succeeded by cabbage or the like. 

The following excellent article on rota- 
tion cropping appeared in "The Gar- 
deners' Chronicle," and deserves the 
special attention of every cultivator, 
whether the field of his operations be 

large or small. " Rotation crops consist 
of those most required for culinary pur- 
poses, such as pease, beans, French beans, 
broccoli, cabbage, turnip, carrots, parsnip, 
beet, onions, savoys, spinach (winter), 
and winter greens, celery, cauliflower, 
leeks. Pease and beans should be sown 
from February to June." In Scotland 
we sow on till the beginning of August, 
as our moist mild climate is more favour- 
able for producing crops during Septem- 
ber, October, November, and we have 
had them occasionally up to nearly Christ- 
mas, seasons when pease have hitherto 
been almost unknown in the neighbour- 
hood of London, where the drought and 
heat prevent their natural development. 
The London Horticultural Society have 
this season taken up this matter, and we 
believe that, by counteracting the effects 
of heat and drought, both of which are 
pretty much under the control of the 
cultivator, green pease will soon be seen 
in Covent Garden market on Lord 
Mayor's Day, as they are now on the 1st 
of June. " The first crop of pease wiU be 
clear for early broccoli in the end of 
June, and for the other seasons until 
September, for later broccoli, savoys, 
borecole, Brussels sprouts, collards or 
coleworts, and spring cabbage. This 
crop should have a slight crop of manure. 
Broccoli ground will be cleared of early 
sorts by winter" — in Scotland, say the 
end of November — " and should be ridged 
up all winter for a crop of carrots, which 
should be sown as early as possible. The 
later broccoli, colewort, sprouts, &c., 
will make way by April or the beginning 
of May for beet, parsnip, scorzonera, 
and salsify. Carrots, beet, and parsnips 
will be clear in the beginning of Novem- 
ber, when the ground must be again 
ridged up for winter, and have a good 
coat of dung ready for cauliflowers, onions, 
garlic, and shallots, the two latter being 
planted in November, and also the prin- 
cipal crop of turnips sown in the end of 
March and April. Cauliflower, onions, 
and turnips will be clear from July to 
September ; the cauliflower, shallots, &c., 
in July, for autumn spinach and endive; 
the onions for winter spinach, and the 
turnips for spring onions, winter lettuce, 
and other secondary crops. Spinach, 
endive, and spring onions will be clear 
by the end of May for savoys, winter 



greens, red cabbage, cauliflower, and 
leeks, all of whicli require a moderate 
coat of manure. Savoys, winter greens, 
red cabbage, &c., will be ready for early 
potatoes in April and May. Potatoes 
will make way in July and August for 
tiu-nips, spring cabbage, late broccoli, 
and suet crops, if wanted. Turnips, cab- 
bage, and broccoli may be cleared in 
May for celery and cardoon trenches, 
if all the ground is wanted ; but if not, 
the cabbage may be allowed to remain 
for sprouts during all the summer. The 
intermediate spaces between the trenches 
may be planted with lettuce or any other 
secondary crops : dung must be given for 
celery, of course. Celery and similar 
crops will, in p^t, make way in autumn, 
when the ground should be ridged up for 
the winter, and the remainder as soon as 
the entire crop is clear ; the ground will 
then be ready for French beans, scarlet 
runners, cauliflower, cucumber, and toma- 
tos, in the end of April or beginning of 
May. French beans will be clear by 
November, when the ground should be 
again ridged up all winter, to be ready 
for pease and beans as at first begun. 
This will make eight or ten years be- 
tween the return of the principal crops to 
the same place, and, by judicious manage- 
ment of the secondary division " (such as 
salads and short-lived crops) "among 
the rotation crops, every space of ground 
between one crop and the other may be 
occupied to advantage during the inter- 
vals of cropping." 

The following shows the order of rota- 
tion : — 1, pease and beans ; 2, broccoli, 
savoys, winter greens, collards — i. e., 
spring cabbage ; 3, carrots, parsnips, beet, 
scorzonera, salsify, "skirrets, Hamburg 
parsley;" 4, onions, cauliflower, turnips; 
5, spinach, spring onions, and other 
secondary crops ; 6, savoy, broccoli, win- 
ter greens, red cabbage, leeks; 7, pota- 
toes ; 8, turnip, cabbage, broccoli ; 9, 
celery, cardoons; 10, French beans, &o. 

" Secondary crops are those of the 
shortest duration, such as lettuces, ra- 
dishes, small salads, annual herbs, and 
very early pease and beans, (sown in No- 
vember,) very early cauliflowers, very 
early turnips, and early potatoes, all of 
which will require a warm south border." 

This is a specimen of the rotation prac- 
tised by the best cultivators around Lon- 

don, and, taking the difference of latitude 
into consideration, it is calculated for a 
great part of Scotland and Ireland. It will 
be remarked that this system of rotation 
comprises only the annual or biennial 
crops, and therefore we propose it as the 
precursor course to the systematic arrange- 
ment of the contents of the kitchen-garden 
sketched out, (vide p. 7,) and we know 
of no better rotation that can be fol- 
lowed. This rotation embraces eight 
years, but, by following ours as an addi- 
tion course, the change may be extended 
to the eleventh or twelfth year. The 
author of the above rotation is one of the 
best cultivators around London, and cal- 
culates, of course, that each crop is to be 
removed as soon after it is fit for imme- 
diate use as the consumption calls for, 
and hence the rapidity of his movements. 
The private gardener can do the same 
thing by keeping up a very close succession 
(as elsewhere noticed) ; but, unfortunately, 
in many private gardens, from causes the 
cultivator has no control over, crops are 
allowed to come to too full a state of 
maturity before they are commenced 
upon, and kept lingering on the ground 
long after they should be consigned to 
the rot heap, or, much better, trenched 
into the ground, restoring to it much of 
those elements they had abstracted from 

According to Mr Prideaux, in "The 
Gardeners' Chronicle," 1848, quoted by 
Mr Stephens in " The Book of the Farm," 
vol. ii. p. 453, the following quantities of 
mineral ingredients are removed from an 
acre of soil by a single crop of beans. 
" Beans, of a crop of 25 bushels of grain 
and 2800 lb. = 1 ton 5 cwt. of straw, 
carry ofi' from an acre of soil these quan- 
tities : — 

By the 

By the 












Soda, . 









Phosphoric acid, 














36..95 122.83 159.78 
— or gross weight to be returned to the acre." 

If the soil is to be' maintained in posses- 
sion of all its natural mineral ingredients, 
it follows, after such abstractions as this, 



that means must be employed for their 
restoration. This is to be effected by 
what are usually called mineral manures, 
or by the aid of such vegetable ones as 
may contain them all or in part. 

Should, however, the recent discovery 
made by M. Barral, a French chemist of 
great respectability, prove to be correct — 
and of that there appears to be little 
doubt — these ingredients, annually ab- 
stracted from the soil, are given back or 
provided again in a way and to an ex- 
tent hitherto unsuspected. Chemists long 
ago had determined that the air we breathe 
consisted only of two distinct gases, oxy- 
gen and nitrogen, with a minute propor- 
tion of carbonic acid dispersed through 
a variable quantity of aqueous vapour. To 
these Liebig added carbonate of ammonia 
as constituting the essential parts of the 
whole, considering the minute traces of 
lime, potash, and common salt, as too 
insignificant to deserve notice. This cele- 
brated chemist still further held as quite 
secondary and insignificant the presence 
of nitric acid, the action of which is so 
important in conveying nitrogen to the 
vegetable system, and declared the quan- 
tity as being too small to be even esti- 
mated in the rain of thunder-storms. M. 
Barral has, however, shown this in a dif- 
ferent light. The following explanation 
of his experiments, with remarks by the 
editor, appears in a very recent number of 
"The Gardeners' Chronicle," 1853 : " This 
eminent chemist was led, during the last 
six months of 1851, to examine minutely 
the water collected in the rain-gauges of 
the Observatory at Paris. His mode of 
investigation is declared by Messrs Dumas, 
Boussingault, Gasparin, Begnault, and 
Arago, names foremost in French science, 
to be free from all objection, and to bear 
the most severe counter-trials to which 
they could expose it. M. Barral states, 
that although the quantities of the fol- 
lowing substances varied' in different 
months, yet the monthly average, from 
July to December inclusive, was as fol- 
lows : — 

Suistances in, a cubic metre of Rain Water. 

Nitrogen, 8.36 grammes — 129. grains. 

Nitric acid, 19.09 „ — 294. „ 

Ammonia, 3.61 „ — 55.7 „ 

Chlorine, 2.27 „ — 35. „ 

Lime, 6.48 „ — 100. 

Magnesia, 2.12 „ — 32.7 „ 

" He did not ascertain whether all these 
substances are contained in rain-water 
collected at a distance from towns. But 
Mr Bence Jones found at least nitric 
acid in rain-water collected in London; 
at Kingston, Surrey; at Melbury, Dorset- 
shire; and, far from any town, at Clona- 
kelly, in Ireland. If we assume that M. 
Barral's averages represent what occurs 
on an English acre, the quantity of such 
substances deposited on that extent of 
ground may be safely estimated as fol- 
lows. The average depth of rain which 
falls in the neighbourhood of London is 
well ascertained to be about 24 inches per 
annum. This is at the rate of 87.120 
cubic feet, or 2466 cubic metres of rain- 
water per acre ; and this,^ccording to the 
proportions per cubic metre in the pre- 
ceding table, would afford annually of — 


4S^ lb 

Nitric acid, 

. 103 „ 


• 194 „ 


■ 124 „ 


35 „ 


11 „ 

Annual total per acre of these " 
ingredients returned to the ( 
soil by the agency of rain j 


" Of these substances, the three first are 
of the utmost importance, on account of 
their entering so largely into the indis- 
pensable constitution of the food by which 
vegetable life is sustained. The quantity 
of ammonia thus ascertained to exist is 
about what is expected in 2 cwt. of Peru- 
vian guano ; and bountiful nature gives 
us, moreover, nearly 150 lb. of nitro- 
genous matter, also suited to the nutrition 
of our crops. Nature gives us food, and 
we improvidently waste it. What with 
shallow cultivation on the one hand, hard 
ill-tilled land, puddled furrow-trenches, 
and pohshed furrow-slices, rain-water, thus 
highly charged with the most nutritious 
ingredients, either runs oflf to ditches, 
or is so ill directed that it very imper- 
fectly reaches the roots. On the other 
hand, by means of close cropping, that 
which is intended to bathe every part of 
a plant, and to be instantly absorbed by 
its verdant surface, is as completely turned 
aside as if two-thirds of the crop grew 
beneath a penthouse."- 

From this it will be seen that nature is 



constantly restoring to the soil a vast 
amount of those ingredients taken up by 
the crops, without the aid of man ; but, 
that these valuable supplies be not 
wasted, it behoves man to keep the soil 
in a proper state to receive them. This 
can only be done by what we have so 
strongly urged elsewhere — deep cultiva- 
tion and thin cropping — two important 
essentials in culture sadly neglected in 
most gardens, trenching for almost every 
crop being a thing scarcely tliought of, 
notwithstanding we are well assured that 
very much of the success of the London 
market-gardener, in producing such enor- 
mous crops, depends on this operation 
alone. Were half the amount of the 
value of the manure which is yearly 
crammed into garden soils expended on 
trenching, and keeping the surface after- 
wards open, the advantages would be soon 
made apparent ; and without that, all 
the manure, whether special or common, 
whether mineral or vegetable, and how- 
ever applied, may be regarded as so much 
capital thrown away. 

Again, besides the amount of matter 
restored to the soil, as shown above by M. 
Barral, an additional supply is returned 
by the plants themselves, whose leaves are 
constantly decomposing carbonic acid, 
which they absorb from the atmosphere, 
liberating the oxygen, and appropriating 
the carbon to their own use ; they derive 
supplies of nitrogen for the formation of 
their albuminous constituents from the 
volatile carbonate and nitrate of ammonia, 
and these they restore to the soil when 
they are buried in it. From the earliest 
ages certain crops have been grown for 
the express purpose of being returned to 
the soil for its enrichment, a practice pro- 
bably of more ancient date than that of 
alchemy, and 3000 years earlier than 
modern chemistry. The exhaustion of 
the soil by crops is not so very alarm- 
ingly great, under good management, 
as some would have us to believe, and 
would be much less so if those parts of 
vegetables that are not to be directly 
consumed by man were returned to it at 
the time. Out of a crop of cauliflower, 
not one-fourth of the bulk of the crop is 
useable ; hence, if the other three-fourths 
were immediately dug into the ground 
on which they were produced, they would 
return to it veiy nearly as much as they 

had taken from it during their growth, if 
not more. It is bad management that 
exhausts a soil ; and one of the worst parts 
of bad management is taking the whole 
vegetable produce off the ground, and 
either not returning it at all, or doing so 
after it has become so much decomposed 
and exposed to atmospheric action as to 
have nearly lost all its fertilising pro- 
perties. In gai'dens much of this is daily 
carried on, too many believing that plants 
derive all their food from the soil. But 
such is not the case ; the greater part of 
vegetation is derived from atmospheric 
sources, and when that is returned to the 
soil by digging it in, it in this way sup- 
plies it with more of the organic elements 
essential to future vegetable growth than 
the soil contained before the crop was 
sown or planted ; in other words, it is 
enriched by the carbon, hydrogen, and 
nitrogen which the vegetable had ob- 
tained from sources entirely independent 
of the soil. 

Plants have the power of converting 
the materials which constitute both com- 
mon and special manures by a species of 
elaboration going on within them, so as 
to fit and appropriate the necessary quan- 
tity of each, and to dispose of them 
throughout the various parts of their 
structure, leaves, stems, seed, roots, &.C. ; 
and not only that, but they are capable 
of supplying themselves at different times, 
and even in different parts of the same 
plant, according to their respective natures. 
" They all form," says Professor John- 
ston (in " Experimental Agriculture," p. 
9), "more or less constantly and abun- 
dantly, a portion of the fixed and solid 
matter of the plant taken as a whole. 
They may not be found in any one part 
of the plant, when separated carefully 
from the rest, but, in the solid parts of 
the plant, taken as a whole, they are all, 
and always to be met with. When thus 
deposited, they become for the most part 
dormant, as it were, and for the time 
cease to perform active chemical func- 
tions in the general growth, though, as 
vessels or cells, they may still perform 
a mechanical function. They undergo 
various chemical changes in the inter- 
course, chiefly while circulating or con- 
tained in the sap, by which changes they 
are prepared and fitted for entering, when 
and where it is necessary, into the solid 



or fixed parts of plants. Thus the starch 
of the seed is changed into the soluble 
dextrin and sugar of the sap of the young 
plant, and then again into the insoluble 
cellular fibre of the stem or wood as the 
plant grows j and, finally, into the in- 
soluble starch of the grain, as its seed fills 
and ripens. They each exercise a chemi- 
cal action more or less distinct, decided, 
and intelligible, upon the other elemen- 
tary bodies, and the compounds of them 
which they meet with in the sap of the 
plant. In regard to some substances, such 
as potash and soda, the sulphuric and 
phosphoric acids, this last function ap- 
pears to be especially important. These 
substances influence all the chemical 
changes which go on in the interior of 
the plant, and which modify and cause 
its growth. The same is true of the 
nitrogen which the plant contains. This 
elementary body, in the form of albumen 
or some other of the numerous protein 
compounds which occur in the sap, pre- 
sides over, or takes part in, almost every 
important transformation which the or- 
ganic matter of the living plant undergoes. 
Thus it is always abundantly present where 
the starch of the seed or of the tuber is 
dissolved, and sent up to feed the young 
shoots; and again, when the soluble sub- 
stances of the sap are converted into the 
starch of the grain of the tuber, or of the 
body or pith of the tree, one or other of 
the protein combinations is always found 
to be present on the spot where the che- 
mical change in the transformation is 
going on. Besides these general func- 
tions, the several substances found in 
plants exercise also special functions in 
reference to vegetable life and growth. 

" Nitrogen is most abundant in the sap 
of young plants, takes part in most of the 
changes of organic compounds which go 
on in the sap, and fixes itself, as the 
plant approaches maturity, in greatest 
abundance in the seeds and in the green 

" Potash and soda circulate in the sap, 
influence chemical changes very much, 
and reside or fix themselves most abun- 
dantly in green and fleshy leaves, and in 
bulbous roots. 

"■Sulphuric acid is very influential in 
all chemical changes ; is found, in most 
cases, in those parts of the plants in which 

potash and soda abound, and deposits a 
portion of its sulphur wherever the com- 
pounds of nitrogen form a notable part of 
the substance of the plant. 

"Phosphoric acid exercises also much 
influence over the chemical changes of the 
sap, and finally fixes itself in greatest 
abundance in the seeds and other repro- 
ductive parts of the plant. 

"Lime is very important to healthy 
vegetable growth, as practical experience 
has long testified. Among other duties, 
it appears to accompany the phosphoric 
acid in the sap of plants, and to deposit 
itself, in combination with organic acids, 
in the leaves and bark, and with phos- 
phoric acid in some seeds and roots. 

" Magnesia appears also to attach itself 
very much to phosphoric acid in the sap, 
and fixes itself, in combination with the 
acid, principally in the seed. 

" Chlorine. — The chemical functions of 
this substance in the sap are less under- 
stood even than that of the other sub- 
stances above mentioned. It exists chiefly 
in combination with soda, and is much 
more abundantly present in some plants, 
and in some parts of plants, than in others. 
Though, as I have said, its immediate 
chemical functions in the plant are not 
understood, it, forms a most important 
constituent of the plant, in so far as the 
after uses of vegetables as 'articles of food' 
are concerned. 

"Silica exists in the sap in a soluble 
form, and deposits itself chiefly in the 
exterior portions of the stems and leaves 
of plants. It is supposed there to serve 
as a defence to the plant against external 
injury, and to give strength to the stem, 
in the case of the grasses and corn-yield- 
ing plants ; but what chemical functions 
it performs, if any, in directly promoting 
vegetable growth, we can scarcely as yet 
even venture to guess." 

However extraordinary it may appear 
to the young cultivator, (and we know 
many of riper years who scout the idea 
that plants take up and are in part con- 
stituted of FLiNT^ yet such is the case; 
and, moreover, all plants contain mineral 
matters, such as iron, copper, flint, sul- 
phur, (fee. : if we may venture to hazard 
a supposition, their presence even in 
the leaves of the most delicate grass is 
necessary in the formation of what may 
be called the bone of the plant ; and no 



doubt they answer a purpose analogous 
to the bones in animals, formed of lime, 
which is a mineral substance also. 

Although, however, the presence of 
mineral substances in plants is neces- 
sary, yet they do not in general 
large quantities. Their presence is not 
the result of accident, but of wise design, 
as beautifully shown by Professor Lin- 
dley in "Theory of Horticulture," p. 356 
— " For although it may be asserted that 
the presence of iron, copper, or other sub- 
stances, in plants, in minute quantities, is 
accidental and unimportant, yet such a 
supposition is gratuitous, if not altogether 
unfounded ; for I do not know what war- 
rant we have for saying that any of the 
constant phenomena of nature, however 
minute they may seem to be, are acci- 
dental. This at least is certain, that 
where mineral substances occur abun- 
dantly in plants, they are part and parcel 
of their nature, just as much as iron and 
phosphate of hme are of our own bodies ; 
and we must no more suppose that grasses 
can dispense with silica in their food, or 
marine plants with common salt, than 
that we ourselves could dispense with 
vegetable and animal food. 

" Flint is found on the exterior of the 
whole graminaceous order without excep- 
tion. It forms the polished surface of 
the cane palm, the grittiness of many 
kinds of timber. Sulphur abounds in 
cruciferous plants, especially mustard ; 
copper in coffee, wheat, and many other 
plants, (it is believed in the state of phos- 
phate ;) iron as a peroxide in tobacco, 
&c." In the fruit of the strawberry it 
has been found ; and the medicinal pro- 
perties of that fruit are accounted for by 
many physicians by its presence. De 
Candolle, in " Physiologic Vegetale," 
p. 389, asserts that 3650 kilogrammes of 
copper are consumed annually in France 
in the article of bread ; and M. Sarzeau 
says that 560 kilogrammes of the same 
mineral are swallowed annually in France 
in the article coffee alone. 

How these mineral substances are 
taken up by vegetables is no less curious 
than their presence in them. Most che- 
mists believe they are in some way or 
other taken up by the roots. The experi- 
ments of John upon this matter, as quoted 
by Dr Lindley (" Theory of Horticulture," 
p. 357), would lead us to believe that 


they are supplied from the atmosphere as 
well ; for John "found that the Ramalina 
frascinea and Borrera ciliaris, two lichens, 
contained a large quantity of the last 
metal, although he could not find a trace 
of it in the fir-tree, on the topmost 
branches of which the lichens grew. We 
cannot, therefore, suppose that such things 
are the result of accident, and that it is 
unimportant to the plants containing 
minerals thus constantly, whether such 
substances are present in their soil or 
not." We are afraid that some of our 
agricultural chemists have jumped at 
conclusions hurriedly, and drawn deduc- 
tions which will not bear the test of close 
investigation. When they give us to 
understand, that because a crop of wheat, 
for example, abstracts 76.22 lb. of mine- 
ral substances from the soil per acre, 
per annum, consisting of potash, soda, 
magnesia, phosphoric acid, sulphiu-ic 
acid, and chlorine, that the same weight 
(viz. 76.22 lb.) of these ingredients, con- 
tained in special manures, is the exact and 
proper return to be made for that abstracted 
by the crop, so as to leave the soil in the 
condition in which it was previous to the 
seed of the crops being sown. 

Such calculations as these appear to 
have been made without duly considering 
atmospheric effects, because it appears 
there has been no allowance made for 
them. " Plants feed more by their leaves 
than by their roots." — Lindlbt. " It is 
commonly supposed that plants derive 
the whole of their food from the soil, but 
this is a great error. It is a fact well 
ascertained by chemical experiments, 
that plants derive the greater part of their 
nourishment from the air, although the 
soil is equally essential to their growth." — 
SoLLr, in Rural Ghemistry, p. 96. "Plants 
possibly draw from the atmosphere more 
than agriculturists conimonly suppose; 
and the soil furnishes, ihdependently of 
sahne and earthy substances, a proportion 
of organic matter larger than certain phy- 
siologists admit." — Boussingault. "The 
leaves spread out their broad surfaces into 
the air for the same purpose, precisely, as 
that for which the roots diffuse their 
fibres through the soil ; the only difference 
being, that, while the roots suck in chiefly 
liquid, the leaves inhale almost wholly 
gaseous food. In the daytime, whether in 
the sunshine or in the shade, the green 




leaves are constantly absorbing carbonic 
acid from the air, and giving off oxygen 
gas ; that is to say, they are continually 
appropriating carbon from the air. When 
night comes this process is reversed, and 
they begin to absorb oxygen, and give off 
carbonic acid. But the latter process 
does not go on so rapidly as the former j 
so that, on the whole, plants when grow- 
ing gain a large portion of carbon from 
the air. The actual quantity, however, 
varies with the season, with the chmate, 
and with the kind of plant. The propor- 
tion of its carbon which has been derived 
from the air is greatly modified, also, by 
the quality of the soil in which the plant 
grows, and by the comparative abundance 
of liquid food which happens to be within 
reach of its roots. It has been ascertained, 
however, that in our climate, on an ave- 
rage, not less than from one-third to four- 
fifths of the entire quantity of carbon 
contained in the crops we reap from land 
of average fertility is really obtained from 
the air." — J. F. W. Johnston, in Agricul- 
tural Chemistry and Geology, p. 40. And 
without quoting other authorities — of 
which there are many — we refer to the 
recent experiments made by M. Barral, 
given above, in which he shows that 227 
lb. of the six elements of fertilisation are 
returned to the soil, per acre, per annum, 
by the rains which fall alone ; while ac- 
cording to data, given above, by agricul- 
tural chemists, 76.22 lb. are all that is 
required per acre to re-establish the soil 
to its former condition, after a crop of 
wheat has been taken from it, so far as 
these mineral ingredients are concerned. 
Nitrogen is required in great abundance 
in most plants, in some more than in 
others ; and to obtain this from the 
atmosphere, the agency of saline sub- 
stances may be necessary; for of such 
importance is their influence in this re- 
spect, that crops have been grown on soils 
destitute of organic matter, but contain- 
ing saline substances, which procured 
sufficient nitrogen from the atmosphere 
to cause the plants to flower, fruit, and 
yield ripe seed, notwithstanding they 
were only supplied with distilled water, 
which, of course, could convey to the 
plants none of those fertilising elements 
discovered by M. Barral in rain-water. 
Mr Stephens, in summing up the evidence 
he has so carefully collected, concludes 

by observing, in " Book of the Farm," vol. 
ii. p. 456 — " Upon the whole subject of 
special manures, the rationale of their 
application may be based upon the cer- 
tainty of the fact, that a large produce 
will be obtained, if we only return to the 
soil the mineral constituents of the crops 
we cultivate, in combination with nitro- 
genous substances, and the materials 
should be in a state to become fit for 
assimilation by plants." We are far from 
despising the use of special manures, but 
we would employ them as auxiliaries 
only, and advise the cultivator to con- 
sider as his sheet-anchor the contents 
of a well-managed dung-yard, which 
contain nitrogen in great abundance, 
which is known to excite the growth of 
vegetables, and also to render their pro- 
ducts more valuable as food for man. It 
also contains much carbon, which, enter- 
ing into their structure, imparts to 
them firmness of texture, and strength 
to maintain themselves in an upright 
position — the only position in which they 
could be placed, to derive the necessary 
advantages of atmospheric influence. 

We look upon mineral or special 
manures, applied as restoratives in the 
routine of rotation, in the light of make- 
shifts ; and whilst we admit their great 
value in agriculture, where, as things are 
managed, a sufficient quantity of stable- 
yard manure cannot or is not to be had — 
and also their importance in elevated 
situations, to which it would be too ex- 
pensive to transport it — still we would 
not have cultivators to place their depen- 
dence on them alone. Besides, there is 
more than mere mauurial applications 
required. The soil must be prepared for 
their reception, so that the process of 
free and copious evaporation may go on ; 
and this cannot be expected to be com- 
pletely realised, unless that soil be wrought 
to a considerable depth, and thoroughly 
amalgamated with those additions, what- 
ever they may be, to insure a gaseous 
supply of food through the leaves, in 
addition to what is absorbed by the roots. 
Notwithstanding all this, and admitting 
that one species of crop may be grown 
for several continuous years on the same 
ground, it is, nevertheless (whether the 
cause rests in the exhaustion or excre- 
mentitious theory), wrong to crop the 
same ground, unless under peculiar cir- 



cumstances, two successive years with the 
same species of crop. 

Pulverising and trenching may be re- 
garded as a species of rotation, because 
by them the surface of the soil may be 
transposed, or the whole mass thoroughly 
incorporated together ; thus presenting 
to a great extent new food to plants, both 
for facihtating the necessary chemical 
changes, and the admission of rain and 
air — the latter so important to the roots 
of plants. Deeply pulverised soils are 
increased in temperature, as well as ren- 
dered more uniform in that respect. The 
air admitted carries with it, during sum- 
mer, heat from the sun, which is daily 
accumulating, and retained for a length 
of time, the earth being a bad conductor 
of caloric. "The free admission of 
atmospheric air to soil is also necessary 
for the decomposition of humus, or orga- 
nic matter, by which carbonic acid is 
formed; and atmospheric air is also a 
great source of nitrogen, which has been 
lately found in all plants, and more espe- 
cially in the spongioles of the roots. 
— Suburban Hort. p. 35. "And hence," 
says LiBBEG, p. 1 90, " the great value of 
animal manures to plants, all of which 
contain nitrogen, but especially those of 
carnivorous animals." 

From the comparative uncertainty, as 
regards a correct analysis of plants, in 
which chemists have left us, we cannot 
see, not knowing the exact amount of the 
ingredients of the soil which plants are 
supposed to carry off with them (both 
in their growing state, and more especially 
when they have arrived at their fullest 
maturity), what amount of those ingre- 
dients should be added to the soil, to 
make up for its supposed loss, or even 
what these are. Professor Johnston, in 
"Lectures on Agricultural Chemistry," 
&c., p. 528, admits "that we scarcely 
know as yet what any one entire plant, 
when fully ripe, carries off from the soil ;" 
and in another part of these " Lectures," 
he says " that our knowledge of the in- 
organic constituents of plants is yet in 
its infancy, and that our present opinion 
upon the subject ought, therefore, to be 
permitted to hang very loosely about 

It appears, in connection with the rota- 
tion of crops, as well as with the applica- 
tion of manures, that too much stress has 

been laid upon vegetable chemistry, and 
by far too little regard paid to vegetable 
physiology ; the connection between both 
is so intimate and important as to render 
them, in the pm'suit of true conclusions, 
inseparable. " Intimately connected with 
vegetable chemistiy," says Mr Edward 
Solly (in Rural Ghemistry, p. 121), "is the 
study of vegetable physiology : a know- 
ledge of the one is essential to the perfect 
comprehension of the other, for it is im- 
possible well to understand the chemical 
changes going on in the organs of plants, 
if we are wholly ignorant of the forms and 
structures of these organs ; and, on the 
other hand, the most complete knowledge 
of the anatomy of vegetables could never 
lead any one to sound and correct con- 
clusions respecting the nutrition of plants. 
It is rather to be regretted that both 
chemists and physiologists have appeared 
to avoid availing themselves of the advan- 
tages which both might have derived, by 
studying the results which the others 
had obtained. It is only by comparing 
together the observations of both that 
correct conclusions can be formed." The 
researches of Grew, Malpighi, and Du- 
hamel, did much in elucidating the struc- 
ture of plants, and the modes by which 
they derived sustenance ; indeed, they 
may be said to have laid the foundation 
of vegetable physiology. In more recent 
times, Decaisne, De Candolle, Mirbel, 
Dutrochet, and Brongniart, in France ; 
Meyen, Mohl, Link, and Schleiden, in 
Germany ; Amioi in Italy ; and Knight, 
Hooker, Henslow, Brown, Griffiths, and 
Lindley, in England, by careful observa- 
tions, and the advantages of improved 
instruments, have reduced vegetable phy- 
siology from a seriesof vague anduncertain 
dog-mas to a comparatively perfect system. 
Little had been done since the days of 
Priestley and Ingenhousz in the improve- 
ment of agricultural chemistry, save the 
labours of Sir Humphry Davy: these, how- 
ever, an early death prevented him from 
prosecuting, for we dare scarcely say 
completing. It remained, therefore, for 
Liebig to do almost single-handed for 
vegetable chemistry what those we have 
named above, with many others, had been 
zealously engaged in doing for vegetable 
physiology. In his "Organic Chemistry," 
in tracing the sources by and from which 
plants derive their food, he has strongly 



drawn attention to the importance of 
physiology combined with chemistry. 
" He has exposed the fallacy of many of 
the theories which had been formed to 
explain them, and has established " (as Mr 
Solly remarks) "on good evidence the 
simple chemical rules which regulate the 
growth of plants. Although much has 
been done, and although chemists have 
laboured to remove the perplexities which 
encompassed the subject, there is still a 
very great deal that requires investiga- 
tion ; many important points are as yet 
imperfectly, or even not at all, explained ; 
and many questions must be satisfac- 
torily settled before a complete system of 
agricultural chemistry can be established. 
TiU these difficulties are removed, it is 
prematm-e to expect that chemistry can 
be of more than partial assistance to 
agriculture ; for whilst many of the funda- 
mental laws of this section of chemistry 
are still scarcely understood, all attempts 
to apply them to practice must be incom- 
plete and liable to error." 

The rotation of crops. in gardens is an 
important element in good management. 
They are, or ought to be, carried out upon 
two different systems — namely, the succes- 
sional and simultaneous modes of crop- 
ping. The first has its chief feature in 
covering each piece of ground with only 
one species of crop at the same time, while 
simultaneous cropping is founded upon 
the practice of having several. The first 
presents the greatest appearance of order 
and system, and hence is that most gene- 
rally followed in private gardens ; while 
the latter, although less apparently syste- 
matic, is, to a certain extent, so in reality, 
and affords the largest return of produce, 
and is therefore often followed by com- 
mercial growers, who will, for example, 
sow with a crop of onions a thin crop of 
radish, lettuce, and sometimes a few car- 
rots. The two former are removed early 
for use, leaving the onions to ripen off 
afterwards, and thus affording them more 
room as they increase in size. In the 
latter case, the carrots, sending down their 
roots to a greater depth, appropriate to 
themselves their own peculiar species 
of food, leaving the onions to extract 
theirs from nearer the surface ; and, in 
some cases, carrots so grown are found 
to escape the grub. Simultaneous crop- 
ping is also carried on where the drill 

system is followed ; and hence a piece of 
ground may be thus stocked : — tall grow- 
ing pease, Jerusalem artichokes, scarlet 
runners, &c., which attain a height of 
from 6 to 10 feet, may be planted at 
distances of 20 or 30 feet apart ; garden 
beans, or low-growing pease, may be sown 
between these at a proper distance ; and 
between these, cabbage, spinach, &c., may 
be planted or sown, thus affording to all 
a full share of light and air. Another ad- 
vantage arising from simultaneous crop- 
ping is, that crops will be progressing in 
different stages of growth, so that, as the 
most advanced is cleared off, the next in 
order will supply its place ; or, when one 
crop is removed, another of a dissimilar 
kind may be immediately planted. 

Success] onal cropping is best calculated 
for poor soils, and for gardens where the 
supply of manure is limited, as well as 
where the garden is small. The other 
cannot be so well carried out, unless the 
soil is in the highest possible state of cul- 
tivation ; and also in that order of things 
where the whole crop is removed almost 
at once, as in the case of sending it direct 
to the market ; whereas in a smaller pri- 
vate garden it is only removed in small 
quantities at a time, according to the 
consumption, and therefore hangs longer 
upon the soil than is in accordance with 
this mode of cropping. 


There are, for the most part, only three 
objects in transplanting these (some of 
which, however, do not admit of the opera- 
tion at all), as the common turnip, whether 
for crop or seed; while the Swedish turnip, 
radish, parsnip, beet, scorzonera, salsify, 
skirret, &o., if not improved by the 
operation, suffer no injury by it if pro- 
perly performed. Advantage is taken of 
this, and failures in portions of such crops 
are made up by thinning where they 
are too thick, and thus filling up defi- 
ciencies. In sowing for seed, transplant- 
ing has its advantages in this,— the roots 
can be selected, and misshapen ones re- 
jected. All the Brassicse — comprising the 
cabbage, sprouts, savoys, greens, cauli- 
flower—are amazingly improved by trans- 
planting from the seed-bed once or twice 



before their final planting out. It in- 
creases the formation of extra roots, 
enables the cultivator often to detect 
the symptoms of club, as well as gives 
opportunity for the rejection of mal- 
formed plants. The pea and all the beans 
are improved in precocity. The pro- 
cess, however, would be unprofitable in 
the case of very large crops, and in the 
saving of seed. In the latter case, a re- 
moval of all weak and inferior varieties 
should be scrupulously attended to. 
Spinach does not admit, unless upon 
extraordinary occasions, transplantation ; 
nor do the whole tribe of small salads, 
such as cress, mustard, <fec. Lettuce 
admits of it freely, and so does en- 
dive : both may be grown to great 
advantage in small seed-beds, and when 
fit for removal placed to succeed crops 
which, while they (the latter) have been 
in a state of preparation, have been 
yielding their return. They, with celery, 
cardoons, &c., are grown from seed first, 
to forward them for transplanting, and 
to economise room. Onions admit of 
it with impunity, leeks with singular 
advantage, while carrots will not sub- 
mit to the ordeal. Potatoes transplant 
freely, if the roots are preserved ; and aU 
the perennial crops, such as asparagus, 
sea-kale, &c., are benefited by the opera- 
tion. " It is easy thus to see," Mr Loudon 
very justly observes {Sub. Hort. p. 621), 
"that by the transplanting system half 
the garden-ground will sufiice that is 
requisite for the sowing system ; and as- 
a proof of the economy of this system 
generally, it may be observed that it is 
the one followed by all the market-gar- 
deners in the neighbourhood of London. 
Another advantage attendant on the 
transplanting system — more especially in 
the case of esculents, the leaves of which 
are the parts used — is, that the plants, 
being deprived of part of their tap-root, 
throw out a greater number of lateral 
roots, in consequence of which the pro- 
duction of radical leaves is encouraged, 
and the tendency to run to flower is re- 
tarded; while a more succulent growth 
is induced, owing to the plants being 
placed in newly-prepared soil." Unne- 
cessary cutting or lacerating of the roots 
should not, on these accounts, be tolerated. 
The only instance that strikes us at the 
moment, where a shortening of the roots 

by the knife is justifiable, is in the case 
of some of the cabbage tribe reared from 
seed in very poor soil : such, having a ten- 
dency to throw down tap-roots in search 
of food, may with great propriety be 
shortened at transplanting. 

In every operation of transplanting the 
esculent productions of the kitchen-gar- 
den, regard must be paid to the preser- 
vation of the spongiolets, and this the 
more so when the operation is to be 
carried out without checking the growth 
or vigour of the plant, as in transplant- 
ing lettuces at any age. (For reasons, see 
Transplanting, Fruit -Garden). Nor 
should any curtailment take place in the 
foliage, unless of such parts as may be 
accidentally broken or bruised during 
the operation. 

In regard to soil, some have gone so 
far as to recommend a different soil 
in the garden for its various products; 
this has long been proved to be not 
only unnecessary, but absurd. To carry 
out such views in the cultivation of the 
parsnip, for example, it would, accord- 
ing to them, be requisite to transport a 
section of one of the chalk hills of Kent, 
Sussex, or Hampshire, for their especial 
use ; and for sea-kale, to transport a sand- 
bank from the sea-shore for a similar 
purpose. The chemical relationship 
seems to cease — that is to say, if it ever 
existed to the extent that plants growing 
on calcareous soils, or on siliceous ones 
either, will not grow in other soils deficient 
in, or actually devoid of, such chemical 
constituents — as soon as plants are taken 
under the fostering care of man ; and few 
or none refuse to grow to far greater per- 
fection in good garden soil, than they are 
anywhere to be found in their natural 
habitats. The samphire may be an ex- 
ception to this rule ; nevertheless we have 
had it growing amongst a collection of 
native plants in pots, in common soil, for 
many years. There has been a great deal 
too much attempted to be made of the 
relationship between plants and the 
chemical constituents of their native 
soil, by our flower-pot experimentalists, as 
well as of chalking out, according to the 
rules of latitude, longitude, and altitude, 
the prosperity of our fruit trees, and their 
periods of ripening their fruit. To this, 
reference will be made in its proper place. 
Meanwhile we say, in a good staple soil. 



on a dry bottom, highly manured and 
well trenched, and exposed to the weather, 
every esculent man has adopted may be 
grown, under proper management, to the 
highest degree of perfection. Fuller de- 
tails on this subject wiU be given under 
each vegetable, &c. discussed. 


In treating on the culture and manage- 
ment of culinary vegetables, it would, no 
doubt, be desirable were a classification 
or systematic arrangement of them esta- 
blished, if for no other end than that of 
rendering reference to them more conve- 
nient. This has been attempted, but 
never satisfactorily accomplished ; nor do 
we believe such an arrangement possible, 
from the circumstance of so many of the 
plants under this head being used for 
different purposes, and many having no 
point of union in culture, position in the 
garden, season of sowing, planting, use, ifec. 

The following arrangement, so far as it 
goes, may be useful in this respect, viz. : — 

Alliaceous plants, comprehending the 
shallot, garlic, rocambole, onion, leek, and 

Leguminous plants. — Pea, bean, French 
bean, and scarlet runner. 

Brassicaceous plants. — White and red 

cabbage, Gouve tronchuda or Portugal 
cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels 
sprouts, savoys, boricoles or winter greens, 
and sea-kale. 

Asparaginous jofo»«5.— Asparagus, alisan- 
ders, cardoon, globe artichoke. 

Spinaceous plants.— Common spinach. 
New Zealand spinach, and white beet, &c. 

Acetariacious plants. — Lettuce, endive, 
succory, dandelion, sorrel, tarragon, bur- 
net, celery, mustard, curled and plain 
cress, water-cress, American cress, winter 
cress, Normandy cress, Indian cress, 
purslain, chervil, rape, corn salad, radish, 

Esculent-rooted plants. — Carrot, turnip, 
potato, Jerusalem artichoke, red beet, 
skirret, scorzonera, salsify, parsnip, Ham- 
burg parsley. 

dleraceous plants, comprehending pars- 
ley, dill, borage, thyme, sage, clary, balm, 
mint, costmary, tansy, basil, savory, mar- 
joram, anise, caraway, coriander, an- 
gelica, &c. 

Medicinal plants. — Chamomile, elecam- 
pane, wormwood, rue, hyssop, and others. 

Edible fungi. — Mushroom, truffle, and 

Miscellaneous, not referable to amy of the 
above sections, but used in confectionary 
and domestic economy.— Rhubarb, love 
apple or tomato, egg plant, gourd, capsi- 
cum, marigold, liquorice, rosemary, la- 
vender, horse-radish, &c. 




Natural History. — The shallot (AlUvm, asca- 
lonicum L.) belongs to the natural order Aspho- 
delese, and the class Hexandria,aud order Mono- 
gynia, in the Linnean arrangement. The order 
AsphodelesB contains about five hundred and 
twenty species, the majority of which inhabit 
the temperate, and even the colder regions, 
few of them comparatively being found within 
the tropics. The genus Allium (derived from 
the Celtic all, hot or burning) comprises one 
hundred and twenty-six species, eleven only 
of which have as yet been found worth cultiva- 
tion, and of those the subjects now to be treated 
of — namely, the shallot, garlic, rocambole, 
onion, leek, and chive — are in most repute. 
Many of the species are, however, very pretty, 
and, notwithstanding their unpleasant odour, 
have found a place in our flower borders. The 
roots of all the genus are eatable, and those of 
some — the onion, for example — rank among the 
most useful articles of food. None of the 
family are even suspected of possessing delete- 
rious properties. 

The shallot is indigenous to Palestine, abound- 
ing in the neighbourhood of Ascalon, from 
which circumstance the specific name, ascaloni- 
cwn, has been given. It is often written eschalot; 
it was also formerly called scalion, evidently a 
corruption of Ascalon, from whence it came. It 
was introduced to Britain in 1548 — by whom or 
how we have no record left. 

Uses.- — On account of the mildness of its 
flavour, compared with that of our other culti- 
vated Alliums, it is preferred in cookery as a 
seasoner in stews and soups. It is also much 
used in a raw state; the cloves or sections of 
the root, cut up into small pieces, form an 
ingredient in French salads, and are also 
sprinkled over steaks, chops, &c. The true 
epicure, however, cuts a clove in two, and by 
rubbing the inside of the plate, secures the 
amount of relish to suit his palate. Shallot 
vinegar is made by putting six cloves into a 
quart bottle of that liquid ; and when sealed 
down, it will keep for years. It also makes 
an excellent pickle. It has been in use since 
the days of Pliny, who says " the Ascalonian 
onions are proper for sauce." 

Propagation. — The shallot is easily 
propagated, each bulb being formed of 
several parts, called cloves, which, when 
separated, form each a new plant, afford- 
ing a peculiar instance of the mode which 
nature has adopted in fulfilling her laws 
for the renewal of the species. The shallot, 
being a native of the warmer climate of 
Syria, seldom if ever produces seed in 
Britain, and hence would ultimately be- 
come extinct, were this or some other 
viviparous process not devised, by which 
they are enabled to continue themselves. 

Planting. — The proper season for plant- 
ing is autumn, either during October 
or November, as much of the success 
depends on early planting — a practice 
recommended by Mai'shall nearly a cen- 
tury ago, and revived by Henderson, 
who, in a communication to the Cale- 
donian Horticultural Society {vide vol. 
i. p. 199, of their "Memoirs"), says in 
reference to securing this crop from the 
attacks of maggots, "autumn planting 
is the whole secret." Subsequent expe- 
rience has so far proved the correctness 
of this recommendation. 

In light, well- pulverised soils, the 
cloves or sets should be planted in lines, 
twelve inches asunder, and the cloves 
four inches apart. In preparing the 
ground, after being trenched or very 
deeply dug, it should be gathered up 
in ridges of the above distance, and four 
inches in height. On the top of these 
the roots should be set, and merely 
slightly covered. In strong clayey soils, 
also, after being deeply trenched or dug, 
draw drills fifteen inches asunder and 
three inches deep; fill them up to the 
surface with light sandy compost, upon 
which set the bulbs, and cover them 



■with the same, in a ridge-like form, to 
the depth of two inches. In medium 
soils, this preparation is unnecessary, as 
the plant is extremely hardy (at least no 
frost affects it in its dormant state). A 
row twenty feet in length will be sufficient 
supply for a small family : this at the 
distance given will require eighty cloves, 
and so in proportion for greater breadths. 
No bulb should be planted deep ; they 
should rest on the surface of the ground. 
Their roots proper (for a bulb is not a 
root) will penetrate the soil in quest of 
food ; and many of them, unlike most 
other plants, send their roots down in 
a perpendicular direction (the hyacinth, 
grown in water-glasses, affords a familiar 
example), while the bulb is exposed to 
the influence of sun, light, and air. In 
shallow soils, planting on ridges has the 
advantage of affording greater depth than 
that naturally presented. Knight paid 
great attention to the cultivation of this 
plant, and strongly recommended surface, 
and even elevation planting, assigning as 
a reason the exposure of the bulbs to the 
warming influence of the sun during 
their growing season. By merely draw- 
ing a little soil around the bulbs at plant- 
ing, to keep them steady in their places, 
the rains of winter, and the necessary use 
of the hoe, to keep down weeds and pre- 
serve the surface open, removes the soil 
gathered round them, when the bulbs 
will appear seated on the surface, which 
is their natural and proper position. 

Subsequent cultivation. — Their subse- 
quent management consists in repeated 
hoeing between the rows, to keep down 
weeds and maintain the soil open. 

Soil and manures. — The soil natural, 
and consequently best fitted, for shallots, 
is a rich, deep, sandy alluvial deposit, of 
itself sufficiently rich without the addi- 
tion of manure, to which most bulbous 
plants appear to have a great repugnance. 
If manure is to be added, in the absence of 
such conditions, that of the most decom- 
posed description should be employed. 
It is better, therefore, to plant shallots on 
ground which has been manured for the 
previous crop, such as early celery, and in 
which the manure has been completely 
incorporated by the process, first of digging 
up the celery, and afterwards by trench- 
ing it two feet or more in depth. If the 
ground is so poor as actually to require 

manure for this crop, then it should be 
buried in not less than ten or twelve 
inches under where the bases of the bulbs 
are placed. The roots will reach it, and 
their spongiolets collect it at the very 
time the bulbs most require fertilising 
aid. Pigeon dung is an excellent manure 
to be applied to the roots of shallots ; and 
guano and other modern fertilisers may 
with advantage be applied even on the 
surface, but not until the plants have 
made considerable progress in their 
growth, when they may be laid on during, 
or, what is better, immediately before rain, 
so that they may be carried down in a 
soluble state to the roots. A better way 
still is to apply them in a liquid state, 
which will assist in washing the soil from 
the bulbs, and invigorate the plants at the 
same time. 

Taking the crop, and subsequent pre- 
servation. — When the leaves begin to 
assume a yellowish colour, and droop 
towards the ground, it indicates that the 
season of growth has reached its termi- 
nation. Upon a dry day pull the crop, 
and arrange it thinly on boards placed so 
as to be partially shaded from the full 
sun, for too rapid drying would be inju- 
rious to it. While there, protect from 
wet ; and when sufficiently dry for housing, 
remove the loose and most decayed leaves 
onl^, and place them on the shelves of the 
onion-loft, which, at that period, will be 
unoccupied. Look over them frequently, 
and remove all decaying bulbs, and the 
greater part of the now dried-up foliage. 
Part may be tied up in small bundles of 
a dozen or two of bulbs each, and sus- 
pended from the under side of the shelves, 
or otherwise if more convenient. Those 
from which the leaves have entirely sepa- 
rated may be placed thinly on the shelves, 
or put into nets suspended from the roof. 
In October or November following, those 
bulbs which have been best ripened should 
be selected for planting, and the remain- 
ing stock kept moderately cool, well ven- 
tilated, and not crowded together. The 
usual season of their ripening is in July 
and August: this depends, however,greatly 
on situation. 

List of approved sorts, and their qualities. — 
There appear to be in cultivation two varieties 
of shallots — the common and the Russian. The 
former keeps best ; while the latter is consider- 
ably larger, and milder in flavour. A fair-sized 
bulb of the former, when ripe, should measure 



about three inches and a half in diameter, and 
the latter about an inch more. The Allium 
ascalonicum, var. majus of botanists, is, we be- 
lieve, identical with the Russian. A long-keeping 
variety — said to keep for two years, is spoken of. 
We have had this sort, at least one so called, but 
could never see any difference in it, either as to 
keeping, or in size or form, from the Russian, 
with which we believe it to be identical. 

Insects and diseases. — The principal, if not 
the only, disease the shallot is liable to is the 
attack of a maggot, generally found under 
the bulb, which soon becomes covered with 
a mouldy appearance, and speedily after- 
wards rots away. This is probably not diffe- 
rent from Anthomyia oeparum, Meig., the com- 
mon onion-fly, which see. Planting on the 
surface, or indeed on raised ridges, as recom- 
mended by Knight, had for its chief object the 
prevention of this disease. Imbedding the 
bulbs at planting in finely-sifted charcoal has 
also been recommended. In our present state 
of information regarding the habits of this insect, 
there can be no doubt that collecting the plants 
upon their indicating the fii'st symptoms of the 
disease, and burning them, will have the effect 
of greatly reducing the number of insects in 
succeeding years. Spirits of tar dug into the 
ground at planting, and salt, soot, nitrate of 
soda, watering with lime-water, as soon as the 
leaves begin to flag during the heat of the sun, 
which is indicative of the first attack, as well as 
urine and guano water copiously applied, have 
all in their turn been repeatedly tried; and 
wherever a marked benefit was discovered, it 
in all cases depended on the remedies being 
applied upon the very first appearance of the 
disease. — {Vide art. Onion.) 

Botrytis destructor (Berk) makes its first ap- 
pearance as a white mould or mildew upon 
various kinds of Alliums, and often destroys the 
whole crop, particularly shallots. On its first 
appearance, the infected leaves should be cut 
off and burned : all other attempts at destroying 
it in a more perfect state appear to be hopeless. 

General Remarks. — Shallots, till within these 
few years, were little cultivated in Scotland, 
excepting in some of the first-rate gardens. In 
the markets, they were unknown, the onion and 
the leek being the only alUaceous esculents in 
demand. They have only to a limited extent 
found their way into the gardens of cottagers 
and small families even in England, a circum- 
stance to be regi-etted, as they are exceedingly 
wholesome, communicating an agreeable flavour 
to many of our commonest dishes ; and the 
supply for a family can be grown on a very 
limited extent of ground compared with the 
onion or the leek. All over Europe they are 
much more extensively cultivated and esteemed, 
and in some countries rank higher than the 
onion, their near ally. In France they are called 
Echalotte or Ail sterile; in Germany, Schalotte 
or Aschlauch ; in Holland, Chalot or Sjalotte ; 
in Italy, Scalogni or CipoUe malige ; in Spain, 
Escalonia or Ohalote; in Denmark, Scalotlogeny 
in Sweden, Chalottenlok. 

A curious instance of the transmutation of 
the shallot into the onion has recently occurred 

in the grounds of Messrs Hardy and Sons, Mal- 
don, Essex. " The transmuted shallots, or rather 
onions, raised by us from shallot-seed, did not 
produce potato-onions, as it was presumed they 
might, but numerous heads of seed varying from 
ten to twenty from a single bulb. They cer- 
tainly possess the qualities of both onions and 
shallots in flavour, the size of the onions, and 
the fact of their being divisable like shallots; the 
blade is very narrow, partaking of both species ; 
the seed is small." — Messrs Hardy's Letter. 
Plants have been raised from this transmuta- 
tion, and grown in the garden of the Horticul- 
tural Society of London, and the following are 
the results, as given in the Journal of that 
Society: — "The seed was sown on the 20th 
March, and produced a mixed race, varying in 
size, form, and colour. Some were regularly 
formed by concentric layers like an onion. 
Sometimes the formation consists of two closely 
conjoined, compressed, but separate btilbs, and 
frequently clusters are produced very like shal- 
lots. The colour, in some, approaches that of 
the silver-skinned onion, in others the blood-red, 
but the generality are reddish brown. They 
are strong flavoured, and have the appearance 
of being good keepers." They, however, want 
imiformity in size and colour, but, by judicious 
selection, a useful, soimd, keeping variety may 
probably be produced. The circumstance is 
curious, and strongly favours opinions at present 
attracting considerable attention, and which 
may ere long overturn the long-established doc- 
trine of the permanent distinctions supposed to 
constitute what is called species in plants. 

Shallots are sold by weight. One lb. contains 
about twenty ordinary-sized bulbs. 

§ 2. — GARLIC. 

Natwral history. — Garlic, Allium sativum 
(from Satimim, cultivated), L., belongs to the 
same natural order, and class and order in the 
Linnsean arrangement, as the shallot. It is a 
native of Sicily, the south of France, and most 
of the south of Europe, being found growing in 
meadows, pastures, and waste places. It has 
been cultivated in this country since prior to 
1548. Old Thomas Tusser notices it as culti- 
vated in the time of Queen Mary. His twelfth 
verse for the month of November says, " Set 
garlic and beans at St Edmund the King." 

Uses. — The roots of garlic (the only parts used) 
held a place in most of our early pharmaco- 
poeias, but, like many other of our vegetable 
medicines, have been little used by modern 
practitioners. Sydenham recommended its use 
in the first stages of dropsy, as being a warm, 
strengthening medicine. He also recommended 
it as a powerful resolvent, " for which purpose," 
Phillips infoims us (vol. ii. p. 24), " he was led to 
make use of it in the confluent, smallpox. His 
method was to cut the root in pieces, and apply 
it, tied in a linen cloth, to the soles of the feet, 
about the eighth day of the disease, after the face 
began to swell, renevdng it once a-day till the 
danger was over." It is held a sovereign remedy 




against intestinal worms by many a good house- 
wife at the present day, cloves of it being steeped 
in whisky, and administered in the morning to 
the patient fasting — a remedy probably founded 
on the experiments made by Bosenteiu and 
Tissot, who say that garlic " is capable of ex- 
pelling worms, especially the tenia." From the 
earliest ages it has been employed in medicine 
as well as for culinary purposes. It is much 
used in foreign cookery, especially in the south 
of Europe, confirming what Haller says of it, 
" that the inhabitants of all hot countries are 
fond of garlic." In many parts of the Continent 
the peasantry eat their brown bread with slices of 
garlic, which imparts a flavour agreeable to them ; 
but in the midst of a garlic-eating people, they 
are well off whose sense of smell is most slightly 
developed. In Britain it is seldom employed as 
a culinary ingredient, and then seldom served 
up in a solid state, the cloves being put in a small 
bag, and left in for a short time during cooking, 
and then taken out when the necessary amount 
of flavour has been communicated to the dish. 

The mode of propagation, season of 
planting, subsequent culture, soil, manures, 
diseases, insects, taking up the crop and 
subsequent preservation, are all identically 
the same as for shallots. 

Approved sorts and their qualities. — There 
is one sort only cultivated in Britain as a 
culinary plant — the common garlic. PhilUps, 
however, says, in " History of Cuhnary Vege- 
tables," vol. ii. p. 26, " Besides the common gar- 
lic. Allium satiwm, the African garlic, Agracile, 
is now cultivated by our gardeners. This," he 
continues, "has been erroneously termed Jamaica 
garlic, from the circumstance of * the seeds hav- 
ing been sent from Jamaica to England.' " It is 
not a native of the West Indies, but was brought 
from Africa to Jamaica, and is the same de- 
scribed by Pliny (book 19, chap. 6), which he 
says grows larger than the other garlic. He 
(Pliny) tells us that this kind of garlic was never 
planted in level ground, but on little hillocks 
hke mole-hills, and that, as soon as they had 
shown their leaves, the mould was taken away 
from them; for the oftener they were laid bare, 
the larger the heads would grow. We make 
this reference, jirst, to show that what was 
regarded as a new feature in shallot-culture 
brought out by Knight, and published in the 
" Horticultural Society's Transactions," vol. ii. 
p. 98, was the usual mode of cultivating its near 
kinsman, the garlic, in the days of Pliny ; and, 
secondly, to say that of this Jamaica garlic of 
large size we know nothing. Where attention is 
paid to culture, the common garlic will attain a 
size 74 inches in circumference each bulb ; where- 
as, if grown, as it usually is, in the most negligent 
manner possible, it does not attain half that size. 
More attention is paid to its cultivation on the 
Continent than with us, in consequence of its 
being so much more in demand ; and hence im- 
ported bulbs are much larger than those of home 
growth. In Italy it is known by the name Aglio ; 
in Holland, Knoflock or Look; in France, Ail; 
in Spain, Ajo; in Germany, Knoblauch; Alho 

in Portuguese, Tschesnok in Russian. In Wales, 
most of the alliaceous esculents have been and 
are more generally grown for domestic use than 
in any other part of Britain. Worlidge, writing 
early in the seventeenth century, speaking of 
that principality, says, " I have seen the greater 
part of a garden there stored with leeks, and a 
pax't of the remainder with onions and garlic." 
Twenty ordinary-sized bulbs weigh one lb. 

§ 3. — EOCAMBOLE. 

Natural history. — Rocambole, Allium Sco- 
rodoprasum (from irKopoSov, garlic, and irpairov, 
leek, as if it combined the garlic and leek), L., 
belongs to the same natural order, and class and 
order in the Linn^ean arrangement, as the last. 
It is a native of Denmark and many other parts 
of the north of Europe, and appears to have 
been early introduced to Britain, as we find it 
mentioned by Gerard in his " Herbal " as a 
cultivated plant in 1 596. 

Uses. — It is used for nearly the same culi- 
nary purposes as the shallot and garlic, is milder 
in flavour than either of them, but is employed 
to a very limited extent even in famihes of the 
highest order. 

Mode of propagation, Sfc. — Its mode' 
of propagation is the same as that of 
garlic and shallot; only, as it sometimes, 
produces cauline bulbs — that is, small 
bulbs upon the stem — they are, in cases of 
a deficiency of underground bulbs, used 
as a substitute both for use and planting.. 
The whole routine of culture, preserva- 
tion, &c., is the same as for the two last. 

Varieties, <bc. — There is only one sort culti- 
vated in Britain. 

It is to be met with in Covent Garden market 
in small quantities. In the Continental markets 
it is rather more abimdant, and is, as a conse- 
quence, more employed in cooking. The French 
call it Ail d'Espagna; the Italians, Scorodopraso; 
the Germans, RocamboUem ; in Holland, Wile 
Knoftook ; iu Spain, Especie de Ajo dulce. 

§ 4. — THE ONION. 

Natural histoi-y. — The Onion, Allium Cepa 
(from Celtic, Gep, head), L., belongs to the same 
natural order, and class and order in the Lin- 
nseau arrangement as the last three. Its native 
country is as unknown as is the birthplace of 
Homer. Spain has been named ; that is, how- 
ever, highly improbable, as the plant has been 
known and used as an article of food from the 
remotest ages of antiquity. Of one thing we 
are certain : it constituted an important article 
of food long before the exodus of the Israelites 
out of Egypt ; for among the complaints made to 
Moses in the wilderness was, that they were de- 
prived of the leeks, onions, and garlic, of which, 
said the murmurers, " we remember we did eat 



ill Egypt freely." — Numb. xi. 5. Egypt is to 
this day famed for the superiority and sweet- 
ness of its onions, in comparison with those of 
, Europe — a result, by the way, with which cli- 
mate may have much to do, as those of Por- 
tugal are much more palatable than the same 
variety grown in Britain ; and there is an evi- 
dent difference, in respect to the mildness of 
flavour, between those grown in Cornwall and 
in the Highlands of Scotland. The onion must 
be a native of the East ; and as mankind and 
civilisation travelled westward, so they would 
bring with them this ancient and popular pot 
herb. The compiler of the last edition of the 
" Hortus Britannicus," whose means and indus- 
try in research were undoubtedly great, neither 
gives the date of its introduction, nor states its 
native country. It has, however, been an in- 
mate of our British gardens as long as they de- 
serve the appellation. Pliny, who mentions, in 
book XX. chap. 5, aU the countries from whence 
the Greeks as well as the Romans procured dif- 
ferent varieties of this plant, says he could not 
discover that they ever grew wild. 

Uses. — The uses to which the onion is ap- 
plied in domestic economy are so many, and of 
so varied a character, that a reference to a cook- 
ery-book would be required to discover probably 
one-half of them. Our present purpose may be 
served by stating that, when fully grown, they 
are used stewed alone, and also boiled and 
roasted. In their young state, from the time 
they are as large as an ordinary needle, until 
they attain the height of five or six inches, they 
are used in mixed salads, and for this purpose 
they are sown once a-week throughout the sea- 
son. When about the size of a writing-quill, 
they are devoured in astonishing quantities by 
the humbler classes, who eat them raw, with 
bread and butter, or with bread and cheese. 
Even when fully grown, the labourer finds a 
wholesome relish in them, when cut into trans- 
verse slices and eaten in the same manner. In 
many parts of the Continent the humbler classes 
of artisans bring with them in the morning a 
small canvass-bag, containing a huge slice of 
brown bread, a large apple, or a moderate-sized 
onion. This homely fare forms his sustenance 
throughout the day ; and he devours it with as 
much gusto and satisfaction as the higher-fed 
English labourer swallows his slice of home- 
baked bread, with its usual accompaniment, a 
rasher of raw bacon ; while the Caledonian of 
the same status munches his piece of oat cake 
(without Mtchen), and washes down the dry 
morsel with a draught of Adam's wine. The 
Scot is not avegetarian, and cannot be persuaded 
to eat green m^at; and here, with all his shrewd- 
ness and economy, he is at fault. We hope our 
countrymen have not been led away by what 
the author of the "Gryte Herbal" saith hereon: 
^" The onion being eaten, yea, though it be 
boiled, causeth headache, hurteth the eyes, and 
maketh a man dim-sighted; duUeth the senses, 
engendereth windiness, and provoketh over- 
much sleep, especially being eaten rawe. Being 
rawe, they nourish not at all, and but a little 
though they be boiled." 

The witty and satirical Dean Swift says — 

*' This is every cook's opinion, 
No savoury disli witliout an onion ; 
But lest your liissing should he spoiled. 
Your onions should be thoroughly boiled.'' 

Our immortal bard did not overlook their tear- 
bringing property. He says — 

** If the boy have not a woman's gift 
To rain a shower of commanded tears. 
An onion will do well." 

Mode of propagation. — The general mode 
of propagating the onion is by seed. There 
are a few of the species, however, which 
do not ripen their seeds freely, and these 
are propagated by other means. These 
will be noticed in their rotation. 

The onion being with us an annual 
crop, the seed system of propagation is 
followed, and those varieties which are 
propagated otherwise are, in general, 
dependent on the bulbs which form on 
the top of the stem, as in the case of what 
is called the tree-bearing onion, from its 
producing viviparous bulbs at the top 
of the stalk, or in that of the potato- 
onion, which produces offsets under 
ground, rendering them capable of being 
continued without the aid of seed. Some- 
times, again, the very small and imper.- 
fectly-formed bulbs are chosen for re- 
planting, and from these fine crops of 
large well-formed bulbs have been pro- 
duced. There are other modes of propa- 
gating the onion, but the processes of 
them are so truly scientific as not to come 
within the sphere of profitable culture. 
Although usually treated as an annual 
when grown for its bulb, or as a biennial 
when cultivated for seed, it is, in fact, 
naturally a perennial, and continues itself 
by ofisets as well as by seed. The seed 
usually germinates in about a fortnight 
in ordinary mild weather. 

Planting and sowing. — The season for 
sowing varies so much from the differ- 
ence of the natural seasons, the wide 
differences of soils, climates, and situa- 
tions, that no precise date can be given 
applicable to all places and circum- 
stances. In our early days the 2d of 
February was looked upon as the advent 
of onion-sowing; of later years it has 
been the middle of April before the ope- 
ration could be commenced — a delay occa- 
sioned solely in consequence of the ground-* 
being either frozen or too much saturated 
by wet. This delay, however, has less in- 
fluence on the time at which the crop 
comes to maturity than might be at first 



supposed. Early sowing has, neverthe- 
less, its advantages, one of which, and an 
important one too, is, that germination 
takes place slowly, the roots take the 
advance of the leaves, and, by their 
doing so, they are stronger and more 
numerous; and, consequently, when the 
invigorating effects of the advancing sun 
begin to act upon the foliage, they are 
in a condition to provide and throw into 
the system of the young plant a much 
greater quantity of nourishment than 
they could do if vegetation commenced 
in both simultaneously, which would be 
the case if not sown before the middle of 
April, when the air becomes warmed by 
solar influence. Another advantage has 
been stated as arising from early sowing, 
which is the greater strength communi- 
cated to the plant, and hence its greater 
ability to resist the attacks of insects. 
This view seems strengthened in the case 
of autumnal-sown onions, which seldom 
are attacked by the grub, because they 
are not only stronger, but have attained 
a greater degree of pungency before the 
season at which the insects are hatched. 
Late-sown onions have of late years often 
been cut ofi' by spring frosts just as they 
were coming through the ground, or 
when they are about a couple of inches 
in height. The more rapid process of 
vegetation induced by those warm sunny 
days we now so often experience during the 
month of April, makes the young plants 
rush up rapidly, and in this tender state 
they faU a ready sacrifice to the sharp 
frosts which so often in the mornings 
succeed those warm sunny days. Where 
vegetation proceeds more slowly, and 
where it influences the roots sooner than 
the tops, the plants not only become 
better inured to the cold, but, should it 
even prove severe, the strength thrown 
into the plants by the roots enables them 
much better to resist its effects. 

No positive date can be given as to the 
day or week, nay, even month, that the 
operation should be performed, suitable 
to all soils, situations, and circumstances; 
the condition of the soil should, however, 
never be disregarded. In this, as in all 
other cases of seed-sowing, the soil can 
never be too dry, nor too much pulver- 
ised ; and this is more especially the case 
in all cold, damp, and strong clayey soils. 
In the neighbourhood of towns, where the 

soil is highly enriched, and contains a 
large amount of humus, and where, as in 
the case of commercial gardens, it is 
thoroughly wrought by repeated trench- 
ing and digging, the beginning of Feb- 
ruary may be taken as a good time for 
sowing, provided both the weather and 
soil are in a fit state. In all cold elevated 
situations, and where the soil is wet and 
in an imperfect state of culture, then the 
middle of March will be a more proper 
season, and in the worst situations of all, 
the beginning of April. 

Autumnal sowing has not only the 
advantages stated above, but also that of 
affording during winter a supply of young 
onions for salad purposes, as well as for 
being used in French cookery, particu- 
larly in the artistic preparation of that 
not -to -be -despised viand, a properly 
cooked rump-steak, which is amazingly 
improved by being served up covered 
with young onions, cut up into the small- 
est possible fragments. Onions are also 
sown in autumn, say about the middle of 
August ; and where they withstand the 
winter, they are transplanted in March 
or the beginning of April, according to 
the circumstances of soil, &c., stated 
above, in lines a foot asunder, setting the 
plants six inches apart in the row. These, 
having the start of the spring-sown crop, 
bulb earlier, furnishing a supply after 
those from the onion-room have been 
consumed, and carrying on the supply 
till the spring-sown crop arrives at matu- 
rity. The best formed and best ripened 
bulbs of the autumn-sown crop are se- 
lected, and reserved for winter use, and 
fill the shelves of the onion-room long 
before the general crop is fit for storing. 
Many adopt the autumn sowing and 
spring transplanting, believing the onions 
so produced keep better than the others. 
This may be accounted for by their being 
more thoroughly ripened, during July 
and August, than the general crop, which 
ripens at a much later and more unfavour- 
able season. We ought, however, to ob- 
serve, that all autiman-sown crops of this 
plant, intended to arrive at maturity, 
should be transplanted. 

The best mode of sowing the onion 
is in drills from nine to twelve, and 
even fifteen inches apart, according to 
the soil, and the size the crop is likely 
to arrive at. In poor soils, where the 



bulbs usually do not much exceed the 
size of a large walnut, the former distance 
will be sufficient ; when they are to attain 
their fullest size, which they will do in 
rich, well-wrought ground, and in a 
medium climate, then the latter distance 
will not be too much, because the foliage 
requires room for development, and a full 
exposure on all sides to the influences of 
light and air, without which they could 
not elaborate the necessary amount of 
sap required for the perfect enlargement 
of the bulbs. This is clearly demon- 
strated in the case of onions sown thickly 
in a bed, and allowed to remain so, com- 
pared with the same sort grown in the 
drill manner, and allowed sufficient room. 
The latter will bulb, the former will not 
at all J but at the termination of their 
growing season, they will resemble more 
the character of the leek than the onion. 
In this state, they justly come under the 
denomination of sybo or scallion, or im- 
perfect onion — ^that is, having leaves and 
stalk, but no bulb. In forming the drills, 
after the ground has been broken by 
being raked over deeply, and reduced to 
a pretty fine state of pulverisation, the 
line is stretched from end to end of the 
ground, and the drill opened with the 
comer of a sharp clean draw-hoe, the face 
of which is directed towards the line, the 
operator standing on the side still to be 
drilled, by which means the drills are 
left entire and open. Various contrivances 
have been employed to economise time 
in this operation. The drill-rake (fig. 1) 
is one of the simplest and most efficient, 
and is constructed of a headpiece, like 
that of a common rake, only double 
the size, into which broad flat wooden 
teeth are set, ta- 
peringto wards the 
points, and at such 
distance apart as 
the drills are to 
be drawn. Some- 
times the head is 
in two flat pieces, 
to admit of the 
teeth being set at difierent distances, to 
adapt it to difierent crops, according to the 
distance the rows are to be apart, these 
pieces being screwed together at each 
end; or if more than three drills are to be 
drawn at once, a third screw is placed in 
the middle. Others use a head perforated 


with small holes, one inch apart, into 
which the tops of the teeth are set, and 
fixed at any required distance. We use, 
attached to Sievewright's cultivator, 
which runs on a small wheel behind and 
another in front, a transverse iron bar 
perforated with holes, cut with female- 
screws within, to receive the tops of the 
drill-forming teeth, which are cut with 
male-screws, so as to work in the others. 
By this means we can draw at once six 
or eight drills, and at any distance re- 
quired : one man draws the machine, and 
another guides it behind. In either case 
it is necessary to set ofi' the first drill 
with a line, afterwards the drill-tooth on 
the right-hand side should be made to 
travel over the last drill formed. This 
keeps the drills straight and equidistant. 
Such appliances work, however, best in 
light dry ground, and in such as are in a 
highly cultivated state, and free from 

Onion-seed is in general sown too 
deep ; 1^ inches is amply sufficient, and 
even one inch has been found by some 
growers to be better. Abercrombie, 
were it not that he recommends broad- 
cast sowing (that is, promiscuously over 
the whole surface), is correct as to depth. 
He says, "sow broadcast equally over 
the rough surface, moderately thick, and 
raJce in the seed in a regular manner." 
Some good cultivators, after the ground 
has been properly dug or trenched, lay 
very rotten manure over the surface, and 
on this they sow the seed, covering 
it slightly with earth from the alleys. 
This would be a very excellent plan, 
could the seed be disposed of in lines, 
and kept in them during the process of 
covering. All broadcast sowing, in the 
case of such crops, is far behind the pre- 
sent state of high cultivation : it is, how- 
ever, not ill adapted to the limited scale 
of a manse or cotter's garden. The prin- 
ciple of deeply stirring the soil, and plac- 
ing on its surface the necessary manurial 
application equally over it, is perfectly 
correct. It is thus in the most favour- 
able position for its fertilising properties 
reaching the points of the roots, as it will 
be washed down to them by the rains ; 
and they are the parts to which enrich- 
ment, to be useful, should be applied. 
The London market-gardeners sow their 
principal crop in February or the begin- 



ning of March, on beds five feet wide, and 
in the broadcast manner, covering the seed 
with soil from the alleys. They rake the 
ground, and draw a wooden roller over it. 
The mode of planting depends on 
circumstances — namely, whether young 
plants of the current year, those of last 
autumn's sowing, or the smallest bulbs 
selected from the preceding crop, are 
to be operated on. In the case of the 
former, the seed should be sown about the 
beginning of Febraary, in light, rich, 
sandy soil, placed over a hotbed of mode- 
rate temperature — say of 45° ; or they 
may be sown in what is called a cold pit 
or frame — that is, a struotui-e having no 
artificial bottom-heat, but depending en- 
tirely on solar heat transmitted through 
a glass covering. Towards the end of 
April, if the weather has set in favourable, 
the young plants should be carefully 
taken up, without injury being done to 
either their tender tops or equally tender 
fibres, and transferred to the open quar- 
ter of the garden — the ground being pre- 
viously prepared by trenching or deep 
digging, and in a high state of enrich- 
ment from the manure applied to the 
preceding crop — say celery. The pro- 
cess of planting in most cases — in this one 
in particular — ^is most advantageously 
carried out by proceeding in the follow- 
ing manner ; and as it is in the main 
applicable to the planting of all other 
crops, it deserves, for the benefit of ama- 
teurs, a clear explanation : — The ground 
being, it is presumed, already trenched 
and manured, commence at one side of 
the quarter or piece of ground to be 
planted ; break down the surface with 
a wooden rake to a moderate evenness of 
surface, and freedom from clods and stones. 
Stretch the garden line from end to end 
perpendicular to the cross walks, or paral- 
lel with the adjoining crops or walk, so 
that the rows, while growing, shall appear 
as if laid down corresponding with other 
straight lines, as if they had been drawn 
by a parallel ruler ; for nothing looks 
worse, when viewing the crops in a gar- 
den from the principal walks, than to see 
the lines of crops in the quarter or divi- 
sion nearest to the point of obsei-vation 
running five points to the east or south, 
while those in the piece adjoining are 
running as many points in an opposite 
direction. This being done, beat the sur- 

face of the ground, for about the breadth 
of nine inches, gently down with the back 
of a spade, so that the whole shall be 
smooth and level. Commence at the end 
of the line, or at difierent points, accord- 
ing to the number of men employed. The 
young plants are laid in shallow boxes, 
covered over with moss, or any other light 
covering sufficient to exclude the air 
while they are yet unplanted ; each man 
having a box, and no more plants 
brought out than can be planted within 
an hour or so. They are then to be set 
in holes made by a small blunt dibber, 
about as thick as the little finger, and 
not above an eighth of an inch deeper 
than where they have been growing, 
and at the distance of 5 inches apart in 
the row. If, however, there is ah ap- 
prehension of the maggot, or of other 
injuries befalling them, they may be 
set at double thickness, as it will be 
better to thin out in May every alternate 
plant, than to have to make up deficien- 
cies. When the first row is planted, the 
line should be removed ; and in doing 
this some caution is necessary, lest, in its 
removal, any of the plants be withdrawn 
from their places. If the line is gently 
drawn from the plants, rather than drawn 
upwards, little danger of this need be 
apprehended. A better way, however, is, 
when the process of beating the groimd is 
finished, the mark of the line being still 
quite visible, to lift it at once, and set the , 
plants along the marked line. There is 
an unfortunate pertinacity amongst a cer- 
tain class of even young men to do no- 
thing without a line. The man who 
cannot or will not plant a row of young 
onions as straight as an arrow by the 
mark of the line thus made, should be 
furnished with a pair of eye-protectors, 
and recommended to the nearest road-sur- 
veyor, to try his hand at macadamising. 
When the first row is finished, proceed in 
like manner with the next, and so on, 
watering, if the weather is dry, every three 
rows, as the work goes on. By this means 
the soil will remain untrodden, as it will 
be pointed over— that is, dug shallow as 
the operation proceeds. The only care to 
be taken during the operation is, that the 
plants be not set too deep (vide supra)> 
The process of transplanting autumn-sown 
onions is precisely the same as above, 
except in so far as they, at tha period of 



teansplanting, are much larger-^say from 
the size of a crow-quill to that of an ordi- 
nary writing one : the roots are propor- 
tionably larger also. The ground being 
prepared as above, and the line stretched 
out, a shallow notch in the back part-^— 
that is, that next the line — should be cut 
somewhat oblique, and no deeper than the 
exact length of the roots. The young 
plants should be carefully taken up, with 
their fibres quite entire (on this much of 
the success depends) ; and to facilitate the 
operations, the ground in which they are 
growing should be loosened deeply with a 
three-pronged fork. They should also be 
placed in shallow boxes (trays), and pro- 
tected from the sun and air while out of 
the ground. The whole thus far being in 
readiness, the planter arranges the plants 
in a slightly slanting direction against 
the oblique bank, taking care that no part 
of the plant is covered with soil save the 
roots ; and while the arrangement of the 
plants is going on, the roots are covered 
as they are placed by pushing a little of 
the finest soil against them with the hand. 
The plants should be allowed the same 
distance as those above. When they are 
all arranged in the first line, some more 
soil is placed over the roots by the spade, 
the line removed, and a fresh row marked 
out. We often, in our own practice, and 
operating on a very light soil, prepare the 
ground as we have described above ; but 
instead of cutting out a slight notch, we 
lay the plants flat down on the smooth- 
beaten surface, and place over the roots a 
little well-pulverised soil. This is a good 
plan at an advanced period of spring, for 
should a warm shower or two fall soon 
after planting, the plants will rise them- 
selves to a perpendicular position, having 
no part under the surface except the roots. 
And this is desirable, for if they were 
deep planted, their bulbing would be pre- 
vented, at least to a great extent. 

The third mode of raising onions re- 
ferred to above, is by small bulbs selected 
from the previous crop, and which may 
be about the size of a hazel-nut. Some 
sow expressly to secure such (vide infra). 
This practice is not noticed as a novelty, 
for it has been more or less adopted from 
time immemorial. Its true object is to 
obtain larger onions than the coldness of 
our climate enables us to do with spring- 
sown ones, and it, therefore, may be worth 

the attention of those who live in high 
and cold situations, even should they pur- 
chase the small ones to plant, which may 
readily be obtained from any respect- 
able nursery or seedsman. The earliest 
written mention deserving much credit 
we have met with of this practice is 
recorded in " Systema Horticulturse," 
by Worlidge, who practised towards the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. 
The late Mr Knight revived the practice, 
and his papers in "The Horticultural 
Transactions" led others to speculate in 
the same way. A quotation from that 
high authority will be quite sufiicient for 
our present purpose. After some preli- 
minary remarks on bulbous and other 
perennial plants having the property of 
accumulating in one season the material 
that composes the leaves and roots of the 
succeeding season, he proceeds : " This re- 
served sap is deposited in, and composes 
in a great measure the bulb ; and the quan- 
tity accumulated, as well as the period 
required for its accumulation, varies 
greatly in the same species of plant, under 
more or less favourable circumstances. 
Thus the onion in the south of Europe 
acquires a much larger size during the 
long and warm summers of Spain and: 
Portugal, in a single season, than in the 
colder climate of England ; but, under 
the following mode of culture, which I 
have long practised, two summers in 
England produces nearly the efiect of one 
in Spain and Portugal, and the onion 
assumes nearly the form and size of those^ 
thence imported. Seeds of the Spanish 
or Portugal onion are sown at the usual 
period in the spring, very thickly, and in 
poor soil, generally under the shade of 
a fruit tree; and in such situations the 
bulbs in the autumn are rarely found much 
to exceed the size of a large pea. These 
are then taken from the ground and pre- 
served till the succeeding spring, when, 
they are planted at equal distances from 
each other, and they aiford plants which 
differ from those raised immediately 
from seed only in possessing much greater 
strength and vigour, owing to the quan- 
tity of previously generated sap being 
much greater in the bulb than in the 
seed. The bulbs thus raised often exceed 
considerably five inches in diameter; and, 
being more mature, they are with more 
certainty, preserved in a state of perfect 



soundness through the winter than those 
raised from seed in a single season." 
Knight's mode of planting these was the 
same as our own — namely, to set them at 
ten inches from each other, or when in 
lines, twelve inches apart and eight inches 
in the line, the ground being prepared 
as above recommended for spring and 
autumn sown crops — setting the bulbs, 
however, on the surface, and drawing as 
much soil over them as will maintain 
them in their places until they attach 
themselves by their roots to the ground ; 
after which, as in the case of shallots, &c., 
already noticed, the earth is removed 
from them, and the bulbs are exposed to 
air and light. This practice, or that of 
saving all the very smallest from the 
previous crop, has been followed by some 
of the market-gardeners round London 
for ages. It is rarely practised in pri- 
vate gardens — why, we know not. 

The fine large Portugal onions which 
we see in the shops are imported from 
that country annually. They are indis- 
pensable in the kitchens of the great, 
being much milder, as well as being of 
a much larger size, than can be produced 
in any quantity in this country. They 
are grown upon a somewhat similar prin- 
ciple to that noticed above ; the method 
is sufficiently interesting to warrant our 
making the following quotation from 
"The Transactions of the Horticultural 
Society," vol. iii. p. 68 : " Sow the seed 
very thinly in November or December 
on a moderate hotbed in a warm situation, 
with a few inches of rich light loam upon 
it, and the plants protected from frost by 
mats and hoops. In April or May, when 
they are about the size of a large swan's 
quill, they are transplanted on a rich 
light loam well manured with well-rotten 
dung. The mode of transplanting is 
particular. The plants are laid flat, 
about nine inches asunder each way, in 
quincunx, the beard (fibres) of the root 
and part only of the plant covered with 
very rich mould, well mixed with two- 
thirds of good old rotten dung. This 
compost is slightly pressed down on the 
plant; water is given, when the weather is 
dry, until the plants have taken root. 
Subsequently, the earth is' occasionally 
broken around them by slight hoeing,- in 
which operation care is taken not to 
wound the bulb. Weeding is diligently 

attended to, and the watering continued 
according to the state of the weather. 
In Portugal the means of irrigation are 
easy, the efi'ects of which are particularly 
beneficial to the onion ; for, by letting 
the water filter or pass through small 
heaps of dung placed in the alleys of the 
beds, a very rich liquid flows in upon the 
plants. The dung, as it is exhausted or 
washed away, should be renewed, and the 
water must be checked in its current, so 
that it may gently spread over the sur- 
face." This mode has been successfully 
tried in some parts of England upon very 
warm borders. In our present state of 
advancement we would apply liquid ma- 
nure in a much more convenient manner, 
and there is no means of enrichment so 
beneficial to the alliaceous tribe as ad- 
ministering it in a liquid state. 

We have already observed that the 
drill system is preferable to the broadcast 
order of sowing. This, however, applies 
more to private gardens than to commer- 
cial ones, or even to those whose onion-bed 
does not exceed two or three square yards. 
Although, in many of our first-rate mar- 
ket-gardens, the drill system is pursued, 
still by far the most adhere to the old plan 
of dividin^he ground into three-feet-and- 
a-half or four-feet beds, and sow promis- 
cuously over them, and trust to hand- 
weeding for the suppression of weeds. In 
this they do not err, because, from the 
time the young plants are three or four 
inches in height (up to which tirne they 
do not injure each other), a constant sys- 
tem of thinning is going on — the thin- 
nings meeting with a ready sale in the 
market; so that the crop is in due time 
sufiEciently thinned to enable those left 
to attain their full size ; — sowing in drills 
is therefore to them of less importance. 
We hold it essential in all well-kept 
private gardens. Treading the ground 
after the seed is sown is advisable in very 
light soils ; if dry at the time, it tends to 
consolidate it to a proper consistency. 
To do so, however, in strong soUs, parti- 
cularly when wet, is injurious. It cakes 
the surface, and renders it more difficult 
for the young plant to push its way 
through. To those who prefer the broad- 
cast mode of sowing in beds, a better 
plan cannot be recommended them than 
that practised by Mr Smith of Pitfour. 
The ground being dug, the manure is laid 



on the surface in a very decomposed state. 
When levelled, the seeds are sown, and 
pressed down by the back of a rake ; a 
little fine soil is thrown over from the 
alleys. When the plants are about an 
inch above ground, they are dressed every 
three or four weeks with a mixture of 
guano and charcoal-dust, to the extent of 
a handful to each square yard, one-third 
being guano, choosing moist days for 
applying it. 

Before quitting the subject of sowing 
and planting onions, we may remark 
that, however sanctioned by the practice 
of ages, the custom of sowing other crops 
along with the onion, considered as a 
general one, is erroneous. The ancients 
believed that some plants had a sympathy 
with, or antipathy to each other. They 
also set great importance on sowing, plant- 
ing, gathering the crops, &c., at certain 
stages of the moon. Both these doctrines 
we have been taught from childhood to 
regard as absurdities ; but, strange to say, 
something about the latter has been very 
recently revived, and the greatest horti- 
cultural oracle of the age has thrown out 
a hint that we should henceforth desist 
from covering our cucumber beds at night, 
that the plants may receive the full influ- 
ence of Luna's silvery beams. As regards 
the former also, while we must continue 
to consider the explanation utterly un- 
founded, the chemistry of plants has shown 
us that, in some cases at least, the prac- 
tice might be less absurd than at first 
sight appears; for it is conceivable that 
two species of plants might draw essen- 
tially difierent nourishment from the soil, 
and that each might be withdrawing from 
it something, the excess of which was 
hurtful to the other — each thus indirectly 
aiding the healthy growth and full de- 
velopment of the other. 

Eetuming, however, to the sowing of 
onions in conjunction with other plants — 
a little lettuce- seed may be thinly scat- 
tered over the ground after the onions are 
sown, as the plants wiU come ofi' soon, 
and many of them may be transplanted ; 
but the old practice of sowing leeks, par- 
slay, or carrots along with onions, is doing 
justice to neither. It is, however, worth 
remarking that, in soils where carrots are 
destroyed by grub, they often, when sown 
along with onions or leeks, escape their 


The London market-gardeners sow in 
beds five feet wide, and in the broadcast 
manner. They cover with soil from the 
alleys, by throwing it over the seed. The 
beds are raked over with a wooden rake, 
and a light wooden roller is drawn over 
the surface, being more expeditious and 
proper than foot-treading, for which they 
have no time. Such ground as theirs 
is much benefited by rolling, as it is so 
soft, spongy, and full of humus, from the 
enormous quantity of manure which is at 
almost every change of crop trenched 
into it. 

The number of roots required to plant 
any given space will be readily ascer- 
tained by referring to the distances given 

The quantity of seed required to sow 
in the broadcast manner a bed 4 feet by 
24, when all or part of the crop is to be 
drawn young, is two ounces ; but for the 
same space, if the crop is intended to 
come to maturity, half that quantity wiU 
be sufficient. According to the drill sys- 
tem of sowing, a third less in both cases 
will be ample. There is a great mistake 
in thick-sowing : the plants become weak 
and drawn up at first starting; and thin- 
ning, either in time or to a sufficient ex- 
tent, is too seldom attended to. This 
should have been placed as one of the 
first items in the very sensible, but sa- 
tirical, directions given by the author of 
a series of papers in "The Gardeners' 
Chronicle," entitled, " How to mismanage 
a garden." In stating, however, the quan- 
tities of seed necessary for sowing a given 
space, we may state, once for all, that our 
quantities are given on the presumption 
that the seed is good. For means of as- 
certaining this, vide article Propagation 
BY Seed. 

Subsequent cultivation. — The subsequent 
culture of this crop consists in keeping 
the ground between the drills perfectly 
clear of weeds by repeated hoeing — not 
waiting, however, as some do, till the 
weeds become the principal crop, requir- 
ing no small skill, and a vast amount 
of labour, to remove them, leaving the 
young tender onions exposed to the full 
rays of the sun, or perhaps to a frosty 
May morning, either of which they are in a 
very unfit state to withstand, having been 
hitherto snugly sheltered under the pro- 
tecting shade of groundsel and chick'- 



weed. The purpose of hoeing is twofold, 
in all cases save that of a gravel walk, 
whereon such an operation should, if pos- 
sible, never be allowed. Hoeing keeps 
down weeds while in their cotyledon 
state, that being the most proper time to 
attack them ; it keeps the surface of the 
ground open, and renders it pervious to 
the rays of heat and to air. Weeding only 
removes the evil after it has too long 
existed; in the process the ground is 
trodden to a hard surface, and unless im- 
mediately loosened by the hoe, it is ren- 
dered next to impervious to heat and air. 
The hoe, therefore, should be used at 
once, and one operation thus be made to 
do, instead of two. The best hoe, when 
deep - stirring the soil between drilled 
crops is performed, is the Spanish hoe, 
fig. 2, or the Vernon hoe, fig. 3; the former 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 



an implement much employed in the 
West Indies for deep-stirring the sugar 
crops. The flat or common hoe is only 
useful for cutting down weeds ; and as it 
is in general used, it does do little more ; 
whereas the deep-stirring of the soil is of 
the greatest importance, and can only be 
efficiently performed by such an imple- 
ment as the hoe referred to. Here we 
see the great advantage of the drill sys- 
tem over the broadcast method of sowing. 
Thinning the crop should be attended to 
as a principle, and, unless in petty gar- 
dens, dependence should not be placed 
on the removal of superfluous plants for 
daily consumption ; it is better to thin 
the general crop, and leave a row or two 
for daily use. The London market-gar- 
deners thin their broadcast sown crops as 
soon as they appear above ground, by 
using small 2-inch hoes, kept exceedingly 
sharp and clean. 

Soil and manures. — Onions require a 
deep, rich, mfeUow soil, always kept in a 
high state of enrichment by the appli- 
cation of such stimulants as guano. 

blood, salt, soot, the ofial of a slaughter- 
house, superphosphate of lime, at the time 
of sowing. But where the ground has been 
highly manured for the previous crop, 
such as celery, it is better to depend on 
that, with the addition of liquid manure 
where it can be applied, than on the re- 
cent application of stable-yard manure, 
unless in a state of great decomposition. 
The London growers, however, seem to 
put all danger from insects at defiance, 
and manure heavily with the strongest 
dungs, such as cow manure, nightsoil, &c. 
They are seldom troubled with onion 
grubs, or, indeed, with any other; and this, 
they assert, is entirely owing to their 
ground being turned so frequently and so 
deeply over — thus, probably, preventing 
the insects from undergoing the various 
transformations which most of them have 
to pass through. Neither are they very 
particular as to the change of soil, or what 
is called the rotation of crops, for we have 
seen abundant crops of onions on ground 
from which three and four successive ones 
of that vegetable have been taken. To 
ordinary cultivators this may appear ano- 
malous, as it is also contrary to the prin- 
ciples of vegetable physiology: it does, 
nevertheless, occur in their practice, and 
they ascribe it simply to their ground be- 
ing in the highest state of fertility, and in 
the highest state of cultivation ; and they 
maintain that private gardens are neither 
the one nor the other. 

Forcing. — The onion is forced during 
winter in many large gardens, being used 
in a very young state as an ingredient 
in salads. The seed is sown thickly in 
shallow boxes in light sandy soil: rich soil 
is not necessary, as the crop is gathered 
when the plants are little larger than 
an ordinary-sized needle. A very small 
quantity only is daily required, to give 
some idea of which we may mention that, 
when gathered and washed (for all salads 
should be prepared before leaving the 
garden — but of this more anon), with the 
leaves and fibres entire, the supply for the 
day will be a small bundle about the size of 
a man's finger. Boxes, therefore, or square 
earthenware pans (the latter of which we 
use), about 1 8 inches square and 4 inches 
deep, if sown every third or fourth day, 
and placed in a pit, or on a suspended shelf 
in a vinery where the temperature ranges 
from 45° to 60° will be a very fitting 



place for them. There are several modes 
of forcing onions, so as to have bulbs for 
use between the time those wintered in the 
store-room are finished, and that at which 
they ripen in the open air ; but the trou- 
ble and expense attending these methods 
might, we think, easily be spared by adopt- 
ing the best modes of keeping the previous 
crop, and cultivating more largely that 
excellent sort known as the potato or 
underground onion (which see). 

Taking the crop, and subsequent preserva- 
tion. — The season of ripening, like that of 
all other crops, depends greatly on cir- 
cumstances. This is first indicated by 
the leaves turning yellow and beginning 
to fade ; and in the smaller bulbs, by the 
leaves dropping off altogether, which shows 
them to be perfectly ripe. The larger 
specimens, on account of their containing 
a much greater amount of elaborated sap 
thrown into them by their larger and 
more numerous leaves, do not indicate 
ripeness so soon, and a certain class, from 
over excitement, and grossness of stem, 
called thick necks, do not incline to ripen 
at all. These latter should be marked 
for immediate use, and left on the ground 
till required ; or, if the ground is wanted 
for another crop, they may be taken up and 
laid in by the heels in some out-of-the-way 
place, till used up. The process of laying 
by the heels is thus performed : a trench 
is opened, and the plants, as they are taken 
up, are set in it pretty thickly, to econo- 
mise space, but not so thickly as to cause 
them to rot or sustain injury from want 
of air. They are placed in a slanting di- 
rection against the back of the trench, and 
covered over as deep as they formerly 
were in the ground, the earth being laid 
over their roots and stems in the course 
of digging the ground to prepare it for 
another trench, which should be so far 
apart from the last that the leaves of the 
plants may not lie over those of the pre- 
ceding row. The principal object, how- 
ever, is to check vegetation and prevent 
the plants running to seed, hence the 
coldest situations should be chosen. The 
others should be gone over, and their 
stems bent gently over, or the strongest 
of them may have their necks twisted ; 

this will check growth, and tend to their 
ripening. The sooner theyare taken out of 
the ground after their growth has nearly 

, ceased, the better ; for, if left in, they 

are often attacked by maggots. As they 
are taken up, they should be placed in a 
dry airy place, but not in the full sun, to 
dry; and it will greatly facilitate that pro- 
cess if, instead of being left lying on the 
ground, they are spread thinly on board- 
ing laid' upon a gravel or paved walk or 
yard. As they dry, the roughest of the 
decaying leaves should be removed ; and 
they should then be carried to the root- 
room or onion-loft, and spread thinly upon 
the shelves, floor, &c., to dry more com- 
j)letely. From this time until there is 
danger of frost entering the onion-room, 
the doors and windows should be kept con- 
stantly open, to afford them all the venti- 
lation possible. The remainder may be 
removed into the house as fast as they dry 
sufficiently, and all should be at once 
taken up in the event of frost. After hous- 
ing, they should be repeatedly examined, 
all decaying bulbs removed, and the whole 
frequently turned over. 

The future management of the bulbs 
depends on the exclusion of frost ; yet a 
low temperature must be preserved and 
ample ventilation given. When time per- 
mits, and wet days offer a good opportu- 
nity, a general dressing should take place. 
The smaller bulbs ought to be selected, 
and kept by themselves, for pickling, 
and many other uses which no being on 
earth could think of but a French or 
Italian cook. The next in size, which will 
also be the next best maturely ripened, 
should also be picked out : these are 
likely to keep longest, and should there- 
fore be kept by themselves on the higher 
shelves, so as to be better out of the way. 
Those having a portion of the dried leaves 
still attached to them had better be strung 
up, and suspended from the roof part of 
the room. The process of stringing is 
thus performed : Three or four onions, 
having a portion of their tails still at- 
tached to them, are taken in one hand, 
while with the other a strand of matting or 
twine is to be tied round them. After 
placing three or four more bulbs, the twine 
or matting is wound round them pretty 
tightly — and so on, till the rope or bundle 
has attained a yard or so in length, when 
it is suspended by one end to the roof or 
other convenient part of the root-room. 
This is a good way of wintering onions, 
and takes up little space. The imported 
Portugal onions are secured in nearly the 



same maimer, only a heated iron is ap- 
plied to the base of the bulb where the 
fragments of the roots still exist ; burn- 
ing them oiF, and very slightly searing 
the base, tends to destroy vegetable 
life, and hence prevents the bulbs from 
sprouting during winter. And as we 
take some delight in showing that all 
things are not new under the sun, we may 
here just by the way mention that Pliny, 
to secure a similar end, adopted a some- 
what similar means, as he recommends 
those who wish to keep their onions from 
sprouting to dip their heads in warm salt 

Approved sorts, and their qualities. — The va- 
rieties of oultiyated onions hare long been, and 
still are numerous. Of those that are annually 
produced from seed, the following may be con- 
sidered the best : — 

1. Brown globe. — Large, globular, palish brown, 
slightly tinged with red; a very useful and hardy 
kind, of mUd flavour, and keeps well. 

2. New white globe. — Rather flatter in form 
than the last; of mild flavour; altogether a very 
handsome bulb ; comparatively a new variety. 

3. Blood red. — Known also as the Dutch and 
St Thomas's onion, of which there are also two 
sub-varieties, — viz., pale and very deep blood : a 
very old variety, esteemed by somefor its extreme 
pungency, and also for its diuretic quality. Of 
middle size, flattish, and very hardy ; deep red, 
or blood-coloured, keeps remarkably well; much 
grown amongst the Scottish and Welsh pea- 
santry. Not greatly appreciated in genteel 
families. Perhaps one of the oldest cultivated 
sorts, as we find them noticed for theu* strong 
flavour so early as the days of PUny. 

4. iJeadinjr.— Supposed to be synonymous with 
(or so closely allied as to be scarce worth grow- 
ing as distinct varieties) the Cambridge, white 
Spanish, Eversham,, and white Portugal. It is 
much cultivated about Eversham, and also about 
Reading, and hence the origin of two of the 
names. An excellent sort for a general crop, 
but does not keep well ; mild, large, flat, of a 
whitish colour tinged with green. 

Strasbv/rg. — Known also as the Dutch, Essex, 
Deptford, and Flwnders onion. This is the 
most generally cultivated variety in Britain. A 
large oval bulb, reddish, tinged with green ; ex- 
tremely hardy, and hence generally sown for 
autumnal crops, and should be preferred in all 
cold and elevated localities : flavour rather pun- 
gent, no disqualification to palates vulgar, and 
has also the merit of keeping well. 

6. Tripoli. — In seed-lists we find a round and 
a flat variety, both of which may be picked out of 
the same seed-bed ; reddish, tinged with green 
and brown, soft and mild, does not keep well, 
but an excellent autumn sort The largest onion 

7. Silner-skinned. — Of which there are the fol- 
lowing sub-varieties, scarcely distinguishable ex- 
cept in name — viz., ewrly silver-shinned, small 

silver-shinned, Nocera; flat, middle-sized, and 
shining vfhen grown in rich ground. It is chiefly 
cultivated for pickling and dressed dishes, for 
which purposes it should not much exceed in 
size a large hazel-nut. It is usually sown in 
poor soil to prevent it becoming large. 

8. Madeira large. — Known also as new giant: 
a new variety, the seed of which is annually 
imported from Madeira ; a bulb of extraordinary 
size, but does not keep well. 

9. Trm Portugal. — Large, flattish, globe- 
shaped, exceedingly mild in flavour, but does 
not keep well, particularly if grown in Britain, 
as we have not climate to ripen it thoroughly. 
Genuine seed should be imported from Portu- 
gal. We have some doubts, however, as to this 
being different from the brown Portugal of the 

10. James's heeping. — Evidently an English 
hybrid, and said to have originated with a Mr 
James, a commercial grower of Lambeth Marsh : 
of large pyramidal shape, brownish coloured, 
strong in flavour, and one of ovir best keepers, 
probably on account of its Enghsh origin, and 
consequent increased hardiness. 

11. Lisbon, known also as Lisbon white. — 
Genuine seed of this excellent variety is in 
general imported from the south of France. It 
is by no means hardy with us, and is slow in 
ripening; not to be recommended for a cold 
climate; of large size and globular form, skin 
whitish and very thin. Opinions difier as to the 
hardiness of this variety; it is described as 
hardy, and adapted for autumnal sowing by 
several good authorities : we have found it one 
of the tenderest. 

12. Two-bladed, known also as the Welsh onion, 
from being much grown in that part of the 
kingdom. — This has a small, flat, brownish-green 
bulb, which ripens early, and keeps well. It is 
grown chiefly for its leaves, which are used in 
salads, and its small bulbs for pickling. The 
two-bladed early of some seed-catalogues is the 
same as this, which, by the way, ranks as a dis- 
tinct species (Alliv/m fistulosum, L.), and is a 
native of Siberia. Introduced in 1629. Some 
nursery catalogues enumerate a greaier number 
of names, but their difierence consists in the 
name only. 

13. Tree, or bulb-producing onion. — This is a 
viviparous variety of the common onion; a 
native of Canada, the climate of which being too 
cold to enable the plant to produce seeds, nature 
employs one of those beautiful provisions she 
has in store for the fulfilment of the sacred 
command, " multiply and replenish," by the 
production of viviparous bulbs at the top of the 
stalk, which otherwise would have been, graced 
with its head of flowers and umbel of seeds : 
they are sometimes produced on the sides of 
the flower-stem also. This occurrence is not 
uncommon in sub-alpine situations, where the 
temperature is too low for the ripening of seeds, 
and is well illustrated in many of the pasture- 
grasses ; the Festuca vivipara offering one ex- 
ample, and one of the sub- varieties of the com- 
mon rye-grass (Lolium perenne, var. vivipara) 
another. Why botanists have elevated the for- 
mer into a specieSj and the latter not, appears 



anomalous. These cauline biilbs are planted in 
spiing, and produce ground-onions of a very 
useful size; and, although smaller than the 
ordinary sorts, they make up for size in greater 
pungency of quality. 

14. Potato, or underground onion. — For a 
somewhat similar purpose, this sort, which sel- 
dom ripens its seeds, increases itself by the 
formation of bulbs under the ground, as if de- 
termined to be the very antipodes of the last. 
This variety has been in cultivation just about 
half a century in the southern parts of England, 
where, on account of the crop ripening much 
sooner than that of the seed-produced sorts, a 
ready market has long been found for them in 
supplying ships leaving our ports in June and 
July, at which season they could not procure 
others fit for keeping. It has been stated to 
have been brought to this country from Egypt 
by our troops, on their return, after driving the 
French out of that country, about the beginning 
of the present century; and of this we entertain 
not a shadow of doubt, the land of Egypt being 
the land of onions since the days of the Pha- 
raohs at least. This variety is cultivated to a 
very great extent in that country, and its singu- 
lar mode of growth, apart from its excellent 
qualities, would no doubt attract the attention 
of our soldiers, who could hardly be supposed 
to be aware of the fact that it had been grown 
to a limited extent a few years only prior to the 
time to which we allude, in a London nursery. 
This onion is well adapted for cottage gardens, 
even in climates where the ordinary sorts do not 
ripen. It is cultivated to very great perfection 
in the parish of Currie, west of Edinburgh, 
where we have seen them as large and fine as 
in Devonshire. The mode of cultivation difiers 
not from that of the shallot and garlic already 
disposed of, except that the individual bulbs 
do not admit of division ; but in taking up the 
crop, numerous small bulbs will be found clus- 
tered among the larger ones, which are all 
attached to the main root after the manner of 
potatoes, and hence its trivial name of potato- 
onion. The plants growing stronger than either 
shallots or garlic, require more space both be- 
tween the rows and also between each other in 
the Une. Fifteen inches by ten may be given 
as an average distance. In one particular more 
they essentially differ; their bulbs are formed 
under ground : therefore, although the planted 
bulbs are best set on the surface, the earth 
should be gathered up around them in the way 
recommended (but with doubtful advantage) in 
the case of the potato. Their subsequent cul- 
ture consists in keeping them clear of weeds, 
and a liberal supply of liquid manure during 
warm weather only. Planting should be at- 
tended to in November, although, in cold places, 
March may be with some advantage chosen. By 
the end of June, or beginning of July, they are 
fit, in most places, for taking up. Their cunng 
and keeping are the same as we have already 
described for the others of the tribe. Much of 
the success, however, depends on the state of 
the ground. This is a root which we hold to be 
of importance in every garden, though it is too 
seldom found. In Devonshire, where they are 

much grown, there is a familiar saying, " Plant 
on the shortest day, and take up on the longest." 
This onion, like all the tribe of cultivated allia- 
ceous plants, requires a rich deep soil, well 
manured, and dry at bottom. For this pur- 
pose the ground should be deeply trenched, 
and the manure (pigeons' dung, or the offal 
of a slaughter-house, if they can be obtained), 
wrought in during the process ; for, although it 
is perhaps not generally known, the roots of 
this variety have been found extending to the 
depth of six feet under the surface. When the 
soil is naturally shallow, it should be gathered 
up in ridges, and upon these the sets should be 
planted. For cold situations, this has another 
advantage, as the solar rays wiU penetrate such 
ridges, and impart a greater degree of warmth 
to the soil around the roots than if they were 
planted on a flat surface. In establishments 
where fully ripened onions are required through- 
out the year, these may be brought forward at 
even a sufiiciently early period to succeed the 
ordinary kinds that have been preserved during 
the winter. To effect this, the bulbs should be 
planted in pots in October or November, and 
kept in a cool pit through the winter, and 
turned carefully out into a well-prepared border 
at the bottom of a south wall (or equally warm 
place) early in March. The autumn-planted 
crop will require to be looked at during vrinter, 
and any bulbs that may have been thrown out, 
or displaced by the frost, reset; and in the 
coldest of all localities, a little mulching or 
rotten dung or leaves may, with advantage, be 
placed on the surface between the rows. This 
will exclude frost and the drought of spring at 
the same time. 

The Welsh onion, or Cihoule, is seldom grown. 
It . is an extremely hardy perennial of strong 
flavour, but does not produce bulbs. It is sown 
in August, to be drawn green in spring, for use 
in the manner of leeks, and in that state is not 
unfrequently termed scallion — an epithet ap- 
plied by country people to all sorts of onions 
when they do not produce bulbs. 

Onions for pickling are in demand in every 
family. For this purpose the sUver-skinned 
varieties should be chosen, on account of their 
deUcate white colour, slightly intermixed with 
greenish lines between the coatings. As they 
are usually preferred when small — about the size 
of a filbert— it is necessary they be sown on very 
poor soil. We have a border, the soil of which 
is soft alluvial sand : on this we have grown 
silver-skinned onions annually during the last 
thirteen years ; trenching it as soon as the crop 
is gathered, two feet in depth, giving it no 
manure whatever ; sowing thickly in the broad- 
cast manner, in three feet beds — which are 
formed after the crop has come above ground, 
by running a hoe from side to side, and thus 
forming alleys fifteen inches broad, the seed 
having, to save time, been sown all over the 
piece. The situation is warm, which insures 
the ripening of the bulbs ; the soil being very 
poor, and the crop thick, produces them of a 
small uniform size. In small gardens, and in 
those wherein the soil is of a very rich nature, 
such onions are difficult to procure. Sowing 



under the shade of trees has been recommended, 
but not judiciously. As a bed ten feet by four 
would produce a sufficient quantity for a small 
family, it were better to prepare such a space 
artificially, by removing the rich soil to the 
depth of eighteen inches, and replacing it with 
poor sandy or gravelly soiL We have grown 
pickling onions upon a bed of loamy gravel laid 
on the surface of the ordinary soil, to the thick- 
ness of twelve inches. 

Diseases and insects. — The diseases and insects 
to which the cultivated alliaceous plants are 
liable, if not numerous, are sufficiently destruc- 
tive. One of our greatest pests is 

The common onion-fly {Anthomyia ceparum, 
Bouche). It is thus described by Mr Curtis, 
one of our highest entomological authorities, in 
the " Gardeners' Chronicle," 1841 :— "The male 
is of an ashy colour, roughish, with black 
bristles and hairs ; the eyes are contiguous and 
reddish; the face silvery white; horns black; 
there are three obscure lines down the trunk, 
and a line of long blackish spots down the centre 
of the body, more or less visible in diiferent 
lights; the wings are transparent, slightly 
irridesoent, tinged with ochre at the base ; the 
nervurespalebrown; poisersoohreous; legs ashy 
brown. The female is oohreous, or ashy grey, 
clothed with black bristles and hairs ; the eyes 
are reddish and remote, with a light chestnut 
stripe between them, bifid and darkest at the 
base ; face yellowish white." 

This insect attacks the plants in their young 
state, and continues feeding on them during the 
whole summer. Sometimes they attack the 
crop generally, and cause a total failure; at 
other times attacking them in patches only, the 
effects being most observable in dry weather — 
the leaves turning yellowish, becoming flaccid, 
and the plant at last falling over and decaying. 
On removing the outer coating or skin of the 
plants destroyed, the cause will be discovered 
in the presence of a small grub, which eats its 
way into the very heart of the onion. This 
grub is white, smooth, and shining, and of a 
conical form, and nearly half an inch long. The 
eggs are deposited on the leaves when in a very 
young state, and close to the earth ; as soon as 
the maggots are hatched, which takes place 
about the time the plants are about the size of 
a small quill, they bore their way through the 
outer leaf, and penetrate the onion at its base. 

Fig. 5. 

Fig. 6. 

Fig. 4. 


feeding chiefly on the bottom part of the bulb, 
causing it to separate from the roots, and occa- 
sioning a mass of mouldiness, familiar to every 
cultivator. These grubs, in general, attain their 
full size in about fourteen days, sooner in dry 
weather than in wet, and at that period descend 
into the earth, to undergo their transformations, 
when they become a reddish brown, indurated 
pupa, of an oval form. Fig. 4 shows the grub; 
fig. 5, the pupa; and fig. 6, the perfect insect. 

Another enemy has recently appeared in the 
brassy onion-fly (Evmerus emeus). This fly was 
discovered by Mr Curtis in 1842, and figured 
and described by him in the " Gardeners' 
Chronicle " for that year, (p. 2S2.) He detected 
the maggots in a box containing some rotten 
onions, which he found to be distinct from 
Anthomyia ceparum, the common onion-fly. 
" It is densely clothed with short hairs, thickly 
and distinctly punctured, and of an olive green, 
with brassy tinge ; the antennae are entirely 
black, the seta naked ; the face is very hairy, 
simply convex, and silvery white; eyes dark- 
brown and slightly pubescent; rostrum very 
short ; thorax with two whitish lines down the 
back; scutel semiorbicular, the margin thin, 
and somewhat denticulated and ciUated ; abdo- 
men linear in the males, the segments coarctate 
or constricted at the base — attenuated to the 
apex in the female, with six grey lunulate 
marks, three on each side, and nearly meeting 
on the back; vrings transparent; the nervures 
piceous, the apical transverse, one somewhat 
bilobed ; poisers yellowish white ; legs rather 
short and stout, especially the hinder, the thighs 
being incrussated and serrated beneath with a 
double row of minute teeth ; tibise bright rust 
colour at the base, the hinder curved; tarsi 
five-jointed and black, the hinder orange colour 
on the inside; the claws are small, and the 
suckers bilobed." 

Specimens of this fly have been taken in the 
neighbourhood of London, flying about in June 
and July. The female has not as yet been 
observed depositing her eggs. The maggots do 
not confine themselves to the onion alone, but 
have been observed on cabbage-roots. 

These may be considered the chief enemies 
to the onion tribe, attacking them all indiscri- 
minately — the garlic, however, less than the 
others. The latter does not as yet appear to 
have spread, so as to be of the same importance 
as the former. The means hitherto employed 
for subduing these insects are these : Laying 
soot over the beds, or incorporating it vrith the 
soil ; applying salt in the same manner; water- 
ing with lime-water, gas-tar, stale soap-suds, 
soot-water, stale urine, old tobacco-water, &c. 
It is evident, however, that it is not the smeU 
which affects them — for few things can be more 
offensive than rotten onions, on which both 
these insects appear to luxuriate. 

Their power of reproduction is so great, that 
unless they are destroyed the moment they are 
discovered to have attacked the crop (which 
wiU readily be known by the leaves drooping 
and turning yellow), their total eradication be- 
comes next to impossible. All other means 
(except carefully pulling up every diseased 



plant, and comtnitting them to the fire, collecting 
the soil around where they have been growing, 
and burning it also) can only be regarded as 
exceedingly superfioial in their effects. Deep 
trenching and frequently turning over the soil 
are of great advantage : in the one case burying 
the pupa too deep for its again reaching the 
surface; and in the other, disturbing it during 
its transformation, and probably preventing 
that change from taking place. From what has 
been shown above of the economy of the onion- 
fly, it is clear that the most rational method of 
eradicating it is to capture the insects whUe 
in the grub state, and while they are entrapped 
within the onion. By doing so, their increase 
is greatly diminished; as it is probable that, for 
every grub so destroyed, hundreds of flies are 
prevented from appearing in spring, each of 
which may be the parent of hundreds of grubs 
during the foUovring season. All other pro- 
posed remedies may be set down as compara- 
tively worthless. Sowing onions year after 
year on the same ground is a very certain way 
of multiplying these insects, and might be 
carried to the extent of literally stocking the 
ground vrith them. Insects peculiar to any 
plant seldom attack the crop during the first 
year, and probably the second, after being 
planted in land not previously occupied with 
the same kind of crop, because the soil has not 
as yet become furnished with the pupae of the 
insect peculiar to the plant. Hence some ad- 
vantage arises from sowing onions after celery, 
and vice versd, cabbage after potatoes, &c. 
Spirits of tar is of great use, if applied in suf- 
ficient quantity to the soil immediately after 
the crop is removed ; and it is a good plan to 
run it Jdong (from the spout of a watering-pot) 
the lines of the rows where the onions had 
grovpn, because in that way, and at that exact 
time, it reaches the pupa in its most tender 
state ; not, however, that it acts as an ordinary 
poison (the pupa not being in a feeding state), 
but it penetrates through the skin whenever 
it comes in contact with it; and no insect, in 
any of its stages, out of hundreds we have 
submitted to the ordeal, will exist after being 
brought into contact with this liquid. It is 
probable, also, that many other applications 
(turpentine, for example), if applied at this 
time, and in this way, might be found exceed- 
ingly efficacious. 

Soot is not only an excellent manure for 
onions, but is also a safe precaution against the 
attacks of the grub. It may be sown broadcast 
all over the ground, previous to drilling, if in 
abundance ; if scarce, sow it in the drills when 
formed. The following has been often applied 
to onion crops, even after the attack has com- 
menced : Water the ground well (that is, give 
it a good soaking of water) in the following 
proportions,— add to 20 gallons of rain-water 
1 peck of unslaked lime, 4 peck of soot that 
has not been exposed to wet, 2 gallons of urine, 
1 lb. of soft soap, and 2 lb. of flowers of sulphur; 
when the mixture is sufiiciently settled to pass 
through the rose of a watering-pot, it may be 
applied. As a preventive of the grub in onions, 
it has been recommended to sow them on 

ground previously cropped with turnip. If 
advantage arise from this, it is founded on the 
rotation system. 

The chemical action of soot, in this and in 
similar cases, as a fertiliser and preventive of 
grub, may depend on the elements of which it 
is constituted, which are carbonaceous matter, 
mixed with carbonated ammonia, giving out a 
strong pungent smell by the action of quick- 
lime. It affords a brown extractive matter of a 
bitter taste, some ammoniacal salts, and an 
empyreumatic oU, either or all of which are 
disagreeable, if not really fatal, to insect life. 
Its chief basis, however, is charcoal in a state 
capable of being rendered soluble by the action 
of oxygen and water. Powdered charcoal has 
been found exceedingly efficacious in preserving 
the onion crop, but not to the same extent as 
soot, containing in itself few of the elements 
of which soot is composed. We were led to 
apply soot in a liquid form, as M. Branconnet 
has shown that " a watery infusion of soot is 
eminently antiseptic, and may be used for pre- 
serving animal matter from decomposition;" 
and antiseptics we find in practice greatly to 
preserve the parts of plants, to which they are 
appUed, from rottenness, to which the onion is 
extremely liable when attacked by the grub. 

The variety of silver-skinned onion known as 
Oignon de Nocera is sometimes attacked by 
a minute parasitic fungus (Verwdcularia cir- 
cincms). It appears in form of small round black 
spots, which, although not penetrating the sub- 
stance of the bulb, greatly disfigure it, and 
render it unfit for use. This disease appears 
to be quite new, and was first detected in the 
gardens of the Horticultural Society of London 
in 1851. 

Sming of seed, S;c. — The saving of onion 
seed is carried on to a very great extent 
in the neighbourhood of Beading, in 
various parts of Kent, to some extent in 
Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, and about 
Evesham. The great supply, however, is 
imported from France and Holland. The 
saving of any esculent vegetable seed, 
while it can be purchased genuine from 
the regular seedsmen, is the reverse of 
economy. Amateurs, however, often 
save various sorts of seed, as much for 
the satisfaction of presenting them to their 
friends, as on the mere score of economy 
to themselves. Gardeners are not unfre- 
quently driven to this, as au expedient to 
preserve any particularly fine variety 
they may become possessed of, as well as 
to guard themselves against fraudulent 
dealers, who, it is to be regretted, are on 
the increase. There is no economy, how- 
ever, in saving seeds with a view to evade 
paying a yearly seed-bill. Seeds so pro- 
duced cost 100 per cent more than 
they can be piurchased for. They are 



seldom so good, can never be calculated 
upon as pure, if more than one species be 
grown in the same garden, or indeed 
within a very considerable distance 
around. — For reasons, vide art. Peopaga- 
TioN BY Seed. 

To save onion seed, select some of the 
largest, best formed, and best ripened 
bulbs ; prepare the ground as already 
directed, only choosing the warmest and 
most sheltered spot the garden aiFords — 
for climate is the principal reason why 
we are compelled to import seed, which, 
until these few years, was subjected to 
an import duty almost equal to the prime 
cost. In November plant them, as we 
have advised for garlic and shallots. As 
the shoots advance in height, a line of 
stakes, three feet in height above the 
surface, should be driven in along each 
line of plants, and to these a double 
course of packthread or tarred cord 
should be fastened, by taking a turn of 
the cord around each stake, thus leaving 
the stems of the plants to grow up between 
the cords for their support ; and, for 
greater security, these cords should be 
tied together at every twelve or fifteen 
inches in length. As the flower stems 
extend in height, add other courses of 
cord, till the height of nearly three feet 
is attained, at which height the heads of 
flowers will appear, and, if not broken 
by the wind, will become large heads of 
seed, which will ripen in August or 
September. The stems should be cut 
over then, and laid down for a day or two 
to dry ; afterwards they may be tied up 
in bundles, further dried in the sun, and 
ultimately, if the crop is large, stacked 
by till thrashed out, or suspended in 
bundles from the roof, in a dry airy 
apartment, and rubbed out and winnowed 
at convenience. One ounce of seed con- 
tains 7636 seeds. 

The European names of the onion are, 
Oignon in French ; Zwiebel ia German ; 
Uijon in Dutch; CipoUa in Italian; Ce- 
bolla in Spanish. 

§ 5. — THE LEEK. 

Nattiral history. — The Leek, Allium porrum, 
L. (from Celtic, Fori, to eat), belonga to the 
same natural order, and ranks in the same class 
and order in the Lrnnsean arrangement as the 
four last. It is said to be a native of Switzer- 

land ; of this there are as great doubts as that 
the onion is a native of Spain. It is undoubt- 
edly a native of the East, and was cultivated 
largely in Egypt in the days of the Pharaohs. Phi- 
lips, in " History of Culinary Vegetables," vol. 
ii. p. 30, has thrown more light upon this dark sub- 
ject than any other author we have read. He says, 
in speaking of this plant being adopted by the 
ancient Welsh as their badge, " The Welshmen 
still continue to wear leeks on St David's Day, 
in commemoration of a victory which they ob- 
tained over the Saxons in the sixth century, and 
which they attributed to the leeks they wore, by 
the order of St David, to distinguish them in the 
battle. The Welsh patron died about the year 
5ii." Now, they must have been not only 
introduced, but much cultivated at this early 
period. That the leek is a native of Egypt is 
evident ; for, besides the notice taken of it in 
the Bible, Pliny, in book xix. chap. 6, states 
" that the best leeks were brought from Egypt, 
and the next to them from Orthes, a town of 
Asia Minor," now called Guzelhizar. Aricia in 
Italy was celebrated for leeks in Pliny's time ; 
for he says, " It is not long since leeks were 
brought into great notice through the Emperor 
Nero." Tusser sings their praise in verse, and 
says they were in common use in farm-houses 
long before his time. And Gerard, writing 
soon after Tusser's time, speaks of leeks in such 
a manner as to induce us to think them indi- 
genous to our soU. 

Its date of introduction is given in " Hortus 
Britannicus " as 1562. In this case, as in several 
others in that work, when the date of a plant is 
not exactly known, the first year in which it is 
known to have existed in Britain, upon pub- 
lished authority, is given. That it was to some 
extent cultivated prior to that year is evident 
from the familiar way in which all our oldest 
gardening authors speak of it, and it is noticed 
by most of them. 

Uses. — This plant has been more generally 
used as an esculent in Wales and Scotland than 
in England. It is now, however, cultivated 
much more generally in the gardens of the 
latter, and brought in greater quantities to their 
markets than formerly. The whole plant, except 
the roots, is used in soups and stews. The 
white stems, which are blanched by being 
planted deep for the purpose, are now largely 
used, boiled and served up with toasted bread 
and white sauce, and eaten like asparagus. They 
are much used in French cookery, and form an 
important ingredient in Scotch winter broth, 
particularly that national dish cocha-leekie. But 
the most extraordinary use to which we have 
heard of their being applied is thus stated on the 
authority of no less a person than Lord Bacon, 
who says (in "Essay on Gardens," century ten), 
"I knew a gentleman that would fast (sometimes) 
three or four, yea, five days, without meat, bread, 
or drink ; but the same man used to have con- 
tinually a wisp of herbs that he smelt on, and 
amongst these herbs some of strong scent, as 
onions, garlic, leeks, and the like." The leek is 
a valuable vegetable for the cottager, a small 
piece of ground affording him a large and useful 
supply during winter and spring, when green 



fodd ia scarce. It is easily cultivated and ex- 
tremely hardy. The medicinal and dietary pro- 
perties of the leek are similar to those of the 
onion, only in a milder degree. 

Mode of propagation. — Leeks are pro- 
pagated by seed sown for ordinary pur- 
poses at the same time as onions. Bulk 
of plant, in the case of the leek, being a 
primary object — and transplanting tends 
greatly to insure this — ^the seed is sown 
pretty thickly on a bed, and when of suf- 
ficient size, the plants are removed to 
where they are to come to perfection. 
Those who have not the convenience of a 
hotbed should sow the seed early in Feb- 
ruary, in as warm a spot as is at their 
disposal. Where, however, it is wished 
to have the leek in its fullest perfection, 
the seed should be sown thinly on a mild 
hotbed, such as of leaves in a state of fer- 
mentation, a material within the reach of 
most ; while those near a tanyard may 
employ bark, or those in the vicinity of 
flax-mills the refuse flax — either of which, 
put up in the form of a cucumber-bed, 
will afford a mild and lasting heat. With- 
out a glass frame, the purpose may be 
served by an occasional covering of tar- 
pauling during frosty nights or heavy 
rains. Slight excitement only is required. 
The seed should be sown of a imiform 
thickness on rich compost, and covered to 
about the depth of a quarter of an inch, 
half an ounce being suf&cient for a bed 2 
feet by 4, and so in like proportion for 
beds of larger size. Keep them clear of 
weeds, and water with tepid water occa- 
sionally until fit for transplanting. One 
ounce of seed contains 2924. 

Sowing and planting. — Sowing in the 
open ground may be performed from the 
beginning of February till the middle of 
April, the exact time depending entirely 
on the state of the weather and the con- 
dition of the soil. The earlier, however, 
the seed is sown the better, that the 
plants may attain a good size before final 
transplanting. If sown in beds of 4 feet 
in breadth, and in the broadcast manner, 
the same process should be followed as 
recommended for onions grown in that 
way. If sown as advised above, and which 
is much the best way, as soon as the 
young plants are of the height of 3 inches 
they should be carefully taken up, loosen- 
ing the soil in the bed so that none of the 
fibres may be in the least injured. They 


should then be transplanted into another 
preparatory bed, having the same advan- 
tages of heat, &c., as the first; but on 
this the heating material should be 
covered with completely rotten manure 
to the depth of 4 inches, and the plants 
set in it at the distance of 3 inches apart 
each way. This is to encourage their 
growth. When they have attained the 
height of 6 inches, another bed of equally 
rotten manure should be prepared for 
them, placed on the surface of the ground 
in a warm sheltered spot, but without 
bottom heat, and the plants a second 
time removed, with all their fibres entire, 
and planted in it at the distance of 6 
inches apart each way; for here they are 
to remain till the season of final trans- 
planting arrives, which will be from the 
beginning to the middle or end of May. 
The plants, having thus plenty of room, 
will attain the size of 9 inches or a foot, 
and be of goodly size of stem, which will 
be promoted by frequently watering them 
with liquid manure. Few people pay 
this attention to them, but transplant 
them at once from the seed-bed to where 
they are to grow to full size. In this 
they lose much, both in the size and 
delicacy of the produce, as the more ra- 
pidly all esculent plants are grown, the 
more tender they are. The ground being 
prepared for them, they are to be set in 
lines 18 inches apart, and the plants 10 
inches from each other in the line — that 
is, if the largest size be wished for; other- 
wise, 12 inches by 7 will be sufficient. 
In planting, the dibber used should be 
3^ inches in diameter, obtuse at the 
point ; but, if nearly cylindrical in form, 
so much the better, that the roots may 
have room in the bottom of the hole. 
The plants being taken carefully up, 
with as much of the rotten manure at- 
tached to them as possible, and carried 
to the spot on a shallow wooden tray, 
they are to be dropped carefully into each 
hole as it is made, and no soil what- 
ever placed over them, as the rains and 
occasional waterings — probably one at 
the time of planting — will wash down 
sufficient to cover the roots to the extent 
required. The object of this large hole 
is, to allow the stem to swell out in 
size, without being compressed by the sur- 
rounding soil. The dibber should have 
a cross piece of wood fastened to it, form- 




ing a gauge as to the equality of the depth 
of each hole. The old and barbarous 
system long recorded in books, and prac- 
tised by even the best gardeners, of cut- 
ting off a portion of the tops of the leaves, 
should be disregarded; and the curtail- 
ments of the roots, long held as a benefi- 
cial process, should be looked upon as an 
act of wanton madness. This is the usual 
mode of planting. A much better way 
is to stretch the line from end to end of 
the field, and, with a spade, to take out a 
trench a foot at least in depth, leaving 
the back of the trench immediately under 
the line as nearly perpendicular as pos- 
sible. Along this trench set the plants, 
resting against the solid ground, placing 
their roots with the ball of manure around 
them in the bottom, and fiUing in the 
earth taken out of the trench carefully 
around them — taking care, however, not 
to let it reach so high as to cover the 
hearts of the plants. Water at the time 
of planting, if the soil be not already too 
damp, in which state it would be better 
to delay planting till it dry. However, 
by this drill mode of planting this crop, 
as well as most others, the ground is 
left quite open and loose, as the operator 
is always standing on the ground that 
is to be loosened up in the formation of 
the next drill. One sowing is, in general, 
sufficient for private families in Scotland j 
but in the south, where vegetation is so 
much more rapid, a second, or even a 
third sowing, may be found of advantage 
for continuing the crop till late in spring. 
Our own practice is to sow once, and, in 
the beginning of March, to dig up the 
crop, and lay it over in a cool shady place, 
covering the stems as high as they are 
blanched — a plan we have found much 
more suitable than that of sowing on heat 
for the early and main crop, and after- 
wards in April or May for late crops. 
Indeed, we have frequently found those 
sown in May run to seed at the very time 
those sown in February did. The only 
inducement for making suocessional sow- 
ings is, that some French cooks require 
them of a small size ; and, to meet such 
demands, successional sowings should be 
made from February till July. Some 
plant in open trenches, after the manner 
of celery, and earth the plants as they 
Subsequent cultivation. — The subsequent 

management consists in drawing a little 
earth to the stems as they elongate, keep- 
ing the ground clear of weeds, repeatedly 
stirring the surface between the rows, and 
of all things avoiding the practice of 
cropping the leaves — an old and nearly 
obsolete mode — which, however, has been 
recently recommended, with a view, it is 
asserted, of increasing the size of the 

Soil and Manures. — The soil, from what 
we have already stated, cannot be over 
rich, nor, indeed, need the manure be 
at all so decomposed as for onions. We 
believe the leek would luxuriate well on 
the top of a dunghiU. It is important, 
however, that the ground be deeply 
trenched, and also that the manure be 
nearly as deeply buried ; for as the roots 
are from one to two feet or more under 
the surface, so also should the manure be. 
Deep alluvial soils, if dry at bottom, are 
excellent for the leek ; and next, those 
that are of a deep rich loamy nature : 
light shallow ones are the worst of all. In 
these latter, the plants should be set on 
the surface upon a bed of rich manure, 
and earthed up as they proceed, as is 
practised with celery. 

Forcing. — The leek is never forced be- 
yond the slight extent noticed above, to 
forward them for final planting. 

Taking the crop, and subsequent preserva- 
tion. — The crop is left in the ground till 
wanted for use. It is expedient, how- 
ever, upon the appearance of frost, to 
take up a quantity to be laid in soil or 
sand in the root cellar, or other place of 
shelter, so as to be conveniently got at 
when wanted for use. 

Approved sorts and their qualities. — The seed- 
lists contain several names of sorts : of these, 
the Large Flag, London Flag, English Flag may- 
be considered as identical. The Musselburgh is 
an early improvement on the Scotch Flag; and 
what is now called the Edinburgh Improved, ap- 
pears to be only selected from the Musselburgh 
stock. The Dutch Flag, Erfurt, and Rouen, 
seem, as they are at present growing in alter- 
nate rows in the Dalkeith gardens, to be in no- 
wise different from each other. They appear, 
however, to be disposed to attain a greater 
growth than any of the others. There is a sort 
of Allium grown in Pembrokeshire, and along 
the Welsh borders, called the hollow leek, pro- 
ducing roots in clusters like shallots. It is, 
however, scarcely worth the notice of the modern 
horticulturist, in the presence of so many sorts 
that are superior. 

Saving of seed. — In saving seed, some of 



the largest and finest specimens should 
be selected ; and as we in the North 
have scarcely climate for saving this or 
the onion, it has been found expedient to 
plant them at the bottom of a south wall, 
and to support the flower stems by it. 
In such a way, considerable quantities of 
good seed are annually produced about 
Musselburgh, and in other warm locali- 
ties. In better climates, the same mode 
is followed as recommended for onions, 
(which see.) 

The European names are — Porreau, or Ail i, 
tuniques, in French ; zahme Lauoh, gemeiner 
Laiich, Porro-Zwiebel, or Spanisohe Lauoh, in 
German ; Porro, or Porreta, in Italian ; Puerro 
in Spanish ; Alho Porro in Portuguese ; Purio 
in Swedish ; Pras in Russian ; Prei, Look, or 
Porreye, in Dutoh. 

§ 6. — THE CHIVE. 

Natural history. — The chive (Allmm Sckoe- 
noprasum, L.) belongs to the same natural 
order, and ranks in the same class and order in 
the Linnseau arrangement as the five last. It is 
indigenous to various parts of Britain, occa- 
sionally found in meadows and pastures, but at 
no great elevation. 

tfses. — The young leaves are the parts used ; 
the roots, although bulbs, are very small, 
and although partaking of the taste and pro- 
perties of the rest of the family, have never, so 
far as we are aware of, been used as an article 
of food. The young leaves are used in mixed 
salads as a substitute for young onions, and by 
many are preferred, being milder in flavour. 
They are used in a young tender state ; and, to 
keep up a succession during spring, summer, 
and autumn, the plants are repeatedly cut over, 
whether the leaves are required or not, the in- 
tention being to have them always young. 
During winter they are obtained from plants 
taken up in autumn, and potted and kept in a 
mild temperature, say from 45 to S5. They 
are very much used in soups, particularly in 
Scotch famOies, for seasoning various dishes. 

shred in small pieces, and served up with beef- 
steaks, being sprinkled over them just as they 
are taken from the fire. They are next to indis- 
pensable in omelets, and hence are much more 
used on the Continent, particularly in Roman 
Catholic countries, than in Britain. The process 
of gathering them is to cut them over near the 
ground, but so as to carry no earthy matter 
vrith them, for much of their flavour would be 
lost by washing. They are then tied up in 
small bunches, ready for the kitchen. The cir- 
cumstance of their being gathered in this way, 
Loudon remarks, has caused them to be spoken 
of in the plural. Chives. 

Mode of propagation, cultivation, ^c. — 
They are propagated by division of the 
roots either in the spring or autumn. 
Their roots, growing in bundles, admit of 
this mode with great facility. They may 
also be singled out and planted indivi- 
dually, but this is seldom done. They 
grow in bunches often 6 or 8 inches in 
diameter. One of these may be divided 
into a dozen or more pieces, each of which 
will, in a few weeks, if planted in spring, 
form a compact patch. Each patch 
should stand clear of the other, so that in 
forming a new bed of them, they should 
be set a foot or 15 inches asunder. A 
plantation will last for many years, but it 
is well to renew them every third or 
fourth year. All the cultivation they 
require is to be kept clear of weeds, and 
the leaves frequently cut over. They will 
prosper in any ordinary garden ground, 
and there is only one variety in cultiva- 

The European names arc— Ciboulette, or Ci- 
vette, in French ; der Binsenlauch, or Schnitt- 
lauch,in German; BiesIook,orSuyprei,in Dutch; 
Cipoletta maligia in Italian ; Cibollino de Ingla- 
terra in Spanish ; Cebolinha de Ingalaterra in 
Portuguese; Graslog in Danish; Luczer-lupny 
in Polish. 



As has been elsewhere stated, plants 
of this natural order are recorded to 
have been amongst the first vegetables 
employed by man as articles of food. 
The legumes or pods, either in their ear- 
lier stages of growth, as in the case of the 
kidney bean, or in their more advanced 
growth, as the pea and bean, the seeds of 
which are eaten both in a green and 
ripened form, are the parts of the plant 
employed in culinary matters. This very 
extensive order contains no less than 244 
genera, and upwards of 2630 species. Of 
these, the following, with their sub-varie- 
ties, hold a prominent position in garden 
culture, viz. : — The Pea, Garden Bean, 
Kidney, French or Haricot Bean. 

§ 1. — THE PEA. 

Natwral history. — -The pea {Pisum sativum, 
L.) belongs to the natural order Leguminosas, 
subdivision SaroolobEe ; tribe Viciese ; and to 
the class Diadelphia, and order Decandria, in 
the Linnsean arrangement. The genus Pisura 
contains seven species ; three of which are cul- 
tivated for culinary purposes, besides the varie- 
ties and sub-varieties of Pisum sativum, whose 
name is legion — if faith is to be placed in the 
list of names found in seedsmen's catalogues. 
Pisum maritimum, a species which is indigenous 
to some parts of the east coast of England, has 
in former times been used as an article of food 
in times of scarcity. The name Pisum is de- 
rived from the Celtic pis, a pea ; or, according 
to Philips, from Pisa (a town of Elis), where 
pease anciently grew in great plenty. The Eng- 
lish name appears to be a corruption of the 
Latin. Tusser, who wrote in the time of Queen 
Mary, and Gerard, soon after him, both wrote 
if'Peason;" Dr Holland, writing in the time 
of Charles I., spells it Pease, since abbreviated 
into Pea. 

The native country of the pea, like that of 
most of our cultivated esculents, is not now 
known. Modern catalogues refer it to the south 

of France, and Valmont Bomare distinctly says, 
" the garden pea was originally from France ;" 
and Mr Coles, in his History of Plants, says the 
Fulham pease, which came first out of France, 
is so called because the gi'ounds about Fulham, 
"neere London, doe bring them forward soonest." 
Pease undoubtedly came originally into France, 
Italy, and Spain, from the East; and although 
we cannot identify the lentils used in the days 
of Jacob and Esau with the pea of later times, 
still, we know they were cultivated by both the 
Greeks and Eomans in the time of PHny, who 
informs us that the former sowed their pease in 
November, but the latter did not plant theirs 
till spring — and then only in warm places lying 
well to the sun. " For," says he, " of all things, 
pease cannot endure cold." 

The time of their introduction into Britain is 
as uncertain as their native place. That they 
were cultivated to some extent in the time 
of Henry VIII. is more than probable, as one 
variety, the Rouncival — a name continued down 
to the present day — is mentioned by Tvisser, in 
his " Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry," 
who says, — 

" Dig garden, 'stroy mallow, now may you at ease, 
And eet (as a daintie) thy runcival pease I*' 

And that they were then grown much as at pre- 
sent, would appear from the following line : — 

'* Stike plentie of bowes among runcival pease, 
To clamber thereon, and branch at their ease." 

In the early part of Good Queen Bess's reigii, 
they were, however, less abundant than the 
above quotation would lead us to suppose. For, 
as FuUer remarks, they were seldom seen, ex- 
cept those brought from Holland, and " these 
were dainties for ladies — they came so far, and 
cost so dear." 

Green pease appear to have been unknown to 
our Saxon ancestors ; nor was it imtil after the 
Norman Conquest, and the establishment of mo- 
nastic communities, that we read of such being 
used. Fosbrooke, in « Brit. Monasticon," says 
that, amongst other rarities, green pease were 
provided against midsummer, for the nunnery 
at Barking in Essex. And in " Archeeologia," 
13, 373, early pease are thus directed to be 
treated : " If one will have pease soone in the 
year following, such pease are to be sowen in 
the wane of the moonc, at St Andrew's tide 



before Christmas." Bonnefonds, in his " Jardi- 
nier Franpaia," (1651), describes the skinless pea 
as the Dutch pea, and remarks, that until lately 
they were exceedingly rare. They appear to 
have been introduced into France from Holland 
about 1600. Green pease became a popular 
delicacy in England soon after the Restoration 
of Charles II.; and, strange enough, even for 
late ones so early as 1769, as it is a matter of 
history that on the 28th October of that year, 
a guinea a pottle— not quite half a dish— was 
given in Covent-Garden market; and as much 
as ten times that sum has been paid since 
in the same market, for a quart of green pease 

Use. — Pease in their dried state are used in 
soups, either whole or split ; in the latter form 
they are generally preferred. They are also 
made into puddings, and occasionally ground 
into meal ; in either way they form an agreeable 
and nourishing food — not, however, well-suited 
to those of weak digestion. Old pease are often 
diflScult to boil ; indeed, sometimes no boiling 
vrill render them soft. This has been said to 
ensue when they have been kept more than one 
year; and also that those grown on land which 
has been manured with lime, marl, or gypsum, 
will even not boil at all, whatever their age may 
be. That such a circumstance sometimes oc- 
curs as their not boiling, is pretty well known 
to dealers; but that either of the causes assigned 
is the true one, seems to us to be doubtful. 
AU t\e varieties of garden pea are esteemed for 
their seed whUe in a young state ; indeed, for 
the tables of the great, they can hardly be either 
too small or too young. In their second state 
or size, they are used for green-pea soup ; and, 
in their third state, when fully grown, but still 
quite green and soft, they form an ingredient in 
hodge-podge. In gathering, the young gardener 
should be informed for which of these purposes 
they are intended ; for whether for the one or 
the other, the pease should be of a uniform 
size and age. We may here also observe, that 
several of our largest-growing varieties are ob- 
jected to merely on account of size, and there- 
fore it is unwise to indulge exclusively in such 
sorts ; for although excellent, and most profit- 
able to those who wish a good comfortable 
family dish of duck and green pease, they would 
be considered unfit for a first-rate table. The 
marrow-fats, although much prized by some on 
account of their peculiar fine flavour and deli- 
cacy, must give way, in this respect, to Sutton's 
early champion, Beck's morning star, early 
Frame, Prince Albert, Auvergne, and such like 
smaller sorts ; while Bishop's new long-podded, 
Thurstone's reliance, Hair's dwarf mammoth — 
aU first-class pease for profitable culture — must 
not be calculated upon to afford a supply for 
mouths genteeL In a sanitary point of view, 
pease cannot be eaten too young, nor too soon 
after they are gathered ; and hence people who 
have to depend on the public markets for their 
supply, seldom taste this very popular vegetable 
in perfection, and too often have it only when 
it is almost unfit for use. This is a formidable 
objection to imported pease. It is, of course, for 
the interest of the producer to keep back his 

pease till they are fully grown, because they mea 
sure better, and we believe with many take bet- 
ter, as they get greater bulk for their money. This 
may be so far excusable on the part of such ; 
but it is inexcusable that a gentleman, having a 
private garden of his own, should be served 
with pease otherwise than in the very highest 
state of perfection — which they arenot, if allowed 
to become too old, or even too large. Mint is 
usually boiled with pease. It improves the 
flavour of them while young, and very much 
enhances the flavour of pea-soup ; it also cor- 
rects flatulency. A few sprigs of mint should 
accompany the pease to the kitchen. 

There is one section, of garden pease called 
sugar-pease, the pods of which have the inner 
film wanting, or much less tough than usual. 
The pods in this section are used with the 
young seed within them, and are cooked and 
eaten the same as French or kidney beans. 
This is a mode of using pease we would like to 
see much more generally in use : dressed in 
this way, they afford a delicious and economical 

Regarding the nutritive properties of the pea 
in a green state, we have never met with a satis- 
factory analysis. In a ripened state, the flour 
of pease is as three to two of bulk in grain ; and 
when dressed and split for soups, as four to two. 
According to Sir H. Davy, 1000 parts of pea- 
flour afforded 574 parts of nutritive or soluble 
matter ; viz., 501 of mucilage, 22 of sugar, 35 of 
gluten, and 16 of extract, or matter rendered 
insoluble during the operation. The sugar-pease 
are much more used on the Continent than with 
us. The dwarf crooked sugar-pea (pois sans par- 
chemin ou mange tout — zwerg zuckerchoutte), 
and the tall crooked sugar-pea (pois sans parche- 
min k grandes cosses — grosse schottige zucker- 
erbse), are met with at every table d'hdte. 

Yet how seldom do we see such a dish in our 
own country. This may be looked upon as the 
more singular, as Gerard, writing in 1S97, in 
speaking of the different sorts of pease, or " pea- 
sou," as he has it, says there are " some with 
tough skins, or membrances in the cods; and 
others have not at all, whose cods are to be 
eaten with the pease when they be yoong, as 
those of the yoong kidney-beane : " than this 
nothing can be clearer. Hoffman and Simon 
Paull treat largely on their medical proper- 
ties ; and Lemery, " On Foods," remarks that 
" pease contain a viscous and thick juice, which 
causes flatulency, and produces gross humours ; 
and therefore they are not good for those that 
are troubled with gravel." Green pease may be 
preserved for winter use if dried in a cool oven, 
and afterwards placed in paper bags suspended 
from the roof in a dry room. 

Propagation. — All the cultivated pease, 
being annuals, are propagated by seed. 

Sowing. — The earliest crops to be pro- 
duced in the open garden, -without artifi- 
cial aid, are obtained by a judicious selec- 
tion of the most approved early varieties, 
choosing a favourable soil and situation, 
and committing the seed to the ground in 



the end of October, and throughout No- 
vember, December, and January. It is 
of importance, also, in making this selec- 
tion, that the hardier varieties should be 
chosen. Hamilton's November prolific is 
one of these. We have seen it, during 
the two last winters, standing in an ele- 
vated part of Dumfriesshire, when other 
early sorts alongside of it were much 
injured by the cold. In practice, we find 
it is not always the crop first sown, how- 
ever, that is first fit for gathering, even 
within a few feet of the same altitude, 
and a quarter of a mile of the same line 
of latitude. Local circumstances, to a 
very great extent, set aside in such mat- 
ters the dicta laid down by those who 
found the ripening of fruits or of garden 
crops upon what has been called the 
geographical distribution of plants. The 
London market-gardeners, to whom early 
pease are a remunerating crop, sow in De- 
cember in rows, in borders under walls, 
or by the sides of hedges three feet and a 
half apart. The pease are never staked, 
and the sorts preferred are, early Frame, 
Bishop's new long-podded. Groom's superb 
dwarf blue. Mr Baker, in " Gardeners' 
Chronicle," 1848, p. 365, on this matter 
observes : — " I generally sow in Novem- 
ber, by a wall in the garden, and the pease 
are trained to sticks in the usual way ; 
but I have almost invariably picked first 
from the field crop, although not sown 
until February. It is very true that, 
having a large space to collect the first 
picking from, I gather a pod only here 
and there ; but having found the earliest 
and best-filled pods nearest the ground, 
leads me to suppose that, by training on 
sticks, the exposure to the atmospheric 
air during night retards the growth, inas- 
much as the heat given out by the earth 
during that period is prevented from 
assisting the growth of the pea by train- 
ing them above the ground ; and, from 
the habit of the pea entirely covering the 
surface, but little circulation of the air 
takes place among them in the field. My 
land is a dry, siliceous, and strong soil, 
and radiates a considerable degree of heat 
during the day, which also tends to the 
early production of the crop." 

Pease, like all other crops grown in 
rows or drills, wherever natural obstruc- 
tions do not occur to prevent it, should 
be sown in a direction from south to 

north, unless in the case of very early 
crops transplanted at the bottom of a 
south wall, when, for obvious reasons, the 
direction should be reversed. The main 
intention of placing crops in the former 
direction is, that the sun may have free 
access to every part of the ground between 
the lines, and the plants themselves be 
placed in the most favourable position in 
this respect also. If placed in a counter 
direction — namely, from east to west — one 
side only would have the full advantage 
of the sun, while the other would derive 
little advantage whatever. Some draw 
their lines obliquely, fancying thereby to 
secure the early morning and late after- 
noon sun in its greatest vigour, and cal- 
culating, also, that its influence is thus 
more equally diffused. In this, to a certain 
extent, they are right ; but do they who 
follow this practice truly calculate the 
angle at which they place their rows, or 
do they reconcile the angle to the latitude 
of the place ? or do they take into con- 
sideration that the sun is either constantly 
rising or falling in 'the horizon, so that 
whatever angle they may adopt is difie- 
rently circumstanced as regards the sun's 
rays every day ? 

As to distance between the rows, when 
pease are sown in the usual manner — that 
is, row after row throughout the whole 
quarter — it may be taken as a general 
rule that as much space should be allowed 
between them as the sorts attain in 
height ;— thus, a pea of two feet in height 
should have two feet from row to row, 
and so on, up to Knight's tall marrow, 
which attains a height of from eight to 
ten feet — which latter should be placed at 
least ten feet asunder. A much better 
plan was, we believe, first recommended 
by the late Mr Cobbett, who is said, by 
those who seem to know, to have published 
the best Enghsh Grammar of the day; 
and we can safely say he wrote the best 
book on cottage gardens which has ap- 
peared before or since. His plan with 
pease was to sow in single rows, twenty, 
thirty, or fifty feet apart, by which every 
portion of the crop was fully exposed to 
the sun and air — the crop hanging, in 
consequence, profusely from bottom to 
top. By this means, also, he secured 
shelter to his other crops, as his pea crop 
served the purpose of so many temporary 
screens during the whole summer, at the 



very time they were of most importance. 
There is no loss of ground by this method, 
for other crops can be planted to within 
1^ or 2 feet of the rows — which space 
is necessary for the purpose of gathering 
them. Any person of the least obser- 
vation must have seen that the out- 
side of the first or last row in a contin- 
uous piece always produces the earliest, 
finest, and most abundant crop. There 
is a great economy of space by sowing 
pease in the following manner, noticed 
iu the "Gardeners' Magazine," vol. iv., 
p. 225 : — " If only two rows in one place, 
and two more in another, 15 or 20 feet 
distant, were sown, there would be four 
outsides ; whereas, if they were all sown 
together, there would only be two out- 
sides. Two rows in one place occupy 
3 feet 6 inches in width, and two rows in 
another the same, making together 7 feet; 
but if four rows were sown together, they 
would take up between 1 1 and 1 2 feet of 
ground. Here there is a saving of nearly 
one half." Again, let us observe that, 
without infringing on the rules of rota- 
tion, -the leguminous plants may never- 
theless be grown on the same quarter or 
division, by sowing the tallest-growing 
sorts at great distances apart, placing the 
dwarf-growing ones between, interlining 
with kidney beans, which attain the 
height of 18 inches, and with the new 
dwarf cluster garden - bean of similar 
height : thus the object of full exposure 
would be attained, while the rotation 
would not be interfered with. 

Sowing for principal crops should be 
attended to from the middle of March to 
the end of July, making a sowing every 
fortnight or tkree weeks at latest, where 
a constant supply is required daily. Some 
sow one crop just as the last appears above 
the ground. All this, so far as regards a 
constant and uninterrupted succession, 
depends far more upon the sorts sown 
than on the exact period, because some 
kinds come to perfection much sooner 
than others. (Vide List of sorts, Sfc.) 

For the latest crops of all, sow on the 
1st, 10th, and 15th of August, and 1st of 
September, choosing dwarf early sorts, for 
the greater convenience of protecting 
them, should need be, during November 
and December, by spreading thin can- 
vass over them on frosty nights. 

There are few esculent crops that suffer 

so much from the malpractice of too thick 
sowing as the pea. The autumn-sown 
crops, of course, reqiiire more seed, as the 
chances they run of being inj\ired by 
frost or devoured by mice are very great, 
and therefore that should be taken into 
account : if they escape these dangers, 
they can be thinned out, and the thin- 
nings transplanted in spring. We would 
also remind amateurs, particularly those 
near towns, that the sparrows will take 
their tithe of them just as they come 
above ground, and that provision must 
be made for this in sowing. Fifty peas 
to the foot of line in such cases, and of 
such sorts as Warner's early emperor, 
Sutton's early champion, Fairbaird'scham- 
pion of England, and Bishop's new 
long-podded, will be ample. For very 
small gardens, Bishop's early dwarf is 
well adapted, growing only 1 foot in 
height, and hence requiring no stakes. 
They should all be sown 3| inches in 
depth. The fourth in the above list may 
be sown at half the above distance, as 
it sends out lateral branches, and hence 
requires space for them to spread. Pease 
are always, in England, sold by the pint or 
quart, peck, bushel, kc; in Scotland, often 
by the pound, when in small quantities. 
One quart is equal to about 2 lb., and 
contains of the largest sized peas 1298, 
and of the smaller 2150. One pint 
of the small-seeded sorts, as the Frames, 
Charltons, &c., will sow a row 20 yards 
in length ; and the same quantity of 
larger-growing sorts will sow a row 33 
yards long, on account of their being 
sown so much thinner. The old practice 
of treading down the pease, when sown in 
autumn, should be discontinued, and this 
the more especially if the ground be wet 
or the soil strong. The old Scotch prac- 
tice of sowing in double rows is now 
seldom seen, at least where anything like 
good culture is exhibited. 

Many cultivators, and ourselves amongst 
the number, set their pease for general 
crops singly, as is practised with beans, 
the larger-growing sorts from 3 to 4 
inches apart ; and we also, in some cases, 
plant them in patches of five or sis in 
each, allowing as much space from patch 
to patch as the pease attain feet in height, 
each patch assuming, when staked, a 
pyramidal form : by this means the whole 
surface is exposed to the sun and air. The 



usual allowance for seed is — for the frame 
section, which includes most of the early 
sorts, 36 peas per foot of line ; marrow- fats, 
dwarf variety, 24 ; do. tall, and all of 
similar habit, 12 ; blue Prussian, and 
those of the same size, 18, i&o. The depth 
for main crops should be, for the smaller- 
sized pease, 2^ inches j for the larger kind, 
3^ inches. 

To obtain pease early, various methods 
have been tried : some sow in flat pots or 
boxes in January, placing them in a cool 
pit near to the glass, and transplant about 
the middle of March; others in small 
60-sized pots, so as to tTu:n out the balls 
entire at planting ; some follow Bishop's 
recommendation, and sow on thin nar- 
row strips of turf, burying the turf under 
them at planting; while many sow in 
open drain-tiles fiUed with soil, some 
on narrow pieces of board, and many 
nail two boards together in form of a 
triangular trough about 3 inches deep, 
fill the same with mould, and sow thereon. 
At planting, drills are drawn; these troughs 
are set in them, the sides removed, and 
the row of pease left undisturbed. The 
following very excellent mode has been 
long practised by Mr Drummond, gar- 
dener at Blair-Drummond : — About the 
beginning of February, when he com- 
mences forcing peaches, "the border in- 
side the house, on each side of the path- 
way, is covered to the depth of 3 or 4 
inches with cow-dung, gathered from the 
park ; over this is laid 2 inches of decom- 
posed tree-leaves, passed through a very 
wide sieve, raking level, and beating 
slightly with the back of a spade : upon 
this the peas are sprinkled as thick as 
they will lie together, and covered with 
sifted leaf-mould 2 inches thick. In the 
course of three weeks or so the pease are 
fit for planting out, being from 4 to 6 
inches long. A border on the south 
aspect of a wall is chosen for the first 
planting, the ground being dunged, and 
dug deep and fine ; furrows are taken 
out with the spade diagonally across the 
border ; " the pease are then raised from the 
border of the peach-house with a three- 
pronged hand-fork," in large pieces, and 
carried to the prepared drill ; " they are 
then divided by the hand into small 
patches, drawing pach patch longitudi- 
nally, then placing it in the cut furrow in 
the manner of planting box-edgings, let- 

ting the roots hang as perpendicular as 
may be. By this operation very little of 
the dung and leaf-mould falls from the 
roots. The earth is then laid over and 
pressed firmly to the roots, and another 
furrow made, and drill-planted in the 
same manner, 9 inches from and parallel 
to the other, thus forming a double row. 
A little earth is drawn up about them 
with the draw-hoe, and they are staked 
pretty closely, and a few fir-twigs are 
stuck among the stakes to ward oiF sharp 
frosts; these are removed when the weather 
gets mild. Pease sown on the 1st of 
February, and transplanted as described 
above, are fit for gathering about the same 
time as, or even sooner than, those of the 
same sort sown on the 11th of November 
preceding, in the open air, along the bot- 
tom of a wall with a south aspect. Pease, 
by this process, have been gathered on the 
26th of May^ — certainly very early for such 
a locality; indeed, unusually early for 
any part of Scotland. Pease are readily 
transplanted while under 4 inches in 
height ; they may therefore be sown on 
a warm border, or in a pit or frame 
covered with glass lights in severe weather, 
and transplanted in March. This, although 
not a very general practice, has been in 
use for above a century. Justice, in his 
" British Garden Calendar," published 
in 1759, recommends the practice, and 
reasons on the advantage of it. Bishop, 
in his excellent "Casual Botany," sug- 
gested sowing them in November on nar- 
row strips of turf,' and transplanting 
them undisturbed at a more advanced 
period of the season. Pease do not re- 
quire this trouble ; indeed, it is question- 
able whether the operation of transplant- 
ing in the ordinary manner may not be 
an advantage, as the greater or less degree 
of injury to the long tap-roots causes 
them to put out lateral ones, which, taking 
a more horizontal direction, are nearer 
the surface, and consequently influenced 
somewhat by the sun-heat, besides having 
the effect of causing the plants to send 
out a greater abundance of roots, and 
hence enabling them to secure a greater 
amount of food. The London' market- 
gardeners' practice is good, when they 
throw up triangular ridges in autumn, 
and sow a line of pease along the south 
side, and another along the opposite 
side, with a view to obtain an early crop 



on the south side, should they survive the 
frosts of winter and spring, on the side 
next the sun, the crop being accelerated 
by the radiated heat from the surface : 
should these faO, those on the northern side 
seldom do, and give a good crop, though 
somewhat later. In sowing the general 
crops during summer, if the ground be 
very dry, the drills should be well soaked 
with water previous to setting the pease : 
this moisture, being covered up, retains 
the seeds in good condition for a long 
time, and hastens their germination, which 
otherwise might as well be in the bag. 

Si^sequent cultivation. — When the crop 
has attained the height of about five 
inches, a little earth should be drawn 
around the stems, but not so close as to 
press upon them ; it should form a sort 
of ridge, with a slight channel in the 
middle. The intention here is not, as in 
many other cases, to encourage the roots 
to diverge in a horizontal direction, for 
they have no disposition to do so; but 
rather to give a slight support to the 
plants, until they take hold of the stakes 
which are to support them. Those crops 
which are not to be staked require this sup- 
port the most, and they should have the 
earth drawn up upon one side only, that 
the haulm may be thrown to one side, 
which will both facilitate the operation of 
gathering, and will keep the ground clean 
between them at the same time, while it 
supports the neck of the plants better than 
if the earth were drawn up on both sides. 

The advantage of stopping pease is much 
greater than is generally admitted, as is 
also that of thin-planting the seed. If 
the seed of most kinds be planted 6 inches 
apart, instead of being sown, as they gene- 
rally are, a saving of seed to the extent of 
five-sixths will be the consequence ; and if 
the plants, even of the tall-growing kinds, 
are stopped when they have attained the 
height of 2 feet, and when they have made 
three joints after this stopping — if stopped 
again and again, after every three joints 
are formed, until the period when they 
are wished to produce their pods, an in- 
crease of crop, at least fourfold, will repay 
the trouble; and if several kinds were 
sown on the same day, this stopping will 
bring them into bearing in succession, 
and just at the periods when the crop is 
desired. Whenever stopping ceases, the 
pease will flower and set their pods. It 


will, however, be necessary to look over 
the crop occasionally, and remove . any 
stray blossoms that may appear; for none 
should be allowed to set until the general 
crop is wished for. From this a good prac- 
tical lesson may be learned : the stopping 
gives strength to the plants and encourage- 
ment to the roots, so that, when the crop is 
really wanted, both are in a much better 
condition to throw strength into the crop 
than if they were allowed to rush up into 
blossom at once. In the event, also, of a 
wish to retard the ripening of a crop to 
any particular period, timeous stopping- 
will efiect this with greater certainty than 
repeated sowings made in the usual way. 
Staking is ibe next operation in cul- 
ture, and it is of great importance it 
should be done early, before the stems 
fall over. Such an untoward circum- 
stance often ruins an otherwise good crop. 
Newly transplanted pease, brought for- 
ward in a slight heat, require this atten- 
tion at the time they are planted, on ac- 
count of the shelter afforded them ; and 
pease sown in autumn, as soon as they 
begin to break through the surface, or 
even before, demand the same attention. 
It is of consequence that the supports, 
whatever they may be, be equal in height 
to the height the variety attains. Many 
contrivances have been thought of for 
supporting this crop, with a view to do 
away with the not very elegant appear- 
ance of the stakes. Posts driven in the 
lines, having wide-meshed netting sus- 
pended from them, and hanging down 
both sides of the line, is one of the most 
feasible plans. Hexagon wire-netting, 
attached to iron props, has been suggested, 
and no doubt would do well were expense 
no consideration. Lines of cord stretched 
along the rows, and fixed to upright rods, 
are sometimes used ; but by far the most 
general is branches of hazel, beech, or 
other deciduous trees. These, however, 
are very perishable. Branches of yew, 
lilac, or privet are the most durable, al- 
ways excepting the larch, which makes 
the best of all. Whenever, therefore, the 
prevailing disease attacks young larches, 
of from 6 to 10 feet in height, to the ex- 
tent of rendering their cutting down ex- 
pedient, lose not the chance of securing 
them. They require little preparation 
farther than pointing the root end, top- 
ping them all to the required heights, and 



switching the side branches off on both 
sides, as if switching a hedge. We have 
had such in use for six years. 

Whichever of these be employed, they 
should be stuck firmly in along both sides 
of the crop; and if placed in a slanting 
direction, so much the better for the ten- 
drilled branches attaching themselves to 
them. They should be of equal height, 
and all straggling side twigs should be 
cut off for appearance sake. 

Considerable advantage arises from top- 
ping the plan ts when they have shown a suf- 
ficient number of blossoms. This stops the 
growth of the haulm, and diverts the whole 
energy of the plants to the formation and 
development of the pods. In dry weather, 
pease often require water ; indeed, a good 
soaking to all crops in warm dry weather, 
whether they appear to require it or not, 
will be found of great advantage in pre- 
venting mildew and swelling out the crop. 
A humid climate suits the pea, and hence 
the longer continuance of our crops in Scot- 
land than in the southern parts of England. 

Soil and manure.— Tlhe pea comes earliest 
to maturity in light rich soils abounding 
in humus; hence the practice of adding 
decomposed leaves or vegetable mould to 
the roots at transplanting has the bene- 
ficial effects stated above. For general 
crops, a rich hazel loam, or deep rich allu- 
vial soil, is next best; but for the most 
abundant of all, a strong loam, inclining 
to clay. For early crops, mild manure, 
such as leaf-mould, should be used, unless 
the soil is not exceedingly poor. If the 
soil is very poor, stronger manure should 
be employed. For general crops a good 
dressing may be given ; and for the dwarf 
kinds, such as Hair's mammoth, Bishop's 
new long pod, the soil can hardly be too 
rich. If poor, they do little good, parti- 
cularly if, in addition to this, they be 
thickly planted. 

The crop should be gathered as it be- 
comes fit for use, for if even a few of them 
begin to ripen, young pods will not only 
cease to form, but those partly advanced 
will cease to enlarge. 

Gypsum has been applied to pease as an 
auxiliary to farmyard manure, and the ad- 
vantage is marked; and we have no doubt 
that, if it were applied as a top-dressing 
to the rows, at the rate of one cwt, and 
at a cost of about 3s., to a quarter of an 
acre, during the early stages of their 

growth, much benefit would result from 
its application in that way and at that 
period. It has much improved crops suf- 
fering from mildew, and those which have 
come up ill, or which have been injured 
by late spring frosts. It is more imme- 
diate in its effects when, applied either 
before or during rain. Top-dressing with 
nitrate of soda has also been found of ad- 
vantage under similar circumstances. The 
best manure, however, to be applied to 
pease, provided the ground stands in need 
of enrichment, is guano ; and we may 
once for all remark here, that, of all 
special manures, it is the best for almost 
all garden crops. It contains the ingre- 
dients required by most plants, and just 
in the proper state. We have used it 
with great advantage by following the 
practice of the Peruvians, who apply it to 
crops at three different times — viz., at the 
time of sowing, again when the plant is 
nearly half-grown, and a third time just 
previous to the ripening of the seed. With 
pease we have strewn a small quantity 
along the bottoms of the drills, which 
were drawn about 2 inches deeper than 
usual. This was mixed with soil, and 
about 2 inches of the common soil 
placed over it, upon which the pease were 
sown, and covered up in the usual man- 
ner. The quantity used was three pints 
of guano to a row 50 feet in length. The 
soil was dry at the time of sowing, and 
for a week afterwards, when genial show- 
ers fell, which we calculated would begin 
to render the guano soluble about the 
time the young rootlets had penetrated 
to its whereahmcts. The plants grew 
stronger than those in the adjoining rows, 
which were not thus treated, and con- 
tinued to keep the lead of them. When 
about a foot in height (the sort was 
Bishop's new long pod), \\ pints of 
guano were dissolved in a tub of water 
containing 100 quarts : the row was wa- 
tered with it. Just as we had gathered 
the first dish of pease, a similar quantity 
was applied. The pease continued to pro - 
duce pods three weeks longer than the 
neighbouring rows, and the pods were 
much better filled and the pease larger, 
the joints of the straw much closer toge- 
ther, and the stems of the straw itself 
nearly half as thick again as under ordi- 
nary circumstances. Applying the guano 
dry under ground prevents the escape of 



its ammonia : the moisture in the soil 
renders it soluble ; but in dry weather 
■water should be applied to effect this the 
more speedily. The other rows had the 
same quantity of pure rain-water applied 
to them, and the soil was the same. A simi- 
lar result followed the same experiment on 
beans, and on various other culinary crops. 
Our opinion is, that with guano, if the soil 
be in a proper state, and in the absence 
of stable manure, we are quite indepen- 
dent of all other so-called manures what- 
ever ; for although, for some purposes, 
they do some good, yet they can never be, 
like guano, of universal application. 

Fordng. — Even in our present state of 
horticultural advancement, the pea is not 
very generally forced : it is, however, in 
some large establishments, grown in pots, 
boxes, and heated pits. Being a native 
of the more temperate regions, it does not 
prosper in much heat ; that of a glass- 
case or late peach-house seems a proper 
medium. No doubt, ere long, pits will 
be constructed for the express purpose; 
and such structures as Mr Rivers' orchard- 
houses would be almost aU that would be 
required. The very earliest and most 
dwarf varieties (videZJs<s of approved sorts, 
iS^c.) should be chosen. A rich vegetable 
soil should be employed. Pots with 
three or four seeds in each is the most 
probable means of attaining a crop. A 
temperature commencing at 40° and 50° 
during the day will be sufficient until 
the pods are beginning to form, rising 
gradually afterwards from 55° at night 
to 70° during sunshine. Forced pease 
should be invariably transplanted, to 
check luxuriance. If sown towards the 
end of October, with good management 
and in abundance of light, gathering may 
be expected by the 1st of March. After 
the pods are set, a little stimulant should 
be applied in the shape of liquid manure. 

Approved sorts, cmd their qualities. — It is diffi- 
cult, in attempting to do anything like justise 
to a subject so involved in confusion as the pea 
tribe has long been, and still is, to know whether 
it would be best to give a list of those names 
which have been sufficiently proved to be mere 
synonymes of one another, and of those kinds 
which are now quite unworthy of longer culti- 
vation, or to confine ourselves to a notice of 
those which are really distinct, so far as their 
period of ripening, height, colour, and size can 
be considered as distinctive marks, and which 
are, on account of one or more of these cha- 
racteristics, most deserving of cultivation. We 

think the latter mode Tidll be the most generally 

As an instance of the deceptions carried on 
in the pea-trade, we may notice that of the 
Egyptian or mummy pea, said to have been 
raised from seeds taken out of a vase hermeti- 
cally sealed, foimd in a mummy-pit in Egypt, 
computed to have been kept in that state about 
three thousand years, which has been found no 
other than the well-known branching marrow 
of our own gardens. 

From the experiments made about' two years 
ago in the gardens of the London Horticultural 
Society, under the direction of Mr Thomson, 
who sowed no less than 235 reputed sorts, all 
of which were at that time enumerated in seed- 
lists, only twenty-seven of that number were se- 
lected as being really useful. This selection the 
editor of " The Gardeners' Chronicle" at that time 
thought might safely be reduced to half-a-dozen. 
During the years 1850-51, we sowed upwards of 
one hundred reputed sorts in the gardens at Dal- 
keith — fifty sorts in each of these years. They 
were in each case sown on the same day (25th 
March), in the same soil, and under the same 
circumstances. Out of that number we selected 
twelve as being truly distinct and useful ; yet 
one half of these would be quite sufficient for 
even our use, who require them during the 
longest possible period. New sorts are yearly 
springing up, and therefore it would be inju- 
dicious not to give them a fair trial ; for as we 
progress in pea-culture, as in everything else, we 
may naturally expect that improved sorts wUl 
arise and take the place of others that may be 
inferior. We have elsewhere stated that the 
height to which they grow regulates pretty 
nearly the distance at which they should be set 
apart, either between the rows, or individually 
in the line. 

The following are the names of Mr Thompson's 
select list of eleven out of the above twenty-seven 
as determined at the above date ; the heights 
and properties, &c. we have added: — 

1. Prince Albert. — From 24 to 3 feet, accord- 
ing to soil; a white-seeded pea, forming with 
Kenfs early, early hero, early Warwick, early 
May, and a lot of others, a section of which the 
true early frame is the type, and comprising 
our earliest sorts ; moderate croppers ; pods con- 
tain from eight to ten peas each. 

2. I>'Auvergne.—i feet; seeds white ; remark- 
able for its long crooked pods, and the great 
number of moderate-sized peas each pod con- 
tains; one of our best for second or general 
crops. This is identical with Richardson's 
eclipse and Torwoodlea,two Scotch synonymes. 

3. Dancer's monastery. — 44feet; seedswhite; a 
good profitable sort for a second or general crop ; 
peas of moderate size, rather above medium. 

4. Bishop's new long. pod. — 2 feet; seeds 
white. A most abundant bearer, producing 
a succession of pods during most of the pea 
season. Like all dwarf peas of its class, it re- 
quires a rich soil, and from 4 to 6 inches between 
the seed in the line. We have had this pea 
producing a good supply for three months in 
succession. It is one of the most valuable sorts 
for small gardens, and for domestic use : its only 



fault in large estabUsliments is the large size of 
the peas, but, although disliked by cooks on that 
account, it is much prized by them for many 
purposes. It originated with the late Mr David 
Bishop, author of " Casual Botany," and is a 
hybrid between Bishop's early dwarf, a pea of 
only 1 foot in height, and one of the marrow- 
fats, carrying in itself the characters of both its 

5. Fairbeard's surprise. — S^ feet; seed bluish; 
a proiitable sort for a second or general crop. 
Pods thick, roundish, containing from seven to 
nine peas of excellent quality ; the same as Fair- 
beard's early surprise. 

6. Victoria marrow. — 54 to 6 feet; seed bluish; 
an excellent sort for a general crop. Pods 
nearly 4 inches long, generally in pairs, contain- 
ing from seven to eight large peas each; one of 
our very best peas. 

7. Sedman's iTnperial. — 3 feet; seed large; 
bluish green; called also Bedman's dwarf im- 
perial ; very similar to Flack's dwarf victory ; 
perhaps scarcely worth growing as distinct sorts. 
Very prolific ; peas large ; excellent for green- 
pea soup. 

8. Flack's new large victory. — Seed large; 
bluish green; 3 feet. Mr Thompson makes this 
distinct from the last. It seems to us to be a 
distinction without a difference. There would 
be, however, no loss in growing both these ex- 
cellent peas under different names — much less, 
at, least, than scores of others. Pease generally 
six in a pod, and of excellent quality. 

9. Knight's tall marrow. — 6 to 7feet ; seed large ; 
wrinkled or indented when dry; white. Often 
called Knight's tall white marrow, to distingviish 
it from Knight's tall green marrow. Originated 
with the late Mr T. A. Knight {vide sect. Peopa- 
GATION BY Seed). Very much esteemed for its 
productiveness and fine flavour. Like all the tall 
riiarrows, only fit for a large garden, and then to 
be grown in single rows, at a great distance apart. 
Adapted for general crops. Pods large — from 
seven to nine peas in each ; known also as 
Knight's late, Knight's tail green marrow. 
Knight's tall blue marrow. 

10. Fairbeard's champion of England. — 5 to 6 
feet ; seed large ; wrinkled when dry ; bluish 
green. One of the best of the wrinkled marrows, 
and well adapted for general crops, as well as 
early ones, being about as early as the Charlton. 
From seven to eight large peas in a pod. 

11. Knight's dwarf marrow. — 3 to 4 feet. 
There are two varieties of Knight's dwarf mar- 
row, differing, we think, only in the colour of 
the dried seed, the one being white, the other 
greenish. However, either is valuable for a 
general crop. The bluish green variety appears 
to be preferred by Mr Thompson. Like all the 
marrows, the seeds are large. Pods large, con- 
taining six peas in each, and of excellent flavour; 
quite sugary. 

. To these we shall add from our own memo- 
randa, resulting from our trial above referred 

1. Hair's dwarf mammotli. — 2 feet; seed large; 
wrinkly; bluish green when ripe. Equal in 
flavour to any of Knight's marrows, hitherto 
considered the best in this respect. A most 

productive pea, continuing, like Bishop's new 
long pod, in bearing for a long time, but some- 
what later. Indeed, it is a truly second or gene- 
ral crop variety. It is larger in pod than Knight's 
dvrarf marrow, and about seven days earlier. It 
requires highly enriched soil, and the peas to 
be planted from 4 to 6 inches apart in the line, 
as they branch out in the manner of Bishop's. 
One of the most valuable for small gardens and 
private families, and, like the latter, although 
large when sent to the table, if not too old, eats 
dehciously, having a great deal of the marrow 
property about it. 

2. Lynn'sprolific.—i feet; seeds undermedium 
size; wrinkled, and having a dark eye when ripe; 
seemingly a distinct variety of marrow; very 
productive, and stands drought well. Suited 
for a general crop. 

3. Sutton's early Goliah.—i feet; seed and pod 
large ; in flavoiir resembling Knight's marrow-fats. 
Suited for a general crop, as it is an abundant 

4. Early Charlton. — Too well known to re- 
quire description, having been in cultivation for 
upwards of a century. We notice it here on 
account of its great hardiness and fitness for 
autumn sowing, to stand over the winter. How 
will those opposed to the doctrine of accliraa- 
tation account for this 1 Originally it must have 
been as tender as the early frame, its constant 
attendant, which, like it, is also hardy; and 
both, with the exception of Hamilton's Novem- 
ber proKfic (which is no other than seed selected 
from the Charlton), stand the winter better 
than those of more recent origin. 

5. Tlie true early frame. — The type of the early 
Kent, of all the really early sorts, and probably 
of the next two. 

6. Beck's morning star. — 3 feet ; seeds small ; 
podding early and largely; pease a proper size 
for a first-rate table. 

7. Sutton's early champion. — 3 feet; resembling 
the last, only somewhat earlier. 

8. Burbage's eclipse. — From 18 inches to 2 
feet; seed large — from five to six in a pod; blue 
when ripe. An excellent bearer, having, the 
young pease of a very proper size. Known 
also as Stubb's dwarf. Not so early as Bishop's 
new long pod; it is, however, a good dwarf pea 
for summer crops. 

9. Groom's superb dwarf blue. — Under 2 feet; 
the most productive of its height; well adapted 
for small gardens, as a second cropper. 

10. Woodford's dwarf. — 24 feet; seed medium 
size ; very dark green when ripe; a most abun- 
dant bearer, and well suited for small gardens 
as a principal crop. 

The dwarfest of all peas are, the Spanish 
dwarf. Bishop's early dwarf, Thompson's early 
dwarf. These seldom exceed 1 foot in height, 
and in rich ground give fair returns. 

11. Bellamy's early green marrow. — 4 to 
5 feet high; pods cyhndrical, straight, con- 
taining generally six to seven peas; a good 
bearer and excellent pea. 

12. Adamson's matchless marrow. — About 5 
feet in height ; pods curved, flattish, containing 
from six to seven peas. As early as the Charl- 
ton, and an excellent bearer. The following are 



BO nearly related to it that it would be useless 
to grow them in the same garden — viz., tall 
Pi-ussian, blue union, green nonpareil, tall impe- 
rial, tall blue imperial, tall green imperial, new 
tall imperial, Spauish patriot. 

13. Bltie Prussian. — A well-known excellent 
pea. We notice it here merely to give the 
synonymes — early Dutch green, fine long- 
podded dwarf, dwarf blue Prussian, royal Prus- 
sian blue, Prussian prolific, and green Prussian. 

14. Woodford's green marrow. — 3 feet in 
height; pods large, flat, containing six large 
well-flavoured peas, and an excellent bearer. 

15. Dwarf imperial. — 4 feet in height; 
pods large, containing from eight to ten peas ; 
a good bearer, and excellent for a late crop. 
Like all good sorts, has a host of names ; viz., 
sabre, blue sabre, new sabre, dwarf sabre, 
imperial, blue imperial, dwarf green imperial, 
new improved imperial, new improved dwarf 
imperial, new dwarf imperial, new long-podded 
imperial, dwarf blue prolific, green nonpareil, 
blue scimitar, Sumatra. 

16. Dwarf green marrow. — A good pea, but 
rather inferior to Knight's dwarf marrow. It 
is to be found in the seed-shops under the fol- 
lowing names — New green nonpareil. Prince's 
superfine summer, Wellington, extra green 
marrow, new green, early dwarf green, early 
green, new early green, royal dwarf marrow, 
HoUoway marrow-fat, green rouncival. 

17. British queen. — Height from 4 to 5 feet; 
pods large, containing seven very large peas in 
each ; sometimes a single pea measuring 1 \ inches 
in circumference. Hence too large for a first- 
rate table, but excellent for private family use. 

18. Hair's defiance Knight's marrow. — 4 feet 
high, remarkable for its strong habit, should be 
planted from 4 to 6 inches apart in the rows, 
and each row 4 feet distant. A remarkably 
profitable pea, of large size, and continuing long 
in a bearing state. 

19. Tall croohed sugar. — Pois sans parchemin 
S, grandes cosses— grosse schottige zuckererbse; 
a late rambling sort. 

20. Dwarf crooked sugwr. — Pois sans par- 
chemin ou mange tout — zwerg zuckerschotte. 

To those who intend growing this section of 
pease, we would specially recommend — 

21. Dwarf sugar, or Ledman's dwarf. — Grow- 
ing about 3 feet high; pods long, cylindrical, and 
slightly curved ; rather late, but a good bearer. 

22. En etientail. — About 1 foot in height; 
assuming the habit of Bishop's long pod, and, 
like it, branching close to the ground; a mode- 
rate bearer. 

23. Tamarind or late sugar-pea. — The best 
bearer, although the latest, in the section ; 
nearly 4 feet high; pods from 4 to 6 inches long, 
proportionably broad, and slightly curved. 

The French grow many varieties of edible 
podded peas; and although suitable to their 
taste and climate, they are not so with us. The 
Dutch grow two sorts, and even these, for the 
most part, are found so tender, even in Hol- 
land, that they are generally produced under 

Should, however, Messrs Weekes &. Co.'s new 
pea, recently brought into notice, turn out as 

represented, it will, as an edible podded sort, 
supersede these and all others of a like pro- 
perty, in bulk of produce at least, and may be 
found far more economical to cultivate, as an 
article of food, particularly for cottages, than 
any at present known. It is described as a new 
hybrid (the parents, however, are not stated), 
attaining the height of 4 feet ; stem slender ; 
great bearer, and exceedingly ornamental for 
its fiowers and singular pods, which measure 54 
inches in length, and 1\ inches in breadth; of a 
glaucous green colour, each containing seven 
seeds. It can either be cooked in the ordinary 
way (boiled, when young, whole, pod and all), or 
left to attain a more advanced growth, and then 
cut up and eaten like a French or kidney bean. 
Being so much hardier than either the kidney 
bean or scarlet runner, and yielding a produce 
even exceeding the latter (which at present is, 
we think, were it not for the short period of its 
existence, the most profitable vegetable that 
the cottager or small gardener can grow), this 
would even excel it for such a purpose. Should 
this new pea, upon further trial, equal the 
specimens grown last year, it will no doubt be 
considered the greatest novelty of the pea tribe 
that has yet appeared. 

The following sorts stand in good estimation 
amongst growers : — 

Early Warwick, 3 4 feet— a sub-variety of early 
frame ; Thurstone's reliance, 6 feet — one of the 
largest peas in cultivation; scimitar, 3 feet — an 
old variety, long podded, and fills well ; ne plus 
ultra, 6 feet— a green wrinkled marrow; old 
dwarf marrow, 34 feet ; tall green mammoth, 6 
feet — similar to Hair's dwarf mammoth in pod; 
matchless marrow, 5 feet; Melford marrow, 44 

"Warner's early emperor, Warner's early 
conqueror, early Bedalean, Essex champion, 
early railway (or Stevenson's railway), and early 
wonder, have been proved in the gardens of the 
London Horticultural Society to be all varieties 
of the old early frame, and possessing no one 
merit over the original. Danecroft rival, Dane- 
croft early green. Fames' conservative, green 
marrow, and the transparent pea, are by Mr 
Thompson considered to be all one variety. 
Clark's Lincoln green podded new early marrow 
— no marrow at all, but one in the way of the 
early frame. American dwarf, a good bearer, 
ripening about a week or ten days later than 
Bishop's new long pod— a very good dwarf 
variety. Early surprise, from a foot and a half 
to 2 feet in height; pods large, thick, containing 
generally six large blue peas, the plants having 
the strong stems and vigorous habits of the 
marrows. Early blue surprise identical with 
Fairbeard's early sm-prise. Queen of England, 
a sort of white marrow, inferior to the British 
queen. Waite's king of the marrows resembles 
the ne plus ultra. Great Britain similar in every 
respect to Knight's tall white marrow. Hun- 
ter's new marrow, about the same height as 
Knight's dwarf marrow; pods roundish or a 
little flattened, containing about six large peas ; 
larger than Knight's; of very sugary quality; 
when dry, indented ; yellowish white ; a good 
bearer." — Ex Jour. Ilort. Soc, vol. v. p. 283. 



From experiments made in the London Hor- 
ticultural Society's garden on the following 

peas, their period of coming to perfection wag 
ascertained as follows : — 

Cormick'3 Prince Albert, 
Warwick, . , . . 

Sown January 4, 
^^^ January 4, 

Came into flower April 1. 
AprU 13. 

Pods gathered from May 14. 
May 28. 

— These are sub-varieties of the early frame, differing only in time of coming to bear. 

Prince Albert, , 
Bishop's early dwarf. 
Early race-horse. 
Shilling's grotto, 
Dwarf green marrow, . 
Blue Prussian, . 
Matchless marrow, 
Lynn's wrinkled marrow, 
American marrow. 
Blue scimitar, 
Bedman's blue imperial. 
Flack's Victoria, 
Victoria marrow, . 
Auvergne, . 
Groom's superb blue, . 

Sown March 28, 3 feet in height. Pit for use June 19. One of the earliest of peas. 

9 inches . 
3 feet 

3 feet 
3. feet 
2 feet 
3^ feet 

4 feet 

2 feet 

3 feet 

3 feet 
2^ feet 

4 feet 
2 feet 

June 26. Very inferior sort. 

June 29. An inferior var. of early frame, 

June 29. An excellent pea. 

July 10. A good cropper. 

.luly 10. A good bearer. 

July 17. An excellent large pea, and productive. 

Aug. 1. Good late sort. 

July 17. Good pea, and abundant bearer. 

July 25. A good bearer. 

July 20. A good pea, and excellent bearer. 

July 17. Large pea, and good bearer. 

July 25. Large pods. 

July- 17. An excellent bearer. 

July 17. A fine pea, and abundant bearer. 

— The heights given above are those to which they attained in the Society's garden. 

The following experiment regarding the pre- 
cocity of the following peas was made in the 
garden of the Horticultural Society by Mr 
Thompson. Three varieties of early frame, 
amongst which was the true early frame from 
Paris, were sown in continuous rows on March 
13. They proved to be the same, and were fit 
to gather June 9. Early Kent, fit June 2. 
Warner's early emperor, fit June 4. The two 
last are varieties allied to the early frame, the 
early Kent differing from it in being a week 
earlier, and not so strong-growing. "War- 
ner's early emperor is not quite so early as the 
early Kent, and its growth is intermediate be- 
tween the early Kent and the early frame. 
Fairbeard's early surprise was sown April 23, 
and was fit to gather June 27 ; but the early 
frame, sown at the same time, was fit June 19. 
Fairbeard's is therefore eight days later than 
the early frame, and consequently, according to 
the foregoing statement, it would be a fortnight 
later than the early Kent." This pea, therefore, 
cannot rank amongst the earliest, but wiU hold 
a good place in the second early section along 
with the old Charlton, to which it seems re- 

The following six varieties of dwarf pease 
will form a good succession, and will be found 
suitable for a small garden, or where ground is 
scarce : — The true early frame, Fairbeard's early 
surprise, Groom's superb dwarf blue, blue Prus- 
sian, Milford marrow, and Knight's dwarf 
marrow — sown in the order in which they 

Insects emd diseases. — The greatest enemy to 
the pea tribe is the pea weevil. This destruc- 
tive family of insects, the weevils, are enough of 
themselves to eat up the whole vegetation of 
the globe. M. Sohouherr, a celebrated Swedish 
entomologist, spent thirty years in investigating 
their economy ; the results of his investigations 
have been published, and occupy no less than 
7000 pages, octavo, in print. Of this formidable 
host we have between four and five hundred 
species existing in Britain. Two of these, Sitona 
lineata, the striped pea weevil, fig. 7 ; and Sitona 
crinita, the spotted pea weevil, may often be 
detected eating the young leaves and stems as 


soon as they appear above the ground, parti- 
cularly in dry hot weather. 
These pests will, in general, 
be found in full operation 
in June. The remedies 
suggested by the writer of 
a series of articles on en- 
tomology in " The Gar- 
deners' Chronicle " are 
worthy of notice. "Any 
remedies, therefore," he 
says, "which we can sug- 
gest, must have for their ob- 
ject either the destruction 
of the perfect beetle, or the 
protection of the plants — 
neither of which is easy. 
As to the former, we scarcely think that any 
trap could be employed into which the insects 
would creep at night (like damp grass, into which 
the wire-worm creeps; orbits of potatoes put 
into the ground, to which, as food, the same insect 
is enticed) ; possibly, however, dry hay laid along 
the rows might entice them into it as a retreat. 
Another means of destruction suggests itself, in 
connection with the habit of the insect of falling 
to the ground on being surprised. A bag-net 
about 2 feet long, and with one side flat, so as 
to allow of its being placed on the ground, close 
to the sides of the rows of the pease, would, we 
think, be serviceable. This might be run along 
the rows, the plants being slightly swept over 
by a switch held in the right hand, the handles 
of the bag-net being held in the left hand; or, 
perhaps, by merely running the net along or 
across the rows, they might be jerked into it. As 
to the protection of the plants, soot and pounded 
lime have been suggested to be sprinkled over 
them, previously wetting them by a, watering 
machine. In this respect the same kind of 
remedies jnust be used as have been proposed 
against the turnip flea-beetle, having for their 
object the rendering of the plant disagreeabUe 
to the insect by a coating of matter offensive to 
its taste ; or by forcing forward the gi-owth of 
the plant as quickly as possible. We may also 
suggest the possibility of advantage resulting 
from drawing a cloth covered with pitch or tar 



Fig. 8. 


over the rows of the pease : the insects might 
become fixed to the cloth, and might be easily 

Besides these there is a small beetle, Bruchus 
pin, L., fig. 8, which 
deposits its egg within 
the pea, which serves 
the grub for food, and 
is thus destroyed. It 
abounds most in dry 
seasons, and for it there 
seems no great chance of 
a remedy. It is, how- 
ever, not very injurious 
to us in its attacks. 

The description given 
by Mr Curtis, in the 
" Journal of the English 
Agricultural Society," 
vol. vii. p. 408, of this 
insect is good :— " They 
pair in summer, whilst 
the pease are in flower, and producing pods ; the 
females then deposit an egg in almost every pea 
that has almost just formed. From the outside 
of these peas, when arrived at maturity, thoy 
do not appear damaged ; but, on opening them, 
one generally finds a very small larva, which, if 
left to repose, remains there aU the winter and 
part of the following slimmer, consuming by 
degrees all the internal substance of the pea, so 
that in the spring the skin only remains ; after 
which it is transformed into an insect, with 
scaly wing-cases, which pierces a hole in the skin 
of the pea, from whence it comes forth and re- 
sorts to the fields sowed with that pulse, in order 
to deposit its eggs in the new pods." 

The American mode of destroying the pea 
bug, Bruchus pin, is thus stated in "Hovey's 
Magazine of Horticulture ;" — " Immediately after 
gathering the seed, it is subjected to the action 
^j^ Q of boiling water for 

^' ■ one minute ; by this 

means the grubs, or 
larvse, which at this 
time are just below 
the integuments of 
the pea, are de- 
stroyed without in- 
jury to the vitality 
of the seed." 

Another species, 
Bruchus granwrius, 
fig. 9, is often found 
in seed-rooms, in 
seed-peas ; and the holes in the pea and hean 

from which 


Fig. 10. 


it issues after 
its transfor- 
mation, are 
occupied by 
the caterpil- 
lar of the 
white -shoul- 
dered wool- 
moth, Tinea 
aarcitella, fig. 
10, the well- 

known domestic pest, which lays its eggs on all 
manner of woollen stuffs, to the great annoyance 
of every thrifty housewife. They are often found 
in the seeds of pease and beans, and, in company 
with the Bruchus granwrius, and the larvse of a 
species of saw-fly, work sad destruction in the 

The Bruchus granarius is thus described in 
the " Cottage Gardener," vol. iii. p. 13 :— " These 
holes in the peas and beans are made by this 
beetle, which is produced from a grub or cater- 
pillar, which has eaten away the vital parts of 
the seed; and when it has passed through the 
chrysalis state, and given birth to this beetle, 
the latter makes the hole in order to escape 
into the open air, there to perpetrate more mis- 
chief upon the growing crops. The body of the 
beetle is a dull brown, but the elytrse, or wing- 
covers, are black, dotted with white, but scarcely 
perceptibly so, unless magnified, as in our draw- 
ing. Naturally it is the size of the smaller figure, 
and is scarcely two lines long. The anteunaj 
are eleven — jointed, black, and thinnest near 
the head, where they are also tinged with red. 
The head droops, the eyes are prominent, the 
fore-legs are rusty coloured. The female pierces 
through the pod of the pea or bean whilst very 
young, and often deposits an egg in each seed." 
This insect may be destroyed by the American 
mode of dipping the seed in boiling water, as 
noticed above. 

The pupae of the fly Phytomyza nigricomis, 
the black-horned leaf-miner, fig. 11, feed on the 

Fig. 11. 


parenchyma of the leaf, causing minute brown 
spots in it. The only mode of riddance ap- 
pears to us to be picking off the infected leaves 
and burning them, to prevent the further breed- 
ing of the insect. The cross lines show the 
natural size of the insect. 

The next serious enemies to the pea are mice 
and rats. As preventives, rubbing the pease 
with powdered resin, placing over them in the 
drills chopped furze, dusting them with lime, 
sowing charcoal dust along with them, have all 
been tried with more or less benefit. No plan 
is, however, so effective as catching the vermin 
in traps. Poison is dangerous, and seldom so 
carefully concealed but that some poor bird or 
other falls a victim to it. The best traps are the 
cage trap, baited with toasted cheese or broiled 
bacon ; the next best, the old figure four trap, 
which has been used for this purpose above two 
centuries); or the suspension trap, the most 
simple of any. It is constructed by soaking a 
few peas in warm water, and when they have 



begun to grow, a pretty strong thread is passed 
by a needle through the peas, leaving two of 
them on every 9 inches of thread, at which 
lengtjis the thread is cut off. Tie a knot at the 
end of each length ; take two pieces of straight 
wood, cut them into 1-foot lengths, make a slit 
about an inch deep in the top end of each, 
and stick them in the ground near the line of 
pease. The thread is then drawn through the 
slit ends of the sticks, and a brick is placed 
with one end resting on the ground, and the 
other resting on the thread about 3 inches from 
its end, the two peas on the thread being near 
the middle of the brick, and 2 inches apart. 
The mouse, in attempting to eat or take away the 
peas, cuts the thread, and lets the brick down 
upon itself. It has been stated that mice will 
not take peas until they have begun to vege- 
tate, and this is given as a reason for sprouting 
the bait : we do not think them so very fastidi- 
ous ; but if it is really so, they may be set the 
one way as well as the other. If people would 
only persevere with any of these traps, they 
would soon rid their garden of such pests, vrith- 
out the dangerous expedient of using poison. 
Phosphorus paste may be safely used in gardens 
for the destruction of both rats and mice. It is 
thus prepared : To 8 parts of phosphorus, 
liquified in 180 parts of lukewarm water, placed 
in a mortar, add immediately 180 parts of rye- 
meal (any other meal will do as well); when cold, 
mix them up with 180 parts of butter and 125 
parts of sugar. These animals will greedily de- 
vour this mixture, after which they will swell 
out and die. It may be kept for many years 
without losing its efficacy, and can never injure 
human beings on account of the smell. This 
receipt was published some years ago by order 
of the Prussian government. Meal, butter, and 
sugar, mixed dry with plaster of Paris, and laid 
down where damp cannot affect it, will have a 
similar effect. The animals eat it readily. It 
soon afterwards causes in them a great thirst ; 
as soon as they take water, the plaster of Paris 
powder swells out and bursts them. Pease, beans, 
or any other grain, steeped for several hours in 
water in which nux vomica has been boiled, and 
placed in the way of mice, destroys them with- 
out even endangering the life of the cat that 
may afterwards eat them. 

Amongst the feathered tribe, the sparrow, 
tomtit, chaf&nch, and jackdaw are very destruc- 
tive to pease at most seasons, but particularly 
so in spring, when their other kinds of food are 
less pleutiftil. The three first of these we can 
ill dispense with, because of the valuable services 
they render us in the destruction of myriads of 
even more formidable enemies during summer; 
as for the latter, we can hardly say a word in 
his favour, further than that we know God made 
nothing in vain ; and even this " gentleman in 
black " may be of far greater service to us, in 
some less direct way, than we may be aware of 
at present. We never destroy birds, believing 
them far more useful than hurtful, which we 
hope to show more clearly when we come to 
speak of fruit and fruit-tree buds. To protect 
young pease in spring, we dust the rows over 
every morning, or every second one at furthest, 

with a little hot lime in powder, so as to render 
them quite white. Our mode of application is 
to have a stock of lime in a dry place, and to 
send a boy with a thin canvass bag in each 
hand, containing the lime in powder, and as he 
passes along between the rows, he shakes the bags 
over the pease, when the finer particles, passing 
through the canvass, powder the pease quite 
white, in which state these creatures will seldom 
touch them. This process answers another end 
— it greatly saves the crop from the pea weevil. 
The operation is best performed when the 
plants are dry, else the caustic property is soon 
destroyed. As the attacks of birds take place 
generally soon after daybreak, the dusting is in 
general done in the evening previous ; but, no 
doubt, it would be more effectual if done soon 
after daylight in the morning. The jackdaw 
not only crops off the tops of the young 
plants, but, preferring the seed, it with great 
sagacity often begins at the end of a row, and 
abstracts every pea in the line. Liming the 
surface pretty thickly tends to keep them 
away, but no means are so thoroughly effectual 
as having wire cages, of a semicircular shape, 
and in lengths of from 6 to 8 feet, or more, to 
place over the drills, and these can most readily 
be thus constructed : Take a web of octagon 
wire-netting, 18 inches in breadth, cut it into 
convenient lengths, lay them flat over the gar- 
den roller or any other cylindrical body, bend 
them down at the edges, and by this mode a 
dozen of cages may be made in half an hour. 
Such cages are of vast importance in a garden ; 
they not only protect pease from the attacks of 
birds, but they protect all other crops in like 
manner, and are valuable for laying over parsley, 
endive, young cauliflower plants, lettuce, &c., 
during winter, when a little litter is laid over 
them, and frost thus repelled. The litter can 
be removed on fine days, and put on again when 
required, without injury to the crop. Such 
netting, 18 inches wide, costs 9d. per lineal 
yard ; and cages so formed will last for years, if 
not wantonly injured when out of use. 

In forming these cages, it will be of advan- 
tage, for giving them greater strength for moving 
about, as well as for keeping them in proper 
shape, if a bar of round ^inoh iron be secured 
along their bottom sides — which can readily be 
done by a handy labourer, by splicing the edges 
of the netting to the bars along their whole 
length, and welding on a cross-bar at each end 
of the same sized bar, and one or two, according 
to the length of the cage, across from side to 
side. Such cages are next to invaluable, as 
means of protecting from cold and cutting winds 
all newly-planted crops in lines, as a few ever- 
green branches may be tied tightly to them, so 
as to prevent their being blown away; or water- 
proof canvass, or asphalt felt, may be employed 
when keeping the crop dry is an object. Two 
laths of wood may be used instead of the rods 
of iron; but they, of course, would be Idls 

We were driven to this expedient some years 
ago, when grievously persecuted by pheasants, 
and where to have killed one would have been 
accounted little less than a high misdemeanour. 



The jay is a sad plunderer of early pease, and 
where they abound, will have the first fruits of 
the crop in spite of fate. They are, however, 
becoming scarce in the country, and in some 
localities are rarely seen. The same may be 
said of the wood-pigeon, the most voracious of 
all birds. We hesitate not to shoot them. 
They were designed for food, and in no way are 
they better prepared than stewed with green 

Another enemy of the pea is 

The mildew Erysiphe communis var. Legum- 
inosarum,, a parasitic fungus. The cause of its 
appearance was correctly enough determined 
by T. A. Knight forty years ago. He says — 
" The secondary and immediate cause of this 
disease has long appeared to me to be the want 
of a sufficient supply of moisture from the soil, 
with excess of humidity in the air, particularly 
if plants be exposed to a temperature below 
that to which they have been accustomed. If 
damp and cloudy weather, in July, succeed that 
which has been warm and bright, without the 
intervention of sufficient rain to moisten the 
ground to some depth, the crop is generally 
much injured by mildew." — Knight's fforticul- 
twal Papers, p. 206. While engaged in the 
production of those excellent peas which bear 
his name, he proved this theory by warding off 
mildew by copious waterings of the roots. The 
fashionable remedy at present is the use of one 
of the rival sulphurators. This no doubt subdues 
the disease, but it does not remove the cause. 

General remajrlcs. — Early crops of peas de- 
rive great benefit from reflected heat when 
planted at the bottom of a south wall. It is 
necessary, however, when warm sunshine fol- 
lows cold frosty nights, to shade the pease fi'om 
its influence an hour or two in the morning, or 
to sprinkle them with cold water if they have 
become at all frozen. Such precautions are also 
necessary when they are sown on ridges or 
sloping banks facing the south, which is often 
done, and with evident benefit in forwarding the 
crop. Now that glass is so cheap, we see little 
reason for those matter-of-chance practices, when 
a better end would be attained by covering the 
rows of pease with a narrow glass frame, made 
of a triangular form, and glazed on both sides, 
or on one only, according as they may be used, 
on rows running from north to south, or from 
east to west : in the latter case, such frames 
may have glass in the south side only. 

The saving of seed is an important matter, 
and is confided to a class of cultivators known 
as seed-growers, many of whom will have from 
10 to 40 or 50 acres under this crop. Some of the 
London trade have groimd of their own, others 
rent ground ; but by far the greater number 
contract with seed-growers, supplying them with 
the genuine varieties, visiting the crop from 
time to time, sending proper persons to rogue 
or puU up all spurious plants, and generally to 
report progress. The expense incurred for 
labour and rent, taxes, &o., is great; so much 
so, indeed, that one wonders how a ' pint of 
pease could be purchased for such a trifle. 
Private growers do not economise by saving 
their own pease for seed, unless they have, by 

keen observation, detected one or more plants 
possessing more than ordinary merits; then 
they are right in carefully saving those, for in 
this way, for the most part, have aU our finest 
peas been produced. Their being ripe will be 
readily discovered by the straw beginning to 
dry up, and the pods and peas showing evi- 
dent symptoms that they are ready for housing. 
If the quantity be small, put the pods, with the 
peas in them, into canvass or paper bags, and 
suspend them to the roof of a dry and airy seed- 
room. If, however, the quantity be large, leave 
the pods attached to the haulm, and stack them 
by till the time of sowing or selling, when they 
may be thrashed out like other grain. Peas 
kept in the pod will retain their vegetative 
action for two or three years, and hence those 
sent to the colonies should be retained in the 
pods for greater preservation. When taken out 
of the pod, even when perfectly ripened, they 
rarely vegetate after eighteen months, and many 
not at the expiry of one year. 

Pease in a green state are with difficulty sent 
to a distance, as, when packed closely together, 
fermentation speedily takes place. This is one 
of the causes why imported pease, and many of 
those brought from a distance to our markets, 
are discoloured, devoid of flavour, and, worst of 
all, very unwholesome to eat. Pease sent to a 
distance should be packed in open baskets, not 
in boxes, and laid in layers not more than 2 
inches thick each, and, between such layers, a 
thin stratum of dry fern or straw should be 

The European names are, Pois, in French; 
Piselli,in Italian; ErvUhas, Portuguese ; Erbse, 
German ; Pesoles, Spanish ; and Erwt, Dutch. 

The quahty of the garden-pea as a nourishing 
article of human food, compared vfith bread, 
butcher's meat, and some other vegetables, has 
been well ascertained to be in the following 
proportions : — 

100 lb. of pease contains of nourishing matter, 93 lb. 
,, seed of Haricot kidney-beans, . 92 ,, 

,, seed of garden-beans, . . 89 „ 

,, wheaten bread, . . .80 

average of butcher's meat, . 35 

carrots, . 

cabbages and turnips, 

The composition of the field-pea is thus given 
by Mr Stephens, in " Book of the Farm," and as 
little difference, if any, can exist between these 
and the garden varieties, it may be taken as a 
close approximation to the truth — 

Pea-Ash. — Mean offoar aimlysei. 



Soda, . 


Lime, . 




Oxide of iron, . 


Phosphoric acid, 


Sulphuric acid, 






Chloride of sodium — common 



The chemical composition of pease, Mr Ste- 
phens observes, has not yet been carefully inves- 
tigated. Let this statement suffice — 



Composition of the Grain. 

Water. Husk, Meal. 

14.0 10.5 76.6 

Composition of the Meal. 
Starch. Leguroin. Gum, Aec 
66.0 23 12 

37ie inorganic constituents im the pea — 
100,000 parts of seed contain 2464,and 100,000 
parts of the straw contain 4971 parts of inor- 
ganic matter, consisting of- 



Potash, . 











Alumina, . 



Oxide of iron. 



Oxide of manganese, 






Sulphuric acid. 



Phosphoric acid, . 









The per-centage of mineral ingredients taken 
from the soil is computed to be— pod, from 2.5 
to 3; 7.1 husk; 4.3 to 6.2 straw. 

§ 2. — THE BEAN. 

Natural history. — The garden or broad bean 
{Vicia Paha L., Paha Tou., vulgaris Moen.) be- 
longs to the natural order Leguminosas, subdi- 
vision Sarcolobse, tribe Vicieae, and to the class 
Diadelphea,and order Decandria, in the Linnsean 
arrangement. The genus Faba contains only 
two species — the common garden-bean and the 
horse-bean, F. equina. The name Faba is de-' 
rived, according to Isidorus, from phago, to eat ; 
according to Martinius, from paiba, to feed; 
while others will have it from haba — all of 
which are modifications' of each other. The 
origin, however, is evidently Greek. 

That the East, and probably Egypt, is the 
native country of the bean, is pretty generally 
admitted. This appears to be the most ancient 
of aU our now cultivated esculents. The earli- 
est notice we have of the bean is of those 
brought by the three loyal Israelites who fol- 
lowed King David, and presented him with 
beans when he fled across the Jordan from his 
rebellious son Absalom. One of the noblest 
families of Rome, the Fabii, derived its name 
from a circumstance connected with this plant. 
The Athenians used sodden beans in their feasts 
to Apollo. The Eomans had a solemn feast 
called Fabaria, at which they offered beans in 
honour of Carna, the wife of Janus, whose 
palate, according to Lempriere, was gratified by 
the addition of bacon ; hence the origin of bacon 
and beans is of far older standing than modem 
chawbacons suppose. Pythagoras enjoined his 
followers to abstain from beans, professing to 
believe that at the creation man was formed of 
them. The Romany believed at one time that 
the souls of such as had died resided in beans. 
C3emens Alexandrinus, Theophrastus, and even 
Cicero, entertained equally extravagant notions 
of them. The Egyptian priests held it a crime 
even to look at beans. The Flamen Dialis was 
not permitted' to mention the name ; and Lucian 
introduces a philosopher in hell saying, that 
to eat beans and to eat our father's head were 
equal crimes. A more rational use is stated by 

Philips to have been made of them by the an- 
cients, namely, " in gathering the votes of the 
people, and for electing the magistrates: a 
white bean signifying absolution, and a black 
one condemnation ; " and hence he supposes 
the practice was derived of black-balhng obnoxi- 
ous persons. Beans grew wild in Morocco in 
Pliny's time ; and he says some were so tough 
and hard that they could not be boiled tender. 
This is confirmed by the circumstance of one of 
our now most popular sorts, the Mazagan, hav- 
ing been introduced to us from a place of that 
name on the coast of Morocco. 

At what period the first beans were intro- 
duced to Britain is not now known. It must, 
however, have been at a very early period. 
Some suppose they were introduced by the 
Romans : we can hardly suppose this, as they 
could not have been in any variety, which is tan- 
tamount to their not having been extensively 
grown, in Gerard's time, who says the garden- 
bean is the same as the field one, only improved 
by cultivation. One peculiarity in the bean is 
worth noting : the ancient authors mention 
only one beau, and Gerard appears only to have 
known two ; and even at this day, they have not 
multiplied in varieties to any extent like the pea. 

Use. — The garden-bean is much less in esti- 
mation amongst the higher classes than the pea ; 
and hence a much less proportionate breadth of 
it is required in first-class gardens than in those 
of less pretensions. It is, and always has been, 
the vegetable of the lower and middle classes, 
more used in England amongst them than in 
Scotland and Ireland, and by no means at all 
common on the Continent, even in vegetarian 
communities. It is used in its young state, in 
which state only it should be employed, as an 
article of luxury : the want of attention to this 
is one of the chief causes why it so seldom 
appears upon tables polite. Amongst the pea- 
santry it is used in its full grown state, as an 
accompaniment to bacon. The white-blossomed 
bean, if gathered while quite yovmg, makes an 
excellent dish, particularly if served with bacon 
or ham. The lower classes use them when full 
grown, at which time, although nutritious for 
strong constitutions, they are very unfit for per- 
sons of delicate digestion — for they are, particu- 
larly the inner skin, exceedingly indigestible. 

Columella notices them, in his day, as food 
for the peasants only : — 

'* And herbs they mix with beans, for vulgar fare." 

An English poet somewhere says, in allusion 
to the same, — 

" And give them beans and bacon, till they burst." 

It was a prevailing opinion among the an- 
cients that beans were flatulent ; and Hoffman 
and others among modern physicians assert the 
same ; and not only that, but that the greener 
they are, the more they are so. Dr James says 
young beans are both a wholesome and nutri- 
tious food ; but the now prevailing opinion is, 
that they are a flatulent and coarse food, better 
suited to the hard-working husbandman than 
to those of sedentary habits. Boyle, to ascer- 
tain the amount of air they afford — for on this 
their flatulency depends— treated them pneu- 



matioally, and found that the expansion of a 
single bean while growing is capable of raising a 
plug loaded with one hundred pounds' weight. 
The beans are the usual part of the plant used 
as food ; but Philips informs us that the green 
pods, boiled after the beans are removed, is a 
dish that many people prefer to the beans 
themselves, and that the pods should be served 
with parsley and butter, as boiled beans usually 
are. He adds also, that the young beans, boiled 
in broth, are esteemed highly emollient. Par- 
boiled beans, boiled in a weak syrup of honey 
and musk, make an excellent bait for fish. 

Propagation. — AH the bean tribe, being 
annuals, are propagated by seed, 

Planting. — Crops to come in earliest in 
the succeeding season are sown or planted 
(for beans are said to be planted, and not 
sown, as they are set at a greater distance 
from each other than pease and similar 
crops that are set thicker or sown) in the 
latter end of October, in November, De- 
cember, January, and so on till May, sown 
after which they would scarcely come to 
perfection. Once a month for the early 
crops, and once a fortnight for the two 
general crops, is sufficiently frequent, few 
even sowing above three or four crops 
at most during the season. These periods 
apply to the open borders. They are 
also sown after the manner of pease 
{which see), under cover, and transplanted, 
as wiU be noticed below. Beans planted 
in March are fit for gathering in June, 
and ripen their seed in July. 

The ground having been prepared by 
trenching or deep-digging, and well ma- 
nured, drills are opened with the hoe 
(as has been described for pease) 3 inches 
deep; the drills for the Mazagan bean, 
which, on account of its hardiness, is pre- 
ferred for autumnal planting, should be 
2| feet apart, the beans being set in the 
lines 3 inches distant from each other ; 
the soil is drawn over them with the hoe 
or a coarse rake, and left quite rough on 
the surface. Finely raking the ground 
over such crops is an absurdity, but old 
habits are difficult to set aside. The 
opener the soil is left, the better it ex- 
cludes frost; the smoother it is made, the 
more likely is it to cake, and become, in 
some soils, so hard that, were the beans 
not possessed of the extraordinary expan- 
sive power stated by Boyle, and noticed 
above, they could hardly force their way 
through it. True it is that the crust might 
be broken by drawing the rake over it, 

but in this operation there would be a 
great chance of breaking the necks of the 
beans at the same time. A crop of lettuce 
or early cabbage may be planted between 
the rows, either of which would come off 
while young, for use, before the beans 
arrive at a height to injure them. This 
is the practice of the London market- 
gardeners. We should here, however, 
state, for the information of that class of 
gardeners who think a cabbage is unfit 
for use until it be as hard as a cannon- 
ball, and almost as large as a drum, 
that early cabbage is in most estima- 
tion when quite young and tender, and 
just before they begin to turn in their 
leaves, or form a solid heart. This is an 
eligible situation for such a secondary 
crop, as the first planting of beans should 
be made on a warm well-exposed border. 
The same precautions will be required 
to save the crop from mice and other 
enemies as are recommended for pease. 
In cold damp soils and late situations, the 
rows of beans at planting may be covered 
with 2 inches of finely-sifted coal-ashes, 
rotten tan, or the like ; either will exclude 
frost and counteract damp. Not, how- 
ever, that frost is to be dreaded, for the 
bean will bear a considerable amount of 
it; but the principal intention is to keep 
the soil dry and prevent the escape of 
heat which it has absorbed during sum- 
mer, and with which it has not by the 
end of October altogether parted. 

In planting the secondary and princi- 
pal crops, more open situations should be 
chosen ; and for them it is important that 
the ground be moderately enriched, and 
trenched at least 2 feet in depth. Trench- 
ing is an assistant to manure ; in some 
cases it is even more than a substitute. 
In regard to distance, that depends, as 
has been shown in the case of pease, 
mainly on the sort of bean to be planted, 
and the height it is to attain. The new 
royal dwarf cluster is 1 foot in height ; a 
distance of 18 or 20 inches should be 
given, as it branches out close to the 
ground — and even at that distance, in 
good ground, will nearly cover the 
whole surface. For the white blossomed, 
which attains the height of from 3 to 4 
feet, that space, or rather more, should be 
allowed. Marshall's early prolific is about 
18 or 20 inches high ; give it, therefore, a 
proportionate distance. Almost all the 



rest, with the exception of the dwarf tan 
or bog bean, which is not worth notice, 
grow about 3 feet or more in height : 
they require, therefore, the largest space ; 
and as has been, we hope, clearly enough 
stated in the case of pease, that there is 
great loss in crowding such crops, we 
would advise 4 feet apart for each of 
these. Regarding distance plant from 
plant, the new royal cluster branches out, 
forming a dense bush crowded with 
pods ; it should be planted a foot apart 
in the line, and the seed placed 2^ inches 
deep ; the white blossomed should be 
placed 3 inches apart in the line ; Mar- 
shall's prolific as much, as it is a branch- 
ing one to some extent, and the same 
depth as the last : the rest should not be 
nearer than 4 inches in the line, and all 
of them 3^ inches deep. 

Beans forwarded for transplanting, as 
has been recommended for pease, should, 
as soon as they are 4 inches high, if the 
weather be favourable, be brought out 
and set in their permanent place. For 
this the best way is to stretch a line from 
end to end of the ground in a south and 
north direction (for reason, vide Pea). The 
surface is then smoothed down along the 
line, and a trench taken out with a spade, 
as in planting box-edgings, and to the 
depth of 5 inches, so that the roots may 
be the better arranged. Along the line 
set the plants at distances apart accord- 
ing to their kinds as specified above, 
taking them carefully out of the pots or 
boxes they have been growing in, separat- 
ing them so that their roots receive no 
injury; cover the roots carefally, and pro- 
ceed with the next row in like manner, 
pointing over the ground as the operation 
proceeds, and leaving it as rough as pos- 
sible. A few branches of any deciduous 
tree should be stuck along each row, on 
the side the prevailing winds of the sea- 
son blow from, avoiding evergreens, as, 
while they no doubt shelter the plants 
best, they are apt to become blown about 
by the wind themselves, and may do more 
harm than good. The wire cages we 
have spoken of in the article Pea will be 
found exceedingly useful for setting over 
the newly-planted beans, and to them a 
few branches of evergreens might be 
firmly tied. This would prevent their 
being blown about, and afford a much 
more efficient protection at the same 

time. Of aU modes of protecting such 
crops, short of glass-cases, we believe 
there is none better than this. From 
the distances we have given, there will be 
no difficulty in calculating the quantity 
of seed required. The following is Aber- 
cromby's allowance, and his, as he was so 
minute in such matters, may be taken as 
the greater quantity — we, since his day, 
planting much thinner : For early crops, 
one pint of seed for every 80 feet of row ; 
for general crops, two quarts for every 
240 feet ; and for late crops, nearly the 
same as for the early ones. This is pre- 
suming the smaller kinds to be employed. 
In summer, it often happens that the 
ground is too dry to promote speedy 
germination in seeds so dry and hard as 
the bean. Some have recommended, in 
this case, steeping the beans for an hour 
or two in rain-water previous to planting. 
A much better way is to soak the ground 
with water as soon as the drills are 
formed, to plant the seed, and cover up 
immediately. Virgil says that soaking 
beans in lees, or dregs of oil and nitre, 
has the effect of causing a more rapid 
vegetation, and the production of a larger 
crop; and other ancient authors recom- 
mend their being steeped for three days 
in water mixed with urine. 

It is a common practice in cottage- 
gardening economy to plant beans along 
with crops of potatoes, and also with cab- 
bage, setting a bean between every two 
plants in the line. Speechley, in " Prac- 
tical Hints," p. 17, recommended this, and 
brought forward his beans first in a bed 
thickly sown, and in a warm place — when 
of a fit size transplanting them, setting 
a bean alternately with a potato or cab- 
bage in the same row ; but in such cases 
he had his rows 3 feet apart, and his pota- 
toes 18 inches apart, so that the bean is 
9 inches from the potato on each side. 
Being advanced somewhat before planting, 
the beans have the start of the potatoes, 
and are matured and removed before they 
injure the potato crop. The propriety of 
this mode has been questioned ; but we 
have seen excellent crops of both veget- 
ables BO produced. In garden-culture the 
process of transplanting beans is very ad- 
vantageous: it moderates their growth, so 
that they do not inclineto increase in height 
after their flowers are set, and induces 
precocity in the maturing of the crop. 



Instead of planting in continuous lines, 
a good way is to plant in detached patches 
of four or five seeds each, at distances 
agreeable to those given above. 

Subsequent cultivation. — Beans, like all 
other crops, require to be kept clear of 
weeds, and to have the soil well stirred 
up between the rows during their growing 
season. When they have attained the 
height of 6 inches, it is proper to draw a 
little earth to the stems, merely to keep 
them steady, as the bean is not disposed 
to send out horizontal roots so near the 
surface as to derive any advantage from 
the soil thus gathered round them. Nor 
is it a usual practice to afford them any 
support, as in the case of the pea, although 
no valid reason can be given to the con- 
trary. True, the bean is not a tendrilled 
climbing-plant like the pea, and hence 
could not attach itself to the supports 
presented to it ; but we have seen the 
tall-growing sorts so often beaten down 
by strong winds, even in not very exposed 
places, that we often do, in defiance of 
usual practice, support them when in 
Unes, by driving in, along the rows, stout 
stakes, 6 or 8 feet asunder, and running 
a line of tarred cord along both sides of 
the plants, at the distance of about 15 
inches apart, the first one being that dis- 
tance from the ground. Those grown in 
patches, as above, have three stakes to 
each, with two tiers of cord as above. 

When the plants are fully in bloom, or 
rather when they have set their flowers, 
and the first series of beans have made 
two inches in growth, three inches of the 
tops of the plants should be pinched off, 
to throw that nourishment which would 
be expended in uselessly increasing the 
height of the plant into its general system, 
and consequently increase the bulk of 
crop, as well as advance its early matu- 
rity. This often-recommended opera- 
tion, although disregarded by many, is of 
very signal importance. Some, to secure 
a very late crop, cut over a few rows of 
a progressing one just when the plants 
are in full flower. New shoots are formed 
at the bottom of the stem, which shoot up 
and produce a crop late in autumn. Did 
it not occur to him who first recommended 
this, that, by sowing a crop later in the 
season than general crops usually are, the 
same end would be arrived at, and in a 
far more business-like manner 1 

In gathering the crop, the first attack 
should be made on them when the beans 
are about the size of a marrow-fat pea. 
In such state only are they fit for a table 
where elegance in display and gastronomic 
taste are cared for. A disregard of this 
on the part of the purveyor has probably 
tended more than anything else to banish 
this excellent esculent from the tables of 
the great. The young gardener should 
attend to this; and, indeed, the same rule 
is applicable to every other article of gar- 
den produce. He may rest assured that 
his success in hfe depends to a great de- 
gree on the quality of his productions, 
not altogether on the quantity ; and he 
may set it down as a pretty general rule, 
that all vegetables are most appreciated 
when young and delicate: and to none 
does this more strongly apply than to the 
Order of which we are now treating. 

Soil and manures. — In a strong alumi- 
nous soU the bean luxuriates most ; that 
soil must, however, be rich, and highly 
cultivated. In light soils they are earlier, 
but their produce is less, nor do they con- 
tinue so long in bearing. It is the force 
of manure and high cultivation that 
enables the gardener to produce good 
crops of this plant when he has to con- 
tend with a light and gravelly soil. In 
soils of the latter description, it is scarcely 
possible to manure too highly ; and of all 
fertilisers, that of the stable or cow yard 
is the best in such a case. Mr Stephens, 
in the "Book of the Farm" (vol. ii. p. 423), 
gives an excellent instance of the benefi- 
cial effects of gypsum being used as a top- 
dressing to an acre of beans, and that at 
the very moderate cost of 6s., the quan- 
tity applied being 4 cwt. The balance in 
produce in favour of one acre so treated 
over another that received no top-dress- 
ing, was 11^ bushels of beans and 127 
stones of straw, the cash profit in the one 
case over the other being £3, 4s. 4d. No 
other manure was used ; the ground was, 
however, dressed with 2f chaldrons of 
quicklime slaked in water, that held 
common salt in solution in the propor- 
tion of 1 cwt. to the chaldron of lime, 
before the beans were sown on the 6th of 
March. The top-dressing was applied on 
the 6th of May, and the crop reaped on 
the 1st of September. The soil was partly 
moss, partly sand or gravelly loam, and 
had been trenched 16 inches deep, and 



well incorporated together. This is an 
interesting case to the gardener, suppos- 
ing him to have the eighth of an acre 
under beans, which would be in his case 
a considerable breadth. He could, at the 
above rate, produce his crop at a cost of 
Is. 6d. for manure ; for we hold the pre- 
vious lime- dressing, stated above, to have 
had immeasurably less effect on the crop 
than the already fertile state of ordinary 
garden-ground would. Another instance 
of the effect of a combination of special 
manures is given by the same accurate 
authority in the paragraph following that 
from which the above statement is taken : 
— 2 cwt. animal charcoal (1 cwt. dissolved 
in sulphuric acid), 56 lb. sulphate of mag- 
nesia, 2 cwt. common salt, 1 cwt. nitrate 
of soda, at a cost of ^1, 7s. lOd., used as 
a top-dressing to an acre of beans, pro- 
duced 11^ bushels of beans, and 146 
stones of straw, beyond that of an acre of 
the same kind of crop which was not top- 
dressed at all, leaving a cash profit of 
£1, 7s. Id. in favour of the top-dressed 
acre. In this latter case the soil was a 
stiff loam resting on red sandstone. The 
top-dressing was applied on the 21st of 
May, and the crop reaped on the 8th of 

" Soluble manures, such as the nitrate 
and sulphate of soda and potash, and dis- 
solved bones, are most commonly applied 
to the bean crop, in the form of top- 
dressings, after the plants have made con- 
siderable progress above ground; and they 
can readily be brought within reach of 
the roots, and mixed with the soil, during 
the operations of hoeing. Gypsum and 
lime, as both of them require a long time 
for solution, should undoubtedly be applied 
to the land before sowing the seed. Gyp- 
sum may be very advantageously applied 
when sowing the seed, either in contact 
with it, or so near as to be within imme- 
diate reach of the roots. Common lime, 
in the caustic state, when laid on as 
manure for beans, does best when this 
operation is performed when preparing 
the land for the winter furrow. The 
organic composition of the straw and 
grain of beans, as determined by analysis, 
exhibits a larger amount of nitrogen than 
is to be found 'in any of the cultivated 
cerealia.' This fact proves the necessity 
for a soil being rich in decayed animal 
and vegetable matter, as well as in those 

mineral substances already spoken of. 
Organic manures must, however, be 
viewed only as subsidiary, in the cultiva- 
tion of beans, to the more important 
mineral substances already referred to. 
Fortunately the two most important 
organic manures (farmyard dung and 
guano) also contain important mineral 
matters. Farmyard manure is un- 
doubtedly our best manure for beans, as 
it is for most other crops ; yet its action 
can be gTeatly enhanced by the addition 
of purely mineral substances, because by 
the combination we supply all that is 
necessary for perfecting every part of the 
plant. Guano is rich in nitrogen (amm onia), 
but greatly deficient in alkaline mineral 
matter. Hence, when applied as a manure 
for beans, on soils different in potash and 
soda, its action is frequently feeble and 
unsatisfactory. On soils rich in vegetable 
matter," as almost all garden soils are, 
" it is advisable to use mineral manures, 
such as lime, magnesia, potash, and soda, 
either in one form or another j while on 
those that are deficient in decaying vege- 
table and animal matter, but abundantly 
supplied with mineral substances, an 
application of farmyard manure or guano 
would be preferable. While pointing 
out certain special manures as peculiarly 
adapted, by their composition, to the 
growth of beans, it should ever be kept in 
view, that the true art of cultivation con- 
sists in making the land support itself as 
much as possible ; and this, on aU soils of 
a medium character, or above it, can in a 
great measure be effected, irrespective of 
extraneous manures, by improving their 
physical condition, and eliminating, by 
deep and thorough cultivation, those 
stores of nutritious matters, which other- 
wise would remain locked up and unavail- 
able. A thorough stirring, pulverisation, 
and clearing of the soil, during the growth 
of the bean crop, or indeed of any other 
crop whatsoever, is equivalent, and fre- 
quently superior, to adding a certain 
amount of manure where these operations 
are neglected, or performed in an ineffi^ 
cient manner ; because, by the admission 
of air, oxygen, carbonic acid, and water, 
the great solvents of all mineral and 
vegetable matter contained in the soil are 
thus allowed to exert their peculiar action 
upon what would otherwise remain inert." 
— Morton's Cyclopedia of Agriculture. 



Sulphate of soda, and most other mine- 
ral manures, can only be beneficially ap- 
plied to land in good condition and in 
careful hands, because if the land is poor, 
they ■will have no effect whatever. The 
stableyard manure-heap must ever be 
regarded as furnishing the principal part 
of the food of plants. What are called 
special manures are only the condiments, 
like pepper, salt, mustard, and the other 
contents of the cruet-stand. 

Forcing. — The garden bean is not con- 
sidered of sufficient importance to be ever 
forced in this country ; if it were so, 
what has been said of pease under this 
head would be quite applicable to it. 

Taking the crop. — Beans, to be eaten in 
proper condition, should be gathered 
young — indeed, when of the size of a large 
marrow-fat pea. They are gathered in 
succession, until the eye begins to turn 
black at the hilum or point of attachment 
to the pod, at which period they become 
exceedingly coarse food, flatulent, and 

Approved sorts and their qualities. — 1. Early 
Mazagan. — From 2 to 3 feet in height ; the 
hardest sort in cultivation, although originally 
a native of Mazagan on the African coast; 
stems slender; by no means productive, the 
pods containing seldom more than four beans. 
Its hardiness and precocity have secured it a 
place in our gardens for upwards of one hun- 
dred years. It is known as early Malta, early 
Aldridge, Stidolph's new early, and early Brom- 
ley. It is the Feve de Mazagan of the French. 
The weight of an average seed is about 15 grains, 
one pound containing 481 seeds. 

2. Marshall's early dwarf prolific. — From 18 
inches to 2 feet in height. This excellent bean 
originated about twenty years ago with Mr Mar- 
shall, a gardener, near Kingston, Surrey. It is 
fully a fortnight earlier than the Mazagan, much 
more productive, producing its pods in dense 
clusters near the ground ; plant very much 
branched; beans larger than in the last, and 
producing from four to five in each pod. It is 
known as Marshall's prolific. 

3. Royal dwarf cluster. — From 10 to 14 inches 
in height. Comparatively a new variety, the 
history of which is not very clearly known. 
We suspect, from its habit, that it is an acci- 
dental variety of dwarf habit of the last, or one 
of taUer growth than the next. It produces its 
pods in clusters, three or four beans in each pod, 
which are smaller than the last. It branches 
considerably, and therefore should have not less 
than 10 or 12 inches in the line, which is nearly 
its proper distance between the rows. With 
Marshall's prolific it should have a place in every 
small garden. We grow it extensively on ac- 
count of the delicacy and smallness of the beans 
while young. 

4. Dwarf fan. — The smallest of all garden 
beans, seldom so tall as the last ; pods small, 
round, containing in general three small oblong 
beans ; pods produced in clusters close to the 
ground. Known also as the fan or bog, dwarf 
cluster, or bog bean. The Feve naine hative 
of the French. It is not in general cultiva- 
tion, but is well suited for small gardens, yield- 
ing a moderate crop of well-flavoured beans. 
Seeds weighing from 19 to 20 grains. 

5. Whiteblossomed. — From 3 to 4 feet high; the 
most delicate flavoured of all beans, but by no 
means productive ; pods long, nearly cylindrical, 
containing seldom more than four beans, which, 
when ripe, are of a blackish colour. Flowers 
white, unlike any of the family. It is known 
also as the white-blossomed long pod. An 
average-sized seed weighs 124 grains; the small- 
est seeded of all the garden sorts. 

6. Long pod. — From 3 to 4 feet in height ; 
pods long and narrow, containing in general 
four beans of excellent quality. A most pro- 
ductive variety, and generally employed for the 
summer crops. One of the most popular of all 
the family, and has been long in cultivation, 
which accounts for the following synonymes. 
Lisbon, early Lisbon, Sandwich, Windsor long 
pod, Turkey long pod, common long pod, early 
long pod, large long pod, hang-down long pod, 
sword long pod, moon. Wrench e's early moon. 
To which Johnston's wonderful may, for all 
useful purposes, be added, as it differs only in 
the gi-eater length of the pods, and shghtly 
flatter form of the bean. 

7. Dutch long pod. — From 3 to 4 feet high. 
An abundant bearer; will succeed the long pod 
even if sown on the same day. Pods long and 
broad, containing, on an average, from four to 
six large flat white beans. 

8. Green long pod. — From 3 to 4 feet in height. 
Pods long, somewhat flattened, containing in 
general four rather small oblong beans, an excel- 
lent bearer, and only a few days later than the 
long pod. Esteemed on account of the fine 
green colour of the beans, which, if gathered at 
a proper time, retain their green colour when 
dressed. Known also as the green Genoa and 
green nonpareil. It is the Feve verte, Feve 
toujours verte, of the French. The long pods 
weigh from 23i to 354 grains, the lightest being 
Child's new early long pod, and the heaviest 
Sangster's imperial long pod. 

9. Windsor. — 3 to 4 feet high, pods short but 
very broad, containing seldom more than two 
beans, which are very large, flat, roundish ; 
esteemed excellent for a summer crop on 
account of their remaining longer fit for use 
than any other, excepting the green Windsor. 
Known also as Wrenche's improved Windsor, 
new Windsor, Kentish Windsor, broad Windsor, 
Taylor's Windsor, Taylor's large Windsor, Tay- 
lor's improved new Windsor, Mumford, and 
small Spanish. It is the Fdve de Windsor of 
the French. Weight of seed, 47 grains (or J of 
an ounce nearly), being the heaviest seeded of all 

10 Green Windsor. — Very much resembling 
the last, only the beans remain green after they 
are ripe, and hence are thrust into the market 



when most other beans are done. It is known 
as the Toker, and is the Feve de Windsor verte 
of the French. Weight of seed, 36 to 37 grains. 

11. Sed Windsor. — In character similar to 
the last two, differing, however, in the beans 
being of a light red colour while young, and 
dark red when ripe, which renders it seldom 
sought after. The French have a bean very 
similar, under the name of Feve violette. 
Weight of seed, 31^ grains. 

12. Oreen China. — From 2 to 2^ feet in 
height. Not much cultivated, but is deserving 
of greater notice on account of its productive- 
ness and coming in late ; pods long, cylindrical, 
containing three or four beans, which remain 
green when dry. Much cultivated on the Con- 
tinent, and known as the Feve verte de la 
Chine. — Bon. Jard., edit. 1835. 

1 3. Dwarf crimson seeded. — Esteemed only on 
account of its earliness and dwarf habit, in both 
of which it exceeds all the other beans, seldom 
attaining a foot in height. Pods produced in 
great abundance, about 2 inches long, well fiUed 
with beans of a crimson colour, and nearly as 
large as the long pod. Known as Vilmorin's 
dwarf red seeded. This is the Feve trds naine 
rouge, nain rouge, of the French. 

The varieties of beans have not increased by 
any means in the same ratio as pease, for which 
both cultivators and seedsmen ought to be 
thankful As a selection from the above, we 
would recommend Nos. 2, 3, 6, 8, and 9 ; and 
No. S, where delicacy of flavour, at the expense 
of a moderate return, is no object. 

Gregory's early hang-down is merely seed 
selected from No. 6. The thick-seeded Windsor, 
Child's long pod, green long pod, gangster's 
imperial long pod, green fan or cluster, and 
other names found in catalogues, are scarcely 
worth the attention of the cultivator. 

and Diseases. — The bean is liable, 
particularly in dry sea- 
sons, to the attacks of the 
Aphis fabce, the black-fly 
collier, or, as it is in many 
places called, the dolphin. 
It is a species of plant- 
louse. It attacks the young 
stalks towards their tops, 
and the leaves also ; and 
in a few days after their 
appearance, like all the 
Aphis family, it multiplies 
in prodigious numbers, 
rendering the top of the 
plants a mass of sooty 
blackness. Fig. 12 shows 

Fig. 13. 

Fig. 12. 


the female wingless insect; while fig. 13 ex- 
hibits the male. The ladybirds — of which 
there are two, the constant inhabitants of gar- 
dens, Coccinella Upunctata, fig. 14, a, the two- 
spotted ladybird, and Coccinella septem^owactata, 
b, seven-spotted lady- 
Fig- 14- bird — are their great- 
est natural enemies, as 
they are to all the 
Aphis tribe. The 
grub of the ladybird 
is shown, fig. IS, a, 
and the chrysalis b. 
They devour them in astonishing numbers ; and 
therefore, for this service, and from being 
harmless themselves, they rank amongst those 
insects which should be protected with the 

care. The 



most ready means, and 
that generally follow- 
ed, in ridding our- 
selves of the Aphis 
fabce, is to cut off the 
affected tops, put them 
in a bag, and consign 
them to the nearest 
fire. It is useless to 
cut off the tops and 
leave them on the 
ground; for even the 
vringless females will 
soon reascend the 
plants, and the winged males speedily regain 
their former station. The operation of topping 
beans lessens greatly the multiplication of these 
insects, as it is the young and most tender leaves 
and tops that they 
Fig. 16. prefer to attack. Dust- 

ing the plants with 
caustic lime in powder, 
tobacco juice and 
fumigation, Scotch 
snuff, sulphur, helle- 
bore dusted over them 
in a state of powder, 
and a variety of other 
means, have been 
adopted, all having 
more or less effect; 
but topping is the radical cure after all. The 
humble-bee {Bombm terreatris L., and B. loco- 
rumi), works considerable damage to the bean 
crop, by perforating the flowers on the upper 
side of the calyx 
Fig. 17. with its mandibles, 

and inserting its 
proboscis into the 
nectary to secure 
the honey contained 
therein. This ope- 
fV /~2BISI^\. ''^tioii is necessarily 

' ■' """Bl X«. of great injury to 

the crop, as the ma- 




jority of the flowers 
so probed are not 
able to perfect their 
Several species of the extensive genus Sitona 
(weevils) are often very destructive, not only to 



the bean, but to most of the order Leguminosse. 
These are, Sitona canina, fig. \S; S. lineata, fig. 7, 
and Otiorhynchm pkipes, fig. 17. These attack the 
bean shortly after its appearance above ground, 
and continue to feed upon it during the whole 
progress of its growth. The same means must 
be applied as no- 
Fig. 18. ticed above. The 
little beetles, Brij- 
chus granarius, 
fig. 9, andB.flavi- 
manus, fig. 1 8, de- 
posit their eggs 
in the blossom, to 
prey afterwards 
on the ripe seeds. 
A parasitic fun- 
gus {Uredo fabce) 
abounds on the 
leaves of the bean 
towards the latter end of summer. Its effects 
do not seem to be of great consequence ; were 
it even so, sulphur applied as has been recently 
recommended for the destruction of mildew, 
wUl lessen, if not totally destroy, this parasite. 

The wire-worm (Cataphagas lineatus, Linn.), 
fig. 19, belongs to the order Coleoptera, family 
Elateridae. The perfect insect is about one- 
Fig. 19. 



third of an inch in length, and is described by 
Stephens as being " foscous, with a griseoua 
pubescence. Head and thorax blackish, the 
latter with the lateral branches nearly straight, 
and the posterior angles very acute ; the disc 
very convex, and thickly punctate ; scutellum 
fuscous ; elytra broad, a little attenuated, round- 
ed at the apex, very convex; punctate striated; 
the striae disposed in pairs, and united at the 
apex, griseous yellow, with the alternate nar- 
rowed interstices fuscous or dusky ; margins 
and apex of the abdomen ferrugineous ; anten- 
nse and legs rufo-testaceous ; the femora some- 
times dusky, rather variable in colour, being 
more or less pubescent or testaceous." 

The true wii'e-worms are the produce of vari- 
ous species of click or skipping beetles, known 
as skipjacks and spring-beetles in parts of the 
country, or elaters, as — 
Elater (Adraatm) acuminatns, the acuminated 

click beetle. 
£. (Athous) longicoUis, the long-necked click- 
beetle. ; 

E. {Athous) niger, the black click-beetle. 

E. (Agriotea) obscurm, the obscure click-beetle. 

S. (Melanotus) fulvipes, the tawny-legged click- 

E. (Lepidotiis) holosericeus, the satin-coated 

E. (Agriotes) sputatoVithe spitting click-beetle. 

E. (Athous) rufica/ndis, the red-tailed click- 

E. (Agrypnus) murinus, the mouse-coloured 

E. (Dolopim) marginatus, the margined click- 

One of the natural enemies to these is the 
genera Fileria — slender worms, which live in 
wire-worms. Another is Steropus madidus, a 
ground-beetle or carabua, which feeds on them. 

The millipedes and maggots of gnats are er- 
roneously called wire- worms ; they are, however, 
destructive in t,heir way. They belong to the 
genus lulus. 

I. Londonensis, the London snake millipede. 
/. pilosus, the hairy snake millipede. 
/. pulchellus, the beautiful snake millipede. 
/. punctatus, the dotted snake millipede. 
/. terrestris, the earth snake millipede, 
/. latestnatus, the broad-lined snake millipede. 

The larvae of the Elater are of a yellowish-brown 
colour, slender, fiat, smooth, and shining, sHghtly 
pubescent, resembling the meal-worm ; the body, 
exclusive of the head, is composed of twelve scaly 
rings, the last of which is not notched at the 
tip, as is the case with some of the species ; it 
has six very short legs, they have a series of 
spirals on either side ; the under side of the end 
segment has a fleshy tubercle, employed as a 
leg, and, when not in use, concealed at the base 
of the segment. It remains five years in the 
grub state, in which it is most injurious, and com- 
mits great devastation among florists' flowers. 
These grubs are exceedingly destructive to car- 
rots, potatoes, turnips, cabbages, &c.; we have 
not unfrequently lost crops of beans also by 
them. Various have been the means employed 
to effect their destruction ; the most simple, 
and probably the most effectual, is to place slices 
of potatoes on the point of a stick, and bury 
them about two or three inches under the sur- 
face, which should be examined every day, and 
the wire-worms collected and burned. By these 
means we succeeded in capturing in a border of 
carnations no less than 6360 at three takings. 
The number of traps set was 106, and the ave- 
rage number of wire-worms per trap was 20 : at 
one taking we captured 2120. By persevering 
in this manner for about a fortnight, examining 
the traps every third day, we so completely 
cleared the border, that it has been kept stocked 
with carnations for the last four years, and now 
we do no lose a plant. Some prefer laying the 
slices of potatoes on the surface of the ground, 
as also sUces of turnip, and portions of lettuce- 
stalks, to which the worms are attracted, and 
may be collected in great numbers. Some re- 
commend turning up the soil frequently, to ex- 
pose them to the attacks of birds. Pheasants 
destroy them in vast numbers, but we are not 
Certain but they do more harm in other ways 




than good io this. Rooks and moles are also 
very serviceable in keeping down this pest of the 
garden and the field. Spirit of tar, dug into 
the ground, at the rate of 1 gallon to SO square 
yards, has been with us a satisfactory remedy ; 
and to render the Uqmd more divisible, we ab- 
sorb it in dry sand, or dry finely-sifted coal- 
ashes, and then sow the groimd with it. The 
refuse lime of gas-works, which contains in gene- 
ral a considerable amount of impure sulphuret 
of lime, or lime combined loosely with sul- 
phuretted hydrogen— a gas the most deleterious 
of all others to animal life — has been employed 
with singular effect also. The mole lives chiefly 
on the wire-worm for a great portion of the 
year. In cold wet seasons the wire-worm is 
most destructive. And, in fact, where groimd 
is overrun with wire-worm, it is not a bad way 
of clearing it, to sow old seed of beans in drills, 
and to take them up after the first week once 
every two or three days, when the beans will 
be found thickly perforated by the insects, 
which may be destroyed and the beans re-sown 

The gamma moth (Plusia gamma of some 
naturalists, Noctua gamma of others), fig, 20. 

Fig. 20. 


This very pretty moth may be described as 
having beautiful glossy greyish-coloured upper 
wings, marbled with brown, having a slight 
metallic shade ; about the middle of each is a 
gold shining mark, resembling the Greek letter 
y, from which circumstance it derives its name ; 
the under wings are of a pale ash-colour with a 
brown edge ; the head and collar purplish- 
brown, margined with grey lines; abdomen 
yellowish-grey, having elevated tufts of hairs. 

The caterpillar is green, with several short 
single hairs interspersed over it ; four small 
whitish-yellow lines down its back, and a broad 
yellow stripe along each side; head brownish 
green ; furnished with twelve feet — two behind, 
four abdominal, and six fore-feet. The female 
deposits her eggs, which are hemispherical, on 
the under sides of the leaves, in a somewhat 
regular manner ; they are said to lay four hun- 
dred of these eggs at a time. 

These caterpillars are found pretty abundant 
during the summer, feeding on lettuce, beans, 
pease, and even wormwood, thistles, and sage. 
They made considerable ravages in France in 
the year 1736, according to Reaumur, during 
the month of July, eating up all the leguminous 
vegetables, leaving nothing but the stalks. They 
are found all over Europe, in Siberia, China, and 
.North America. They first make their appear- 

ance about April, and continue in fuU vigour till 
October, when they deposit their eggs, which 
are hatched at various times from May to Sep- 
tember, but chiefly during July. These cater- 
pillars commit sad havoc in the south of Eng- 
land ; rarely, however, in Scotland, where they 
are only found troublesome in dry warm sum- 
mers. There are four generations of moths 
during the season, and when we consider that a 
single pair can produce 80,000 eggs, which, 
barring accident, might become the progenitors 
of 16,000,000 of caterpillars in little more than 
twelve months, it is wonderful that they do not 
injure our gardens more than they usually do. 
Their attacks are pretty general, but, with the 
exception of lentils, they seem to prefer legu- 
minous plants. The only means of subduing 
them appears to be capturing the insect in its 
moth state, hand-picking the caterpillars, or, 
as recommended for other insects which drop 
either from fear or from concussion, shaking the 
crop smartly, and receiving the caterpillars in a 
cloth spread along both sides of the rows. If 
merely shaken off, they would soon reasoend 
the plant and renew their attacks upon it. 

General remarks. — The European names of 
the garden-bean are — boon, Dutch ifava, Itahan; 
five de murais, French; alver janas, Spanish; 
and grosse bohne, German. 

Where saving seed is an object, a row or two, 
according to their length, and the quantity of 
seed required, should be left ungathered; for 
it is a bad way to gather the best of the crop, 
and to save the last formed, and consequently 
the weakest and worst, for seed ; a sure way to 
deteriorate the quality of the sort, and render a 
variety that a long succession of years' careful 
cultivating and selecting has been spent in pro- 
ducing, worthless, by the mismanagement of one 
season. Even then only the finest poda should 
be saved ; and to prevent accident, the crop 
should be gone over just as the pods are fnlly 
swelled, and all the smallest removed. This 
will throw additional strength into the pods 
left for seed, and insure a pure stock. Beans, 
like pease, keep best in the straw, therefore 
they should, when properly winnowed, be laid 
up in bundles, and placed in a dry airy loft. 
The seeds will retain their vitality longer than 
the pea, and if well kept, wiU grow after four 
or five years. 

The morganio constituents of the beam, are — 

100,000 parts of seed contain 2136, and 
100,000 parts of the straw contain 3121 parts 
of inorganic matter, consisting of: — 

Potash . 




Alumina . 

Oxide of iron 

Oxide of manganese 


Sulfuric acid . 

Phohphoric acid . 

Clilorine . 


The composition of the bean is thus riven in 
« The Book of the Farm," vol. i. p. 1300 :— 






























„ , Mean of three analyses 
Potash . 33.56 

Soda . 


Lime . 




Oxide of iron . 


Phosphoric acid 


Sulphuric acid 




Silica . 



One quart of Mazagan beana (one of the 
smallest sized) contains 434 beans, and one 
quart of Windsor (one of the largest) contains 
179 beans. 


Natural history. — The kidney or French bean 
{Phaseolm vulgaris, L.) belongs to the natural 
order Leguminosae, subdivision Sarcolobae, tribe 
Phaseolese ; and to the class Diadelphia, and 
order Decandria, in the Linnsean arrangement. 
The genus Phaseolus contains 14 species of 
plants cidtivated for the food of man, exclusive 
of the species multiflorus, which forms the next 
section. Of P. vulgaris there are many varie- 
ties in cultivation, but, like those of pease, 
they are at present in considerable confusion 
as to identity. The name Phaseolus is derived 
from Phaselus, a little boat, from the resem- 
blance in its seed-pods. 

The kidney bean is a native of India, intro- 
duced to Britain before 1597 — some say so early 
as 1509, and that it was imported from the 
Netherlands, about which period gardening be- 
gan to be attended to in England, the white kid- 
ney bean being the first variety known in this 
country. Phillips, in "History of Cultivated 
Vegetables," vol. i. p. 74, says, " this pulse is 
generally but improperly called French bean, 
for its old French name, Five de Rome, evidently 
proves it not to have been a native of France. 
We also find that it was called the Eomau bean 
in our language about the time of Queen Eliza- 
beth. Gerard also gives it the name of Sperage- 
bean, and says it is called FaseUes, or long 
peason. The Dutch at that time (1596) called 
them Turck's-hoone — that is, Turk's-bean. From 
these facts, but more particularly from the ac- 
count of the great Eoman naturalist, we may 
conclude that this wholesome and excellent 
vegetable is a native of the eastern extremity of 
Europe, or that part of Asia nowbelonging to the 
Turks; for PHny, in the 7th chap, of his 18th 
book, mentions these beans, and says those of 
Sesame and Iris are red, resembling blood. He 
also, in his 12th chap, of the same book, calls 
them Phaseoli, and says the pod is to be eaten 
with the seed. From this laconic notice we 
may assume they were but little esteemed at 
that time in Italy, where lupins were then so 
much admired for food. The French" name of 
Haricot originated from their being much used 
by cooks in the composition of a dish so call- 
ed. The EngHah name of Kidney bean was 
given on account of the seed being somewhat of 
a kidney shape. Gerard mentions a consider- 

able variety that was cultivated in England in 
his time, and says, " The fruit and pods of kid- 
ney beans, boyled together before they be ripe, 
and buttered, and so eaten with their pods, are 
exceedingly delicate meate, and do not engender 
winde as the other pulse doe." 

Kidney beans ai'e amongst the most valu- 
able of culinary vegetables, yielding a large re- 
turn of crop, and continuing in use during 
the whole summer. The variety known as 
the scarlet-runner is a most productive sort, 
and although requiring the support of stakes 
in the manner of pease, yet it well repays the 
expense and the space it occupies. In Scot- 
land this excellent vegetable is much less culti- 
vated than in England; indeed, the cottager, 
and even many of a higher grade, do not ap- 
pear to be aware of their merits. It is found in 
most cottage-gardens in the south, and made 
to add to the ornament of the garden, as well as 
used for culinary purposea. Philip Miller ap- 
pears to have brought it into use as an article 
of food, for, prior to his time, we find it do- 
scribed as an ornamental annual, and placed in 
the flower border, and its flowers greatly sought 
after by ladies, to be put in their noaegays 
and cut-flower pota. The dried seeds of all the 
tribe are exceedingly nutritious as an article of 
food, constituting the haricot so much used on 
the Continent ; indeed, the quantity of gluten 
contained in them nearly approaches that in 

Uses. — Kidney beans, in their young state, are 
preserved in salt for winter use ; they are also 
preserved as a pickle by themselves, and form 
an ingredient in mixed pickles. They are alao 
used throughout the whole year as a legumen, 
and, being impatient of frost, a supply is kept up 
during winter and spring by growing them in 
hothouses. As an article of vegetable food, they 
are conaidered exceedingly wholeaome, and much 
lesa flatulent than vegetablea uauaUy are. The 
ripe seeda are much uaed on the Continent in 
cooking under the name of haricots, which, as 
dishes, are as numerous as curries in Calcutta. 
For this purpose, the ripe seeds are steeped a 
few hoiira in water, which swells them out, and 
causes the outer akin to separate freely from the 
seed. In this state they are nutritious, when 
simply boiled, and served up to be eaten with 
other meats, but much less palatable than when 
they have passed through the hands of a skilful 
cook. Haricots are much in use in Roman 
Catholic countries, forming the greater part of 
the food of the people during Lent. The 
ripened aeeds alao enter into a variety of soups 
and stewa. As an article of domestic economy, 
they are by far too little attended to ; their pro- 
duce is large ; their cultivation during summer 
simple, and, in their green state, few vegetables 
are easier cooked. According to the analysis of 
Einhoff, 3840 parts of kidney bean afforded 1805 
parts of matter analogous to starch, 8 57 of vegeto- 
animal matter, and 779 parts of mucilage— clearly 
showing that it is the most nutritious of all 

Propagation. — The whole of the dwarf 
varieties — that is, of Phaseolus vulgaris — 



are to be regarded as annuals in this 
country, and consequently originated from 

Sowing. — The kidney bean, being a 
native of India, is consequently a ten- 
der plant in Britain ; therefore sowing 
in the open air, even under the most 
favourable circumstances, cannot be safely 
recommended before the beginning of 
April for England, and even then in dry 
light soils and warm places. The latter 
end of that month is sufilciently early for 
Scotland. After the first sowing, to keep 
up a proper succession during summer 
and autumn, other sowings should be 
made in May, June, and July. In cold 
situations, and in strong cold soils, it will 
be advisable to sow the seed in a prepared 
bed, in boxes or in pots, in light rich 
soil, and when the plants are about 4 
inches high, to transplant them into their 
final spot. They bear transplanting well ; 
and the process recommended in the case 
of pease is applicable to them also. To 
keep up a supply during winter, the pro- 
cess of sowing should commence about 
the middle of October, and be followed up 
every fortnight till the middle of March. 

For early crops in the open air, a 
well-sheltered border with a southern 
exposure should be chosen, the ground 
thoroughly pulverised, and if not in 
high manurial condition, it should be 
made so by additions of semi-decom- 
posed stable-yard manure dug in previous 
to sowing. (For special manures, vide 
Garden Bean, those recommended for it 
being apphcable here also). The drills 
should be drawn across the border 2 feet 
apart, and about 1| inch in depth; the 
seed should be set by the hand singly 
from 2 to 3 inches apart, according to 
the size of the variety, which distances 
apply to all the dwarf sorts, or kidney 
beans proper. The seed is sold by the 
pint, half a pint being sufficient to plant 
a drill 80 feet in length. It is very im- 
portant that the drill be dry at the time 
of planting thus early, for, what with cold 
and excess of damp, the beans are very 
liable to rot as soon as they are buried in 
the ground. In sowing for transplanting, 
the seeds may be set as close to each 
other as nearly to touch ; and, indeed, it 
is a good plan to sow one seed in a small 
60-sized pot, and when 3 inches high, if 
the weather be favourable, to plant them 

out with the ball entire. Even for secon- 
dary crops a warm spot is required ; the 
distance as given above will be quite 
sufficient. We have, in general, found 
transplanting the first and second crops 
the most certain way of securing them 
early ; and, indeed, for the former, have 
found much advantage by setting the 
lines from east to west, and placing along 
the northern side of each line a boarding 
18 inches in height, which places the crop 
almost in the same condition as if it were 
planted at the bottom of a south wall, 
which seldom can be done with safety to 
the roots of the fruit-trees growing against 
it. The wire protecting-oages, alluded to 
in article Garden Bean, will be valuable 
in the case of the first and second crops 
of kidney beans ; andindeedthe triangular 
case with 'glass on one or both sides, de- 
scribed in article Pea, might be used with 
the greatest advantage in this case also. 

Subsequentculture. — Top-dressing, should 
the plants appear weakly, with any of the 
special manures noticed in article Garden 
Bean, in either a dry or dissolved state — 
the latter being much more instantaneous 
in its efiects — keeping the ground clear of 
weeds, and frequently and deeply stirring 
the soil between the rows, constitute the 
essentials of good cultivation. Some of 
the taller-growing sorts, if the soil be 
rich, and the season mild and humid, will 
require topping— that is, merely cutting 
off those straggling top-shoots that, under 
such circumstances, often spindle up and 
rob the crop of much of its food, as well 
as causing an undue shade upon it. 

Soil and manure. — A much lighter and 
more thoroughly pulverised soil is re- 
quired for the kidney bean than for the 
garden bean, and where it is naturally 
strong the crop will be much improved, 
if sown or planted in light vegetable 
mould, placed in drills drawn 6 inches 
deep for its reception : this will give the 
crop a fair start ; and deep hoeing through 
the summer, leaving the surface rough, 
will admit the heat of the sun, of which 
this crop, being of tropical origin, stands 
in need in our climate. The manures 
recommended, and the method of apply- 
ing them, are similar to those described 
in article Garden Bean ; but as the manu- 
rial effects should take place as soon after 
they are applied as possible, it is better 
that these should be in a liquid state. 



Forcing. — This esteemed legumen can be 
had in great perfection throughout the 
whole year. To afford a supply during 
winter, seeds of the most approved sorts, 
such as early six-weeks, Fulmer's early 
dwarf, Wilmot's forcing, &c. should be sown 
about the latter end of September or 1 st 
of October, presuming two distinct crops 
are already progressing in pits capable of 
being so heated as to not only repel frost, 
of which this plant is impatient, but also 
to afford a minimum temperature of 60°. 
Sow in small 60-sized pots, one bean in 
each, in rather light, dry, rich soil. Place 
them in a glazed pit or frame, in a tempera- 
ture maintained at not less than 60° or 65°, 
keeping the pots near to the glass. When 
they have attained the height of 3 or 4 
inches, transplant them into 7-inch pots, 
placing 3 plants in each, having their 
roots and ball entire, so that they may 
sustain no check in their growth. At 
potting, place in the bottom of each pot, 
over the drainage, 2 inches of very rich 
but much decayed manure, and use a 
rich, light, rather turfy fresh soil for the 
roots to work in. Some, at potting, set 
the plants deep in the pots, with a view 
to add fresh soil around the stems after- 
wards. This is an absurd practice, as the 
roots of leguminous plants very rarely are 
emitted from the stem, and the conse- 
quence of this deep potting is to limit 
greatly the space for the roots to seek 
food in. As the natural temperature of 
the season declines, raise that in the pit 
or frame in which they are placed to 65° 
as a night temperature, and 75° as that of 
the day, allowing a rise of a few degrees 
in bright sunny days. In a pit heated 
by hot water, they will succeed better than 
elsewhere ; and, in default of such accom- 
modation, set them on suspended shelves 
over the footpaths of the pine-stoves, but 
as close to the glass as will admit of their 
attaining the height of 10 or 12 inches. 
To lessen the labour of watering, place 
pans or feeders under the pots, and 
syringe the plants frequently, to keep 
down the thrip and red-spider, which are 
their greatest enemies. As the plants 
advance in growth, support them with 
small twigs to prevent their being bro- 
ken by the force of syringing. Place a 
little liquid manure in the feeding-pans, 
to give additional food to their roots as 
soon as they appear to wish to escape 

through the holes in the bottom of the 
pots. For this purpose we use cow or 
horse urine, or liquid guano, as affording 
ammoniacal fumes, at least to such an 
extent as experience has led us to believe 
is very effective in keeping down both 
thrip and red-spider. Ventilate upon all 
fitting occasions, but avoid allowing cold 
draughts of air to blow on the plants at 
all times ; and, as a security against this, 
cause the air admitted to pass through a 
thin canvass screen, which will break its 
force, and so sift it into minute divisions 
that little injury need be apprehended. 
To maintain a regular succession, sow 
every ten days throughout the winter. So 
valuable a vegetable deserves a heated pit 
for its special accommodation ; and by 
having one heated by hot water of 60 feet 
in length, divided into three compart- 
ments, a good supply may be kept up. 
For spring use, should they not be re- 
quired throughout the winter, the 1st of 
January may be considered a very proper 
season to sow. Should the pit into which 
they are set have been occupied with 
melons, cucumbers, tomatos, or such 
plants as are subject to thrip and red- 
spider, as a wise precaution, previous to 
arranging it for French beans, let it be 
cleared of all its internal contents, well 
brushed out with a birch broom, the 
lights put in, and every crevice and hole 
carefully stopped up, and bum within it 
half a pound of brimstone, keeping the 
fumes in from night till morning : re- 
move the lights, and whitewash the walls 
with hot lime-water, and wash the whole 
of the wood- work with hot water, if paint- 
ing be at the time considered unnecessary. 
This is a very necessary precaution to be 
taken against the insidious attacks of 
two of the greatest, although minutest, 
enemies the cultivator has to contend 

French beans cannot be grown during 
winter in a temperature of less than 60° — 
if ranging from that to 65° and 70°, and 
80° during the day, so much the better ; 
and where a bottom temperature a few 
degrees higher can be afforded, so much 
the more certain will be the success of the 
crop. They also, in common with all 
thin-leaved plants of tropical origin, re- 
quire the fullest amount of light our 
gloomy atmosphere is capable of affording 
themj and hence they succeed best in 



low pits, or on shelves suspended near the 
glass. Moisture, accompanied with heat, 
is also essential ; without this, they would 
become the prey of thrip and red-spider. 
In addition to the sorts we have already 
named, may be mentioned the recently- 
described variety, Newington wonder, 
which from its dwarf habit is well calcu- 
lated for suspended shelves in hothouses, 
occupying less room than any of the other 
popular sorts. It does not appear to stand 
the process of transplanting, and should 
therefore be sown at once in the pots it 
is to be grown in, putting four or five 
beans in pots of 6 or 7 inches across. 
It does not require topping, as most 
others do ; nor, indeed, does it bear such 
a process with impunity. Give little 
water to the roots of any transplanted 
French beans, until the roots have pretty 
well filled the pots, — after which they will 
require it more or less, according to the 
size of the pots they are grown in ; those 
in small pots, of course, requiring the 
most. Water sparingly, if at all, after 
planting the seeds : it is time enough 
when they have begun to sprout, and 
when their roots are far enough advanced 
to be able to avail themselves of it. Top- 
ping the plants is practised by many, and 
no doubt those of rambling habits require 
it, to cause them to become more bushy, 
and hence to produce a greater number 
of pods. The time and manner of doing 
this is as soon as the cotyledons, or two 
first embryo leaves, are fully developed ; 
and then the central shoot, which will 
also be making its appearance, should be 
carefully pinched or cut out. This pro- 
cess, however, somewhat retards the 
growth of the plant at first ; but if time 
is not an object, the advantage will be 
apparent in a more abundant crop. 

Approted sorts, and their qualities. — The 
varieties of kidney beans cultivated in Britain 
are in reality not nearly so numerous as the 
long list of names in some seed-lists would lead 
us to believe. In France, Spain, and other 
countries, where they are much more used as 
an article of food, and where the climate is 
favourable for their production in the open air, 
with as little trouble, and for as long a continu- 
ance, as our common broad bean, the varieties 
are endless, and, as is the case with peas with 
ourselves, continually increasing in number. 

1. The early Dutch dwarf. — One of the oldest, 
if not the very oldest, cultivated variety. Pods 
long and narrow ; beans small, compressed, and, 
when ripe, of a white colour. A good early variety. 

and often employed for forcing, being of a dwarf 
habit. It is known as white long pod Dutch, 
early dwarf white, large white dwarf Dutch, 
dwarf Dutch, dwarf white Dutch. It is the 
nain hatif de HoUande, nain de HoUande trfis 
hatif of the French. 

2. Early white. — Both pods and beans of 
moderate size; plant very dwarf, from 9 to 11 
inches ; very early, and on this account, and 
its small size, well adapted for forcing. The 
pods are eaten both while green and when the 
seeds are ripe. It is known as early Laon and 
dwarf white. It is the nain h^tif de Laon, or 
flageolet, of the French. The seeds when ripe 
are white. 

3. Dwarf Canterbury. — This is a very old 
and esteemed variety, hardy and useful. Pods 
medium length, narrow; beans small, oblong, 
white when ripe, branching much near the 
ground; early and productive. It is so near 
akin to the dwarf Battersea, early white, and 
earliest white Battersea, as not to be worth cul- 
tivating as a separate sort; and its relations 
with what is called dwarf sabre, sabre nain, 
dwarf French white, are nearly, if not altogether, 
as close. It is probable two crops of dwarf 
Canterbury would afford all these supposed 
varieties. We think that dwarf Battersea ought 
to be the established name, in preference to 
dwarf Canterbury, as we find it has been culti- 
vated above a century under the former name. 

4. Fulmer's early dwarf. — An excellent 
forcing variety ; pods long, narrow ; beans 
small, dun when ripe. Known also as Ful- 
mer's new dwarf, Fulmer's early, Fulmer's 
dwarf red, early dun, dwarf dun coloured, 
dwarf forcing dun coloured, earliest forcing, 
early frame. Mr R. Thompson, in his excellent 
papers in the "Gardeners' Chronicle," on the 
varieties of vegetables, remarks — " Close allied 
to the preceding is Fulmer's speckled dwarf, 
alias dwarf red speckled, dwarf light -red 
speckled, early dwarf-forcing speckled, large 
forcing dark-red speckled, Suisse rouge; and 
with beans a shade darker, we have also, very 
similar to the above, the early dwarf purple 
speckled, alias early purple, dwarf purple 
speckled, dwarf speckled. AEowing for another 
shade darker, and we may include with those 
the dwarf black speckled, alias dwarf black 

5. Wilmot's forcing cream specJded. — An ex- 
cellent forcing variety. Pods long, of uniform 
breadth; remarkable for crispness while green, 
and an excellent bearer. Not a great way, 
however, removed from the last, but sufficiently 
distant. Beans, when ripe, oblong, pale dun, 
speckled with dark chestnut. 

6. Black Belgian. — Pods long, of uniform 
breadth; crisp, very productive, and a good 
forcer. Dwarfer and earlier than the dwarf 
negro, which it somewhat resembles. This is 
much cultivated in Belgium, and there known 
as haricot noir de Belgique. 

Mr Thompson thus notices the bean, in the 
" Journal of the Horticultural Society of Lon- 
don," vol. v. : — " Although the variety has been 
previously noticed " (in the Journal), " yet the 
present mention of it vriU doubtless be excused, 



for it may be usefully stated that it is the best 
both for early and late sowing. It is dwarf, 
and may be sown in pots before the open 
ground has acquired sufficient warmth ; and if 
planted out when this is the case, it soon comes 
into bearing. Again, late in summer, when 
later sorts would not even blossom, if then 
sown, the sort in question would produce a 
good crop, that will keep in gathering condition 
till cut off by frost. This and the Newington 
wonder are considered the best varieties of 
dwarf kidney beans." 

7. Dwarf speckled China. — ^An early dwarf 
variety, and abundant bearer, well suited for 
forcing. Pods smalhsh, uniform in size. Beans, 
when ripe, of a clear sulphur colour. Known 
also as early dwarf pink-spotted : why called 
pink-spotted, it is difficult to comprehend. 
Robin's egg, dwarf robin's egg (from the small 
size of the beau), dwarf China, early China. It 
is the haricot de la Chine of the French. 

8. Dwarf negro. — A popular variety ; pods of 
moderate size, uniform in size and breadth; 
exceedingly productive ; dwarf and hardy ; well 
suited for forcing. Beans, when ripe, quite 
black. Known as early negro, early black. It 
is the nain noir or negro of the French. 

The dwarf negro is the favourite in the London 
market, on account of their being all green, and 
not marked or blotched, Hke some others. 
They are also all one breadth, very narrow and 
handsome ; and they are very dwarf, and first- 
rate bearers. 

9. Long-podded negro. — A new variety of the 
last, vastly superior to it ; the pods being often 
nearly seven inches in length, and of very uni- 
form breadth: rather a strong grower, and 
admirably suited for a general crop. 

"These are often sown amongst lettuce, 6 
feet apart, about the 1st of April; but by far 
the best plan is to sow in beds thickly, and 
transplant by means of the dibber. No plant 
lifts better, and the moving makes them show 
flower much sooner. The usual practice is to 
take the heads off the plants, leaving them a 
foot high, and to keep topping all the summer, 
which induces them to bear heavy crops. But 
the way to get them to bear earliest, is to save 
the roots in autumn, pack them away hke 
dahlia roots, and to transplant them again in 
March, 6 inches root from root, in rows .5 feet 
apart. It should be borne in mind, that if 
beans are left to ripen, the roots will not be 
near so strong as they otherwise would be."— 
CuTHiLL in MarJcet-Oardenmg arownd London, 
p. 24. 

10. Long-podded China, an improvement on 
No. 7, having pods from 6 to 7 inches long; 
exceedingly crisp ; of uniform size and breadth ; 
very productive ; and, like the last, good for a 
general crop. 

11. Nevnngton wonder. — Another recently- 
produced variety, of great excellence as a forcer, 
being of dwarf habit ; large pods of good shape ; 
does not bear transplanting well. 

The following description of this excellent 
bean is extracted from the "Journal of the 
Horticultural Society" (vol. v.) :— " Very dwarf; 
about a foot high ; early and productive. Tlie 

pods are moderately long, not very broad ; but 
having thick fleshy sides, within which the 
seeds form but slowly ; and the pods remain 
long crisp ; their colour is dark green. It may 
be planted in rows 18 inches apart." 

12. Early six-weehs.—K small early beau well 
suited for forcing. The Mohawk and Victoria 
speckled are early sorts, and well worth culti- 

13. Sabre. — One of the largest, in point of 
size of pod, which is used for ordinary purposes, 
until it attains its full size continuing crisp and 
tender. In this state it is often cut into slices, 
and preserved by salting, in which state it will 
keep for a long time. The beans, in a dried 
state, are esteemed in haricots. It attains a 
height of from 2 to 3 feet, and therefore is 
benefited by being supported by short stakes 
like dwarf pease. It is a profitable sort where 
there is plenty of room. 

14. Large running white. — Another tallish- 
growing sort, cultivated extensively on the Con- 
tinent for its seeds, which form the large white 
bean or haricot, so very generally used in dishes 
of that name. It is seldom cultivated in Bri- 
tain, nor could it be profitably cultivated for 
that purpose. It is known in our seed-lists as 
tender-podded bean, runner, long white, large 
white sugar, white long pod. It is the sabre 
^ trds grande cosse de Soissons — from Sois- 
sons, where it is cultivated to great perfection. 

15. Bush haricot, — About 15 inches in height, 
branching close to the ground, and branching 
out in succession ; not only continues to produce 
a long continuation of crop, but, by shading 
the ground, keeps it moist in dry seasons. 
Pods S inches long, and produced in great 
abundance ; being crisp, transparent, and excel- 
lent, comes early into use, and continues long 
in bearing. The dry seed is speckled red and 
white. It is the haricot solitaire of the French 
and Belgians : in both countries it is grown 

There are many other names met with in seed- 
lists, such as dwarf Canadian, liver-coloured, 
early yellow, large pearl, small do., magpie, 
grey, marbled Prague, round dwarf, &c., which, 
if not identical with some of the above, are 
inferior to them in quality. 

Amongst the newer sorts of kidney beans the 
following deserve notice— not, however, that 
they will ever supersede the dwarfer kinds 
already noticed for general crops, yet some of 
them may be found acceptable, under peculiar 
circumstances, in private gardens. 

Jiaritotd'Algerisstated, in the "Bon Jardinier" 
for 1 850, as being excellent and long cultivated 
in Lorraine. Pods of a palish-green colour, 
destitute of any tough lining, and exceedingly 
tender and excellent when cooked. The plants 
rise to the height of 2 or 3 feet, and therefore 
require support, but may be dwarfed by early 

TurJcische bhone. — It is thus described in the 
" Bon Jardinier " : — " This variety is perhaps 
the best of all; it bears tolerably well; its pods 
are of an extraordinary length and breadth" 
(from 12 to 14 inches in length and upwards of 
an inch in breadth) ; " in a young state they make 



excellent haricot verts ; when nearly full-sized, 
they are still tender and fleshy, and may be 
used in this state, either fresh, being broken in 
small pieces ; or, in winter, after being out into 
narrow strips and preserved with salt." These 
were tried in the gardens of the London Horti- 
cultural Society, and, notwithstanding the cold 
state of the ground and unfavourable season, some 
of the pods attained the length of 10 inches, and 
nearly 1 inch in breadth. The expectation was 
that they would attain their full size in a good 
season. Mr K. Thompson thinks them, however, 
the same as the haricot sabre d'AUemagne of 
Noisette's " Manual du Jardinier," and the sabre 
of the " Bon Jardinier." They attain a consi- 
derable height, requiring stakes. The pods are 
large and crooked, and tender while the seeds 
are imder half their growth ; it is not so abun- 
dant a bearer, nor does it continue so long in 
use, as the haricot solitaire. It is, however, on 
account of the size of its pods, worth cultivation. 

There are a number of French varieties now 
in the seed-shops, many of which, although 
very excellent in a better climate, would be 
unprofitable in such a climate as ours. 

The following selection from the above may 
be considered sufficient for an ordinary garden : 
No. 1, 3, 4, S, 9, 11, and 13 for particular 

Shilhng's new French bean, a very prolific 
sort ; pods large, and remaining long tender. 
Wihuot's true forcing, excellent for that pur- 
pose. Black Belgian, negro, cream-coloured, and 
early Dutch. The last five are the sorts we 
usually grow. 

Insects and diseases. — The most destructive 
of these, always in the forcing-houses, and 
often during dry warm weather in the open air, 
are the thrip and red-spider, both pretty nume- 
rous in species, and, as individuals, as incalcul- 
able as the sand on the sea-shore, while their 
minuteness renders them almost invisible to the 
naked eye. Indeed, they may be set down as 
among the worst enemies the cultivator has to 
contend with. Fortunately, however, our hot- 
houses are infested with only two species of the 
former, both of which are considered of exotic 
origin. In the open air many of the species 
attack plants. The same means employed to 
destroy one species are fatal to the others also. 
The genus is thus described by the writer of the 
excellent articles on entomology in " The Gar- 
deners' Chronicle," 1841 (p. 228) :— " They vary 
very considerably in colour, some species being 
black, others have the wings branded with 
white, but the general tint of the larvae and 
pupae is yellow-ochre. Their bodies are much 
depressed, and much broader than any other 
part in the female ; the mouth is placed under, 
and at the hinder part of the face, and forms a 
short conical rostrum, lying when at rest close 
to the base of the fore-legs. The eyes are rather 
large and coarsely granulated, and there are 
generally three ocelU or simple eyes on the 
crown of the head ; the horns are eight or nine 
jointed, but the three last joints often appear 
to be united, when they look as if only six or 
seven jointed, especially in the larvae state; 
they are either wingless, or they have four wings, 

which are narrow, and lie down the centre of 
the back, the edges being ciUated with long 
hairs ; the legs are short, the feet being formed 
of two joints with a vesicle or little bladder at 
the apex, but not any claws. The larvse re- 
semble the perfect insect in form, but are often 
of a totally different colour; their bodies are 
soft, and they have no ocelli. The pupa is also 
similar, but the wings are sheathed, and the 
horns are generally thrown over the head. 
Some of the species are very active when they 
have arrived at their perfect state, running 
fast, skipping and flying well; and they are able 
to walk about in their previous stages. The 
two sorts most injurious to the gardener are 
a little ochreous species, which does not appear 
to be described, and the Thrips adonidwm, 
fig. 21. The first I shall name T. ochraceus; 

Fig. 21. 


it is narrow and linear ; of a bright and deep 
ochreous colour ; the eyes are black ; the horns 
appear to be only six-jointed, and brownish at 
the tips ; it has three oceUi on the crown ; the 
body is hairy ; the tip pointed and bristly ; the 
wings are shorter than the body in the male, 
lying parallel on the back when at rest ; nar- 
row, especially the under ones, and fringed; 
the hairs longest beneath and at the points ; 
tips of feet dusky. There is so great variety in 
the form and structure of this family that it has 
been divided into several genera, to one of 
which belongs the other species called by Mr 
Halliday Beliothrips adonidum. The larvse and 
pupce are yellowish white, and the perfect insect 
is of a dull deep black, with the point and 
sometimes the whole abdomen of a rust colour; 
the wings are dirty white, the horns and legs 
yellowish, the extremity of the former black ; 
it is a little larger than T. ochraceus, and is 
very troublesome in hothouses, attacking tropi- 
cal plants by piercing the under side of the 
leaves; and one often sees at the top of the tail 
a globule of blackish fiuid, which it soon depo- 
sits, and by innumerable spots of this glutinous 
matter the pores of the leaves are stopped 
up, and large portions of the surface become 
blotched. I have found specimens m October, 
but during March the full-grown larva; and 
pupae, which are as large as the perfect insect, 
are found in groups feeding on the under side 



Fig. 22. 

of the leaves^ and at this time the recently- 
hatched and perfect insect either lies close 
under the ribs, or roves about in search of a 
mate. As this species is imported from some 
tropical region, it can endure great vapour-heat, 
and is consequently most difficult to extirpate." 
The same means for their destruction have 
been employed that have been used against its 
equally tenacious neighbour the red spider, for 
they are generally found together. A dry high 
atmosphere is favourable for the production of 
both : their destruction may be completely 
effected by the means stated above — viz., the 
powerful fumes of sulphur ; but this can only 
be employed to destroy such as lurk about the 
vrood-work or building ; or, in the case of deci- 
duous plants like the vine and peach, while these 
are in a dormant state. With plants which retain 
their leaves, and with plants in a growing state, 
this application cannot be employed ; for far less 
of suOh fumes that would destroy the insects 
would utterly kill the plants which the remedy 
was intended to cure. — (Vide Red Spider for 
other remedies.) 

The Red Spider, fig. 22, is really no spider at 
all, but one of the mites, a very numerous and 
destructive race. It is 
doubtful if what is gene- 
rally called the red spider 
is really only one species 
of insect, from the dif- 
ferent appearances it as- 
sumes, the different posi- 
tions it occupies, and the 
variety of plants which 
it attacks. It is in gene- 
ral considered to be the 
Acarus telarius of Lin- 
naeus, and has been a 
scourge to cultivators 
since his days. Like 
the thrip, It is of exotic 
origin, present always in hothouses where 
a sufficient temperature is maintained, and in 
greatest activity when that temperature is 
accompanied with an unusual degree of dry- 
ness — a fact pretty well established, as it never 
makes its appearance in a low temperature 
accompanied with moisture. In warm and dry 
summers it does great injury to vegetation, few 
plants escaping its attacks : to French or kidney 
beans it is most destructive, both in houses and 
in the open air. When very abundant, it has 
the faculty of spinning a web, and forming foi- 
itself a pretty secure retreat : from this circum- 
stance it has obtained the name of spider, as 
well as the specific one telarius. Its mode of 
operation is to pierce the under side of the 
leaves, and to imbibe the juice, causing little 
yellow spots on the upper surface of the leaf at 
first, which soon spread, and give to the whole 
leaf an autumnal tint : as their attacks increase, 
discolouration goes on, until the tree or plant 
becomes so exhatisted that it sheds its leaves, 
and smaller plants often actually die in conse- 
quence. The kidney bean is a familiar example 
of this. 

" The red spider, if magnified, looks like a 
crab of an oval form, with the legs so arranged 


that two pair are directed forward, and two pair 
incline backward : it has a few long scattered 
hairs, and is of a somewhat transparent yellow- 
ish white, more or less inclining to orange, with 
a blood-coloured dot or spot on either side of 
the thorax ; the larger specimens, which appear 
to be females, have a bright chestnut-coloured 
body, the fore part of the thorax being oohre- 
ous, while the smaller ones have a lead-coloured 
patch on each side : unlike spiders, the thorax 
and body are so united that they form one 
mass ; the head is narrowed and rounded, and 
from under the nose projects a short rostrum, 
composed, I believe, of two lateral valves, en- 
closing two fine bristles, which can be thrust 
out at the pleasure of the animal. Many of the 
acari have two feelers, like an additional pair of 
short legs, projecting from the head, but in this 
species they are very short and only two-jointed, 
and I cannot discover any eyes : the legs, which 
are nearly of equal size, are clothed with mov- 
able bristles, and seem to be composed of five 
joints, besides a minute vessel at the tip, from 
which proceeds a pair of bristly claws. The 
female is oviparous, and exceedingly prolific ; 
the eggs hatch in eight days, and it is very re- 
markable that, when first excluded, the young 
red spider has only six legs, the third pair being 
wanting; but this pair is attained when the 
insect changes its skin. A variety of sizes is 
apparent amongst them, independently of difie- 
reuces in the sexes, the females being the largest, 
with the oviduct slightly projecting ; and quan- 
tities of their cast-off skins are scattered about 
the under side of the leaves which they inhabit." 
— RuEiooLA in Gardeners' Chronicle 1841, p. 164. 
Syringing with considerable force has been of 
advantage in disturbing the insect, and no doubt 
driving many of them off the leaves : water at 
160° has been employed with beneficial effect. 
The means we have stated above are completely 
efficacious in ridding empty structures of them, 
but cannot be applied to living plants. A modi- 
fication of this is to paint the flues or hot-water 
pipes slightly with a paint of sulphur and water, 
but the heated body must not exceed the tem- 
perature of 212°. Applying sulphur, either by 
burning it at a low temperature, syringing the 
trees with it mixed in water, or applying it in a 
dry powdered state, by means of the new in- 
vented sulphurators, and painting the branches 
with it, as well as, in the case of trees on the 
walls, the walls themselves — adding to it in any 
of these cases, except upon heated bodies, a 
small portion of soap, to make it adhere longer 
to the branches or leaves — are aU efficacious. 
In any of these ways the insect may be sub- 
dued, if not completely destroyed, if taken in 
time and applied with vigour ; but, like medi- 
cine, if put off too long, or taken in insuffi- 
cient doses, and even in full doses not followed 
up according to prescription, all will be labour 
in vain. To crops in the open air, such as kid- 
ney beans, it may be readily applied by the 
sulphurators, or mixed with water poured over 
the leaves from the rose of a watering-pot. Euri- 
cola, in "Gardeners' Chronicle," 1841 (p. 166), 
says, " A quarter of a pound of flour of sulphur 
— put into a watering-pot of water, and, when 




■well stirred, poured through a rose along the 
flues when they are warm, or brushed over the 
steam pipes, but not after the foliage has ex- 
panded — produces the necessary effect, and in 
course of a. week the plants should be well 
syringed." The same weight may be put to the 
same quantity of water when applied to kidney 
beans or other crops in the open air. The 
warmer the weather when the sulphur is ap- 
plied, for obvious reasons, the better. 


Natural history. — Scarlet runner (Phaseolus 
multiflorm, Wild.) belongs to the same natural 
order, and class and order in the Linnsean ar- 
rangement as the last. Although the scarlet 
runner is not so early as the kidney bean, it 
nevertheless produces a much larger crop of 
pods as excellent, and to some tasting better 
than the other. In Britain the green pods only 
are used; on the Continent, the ripened seeds 
are as much an object of culture. " In Holland 
the runners are grown in every cottage-garden 
for both purposes; and in France and Switzer- 
land it is grown chiefly for the ripened seeds : 
in the latter countries it is grown on very poor 
SOU." — Encyclopcedia of Plcmts, p. 616. The 
seeds are preserved in the pods attached to the 
straw, and are in winter thrashed out and 
boiled, and eaten with cream or butter, stewed in 
haricots or put into soups. The scarlet runner, 
although in general cultivated as, and considered 
to be, an annual like the kidney bean, is truly 
perennial. It is stated to be a native of South 
America, and was introduced into Britain in or 
before 1633. The French, now enthusiastically 
partial to this legume, at one time held it in 
utter detestation. PhUHps relates an anecdote 
of a lady friend of his, who took some of the 
" seed of the scarlet runner to Jamaica, and by 
planting them in her garden they were brought 
to tolerable perfection ; but her gardener, who 
was an old Frenchman, would not by any per- 
suasion allow them to be eaten, on account of 
the scarlet or blood colour of the blossom." 
They occupy a place in most cottage-gardens in 
England, and are made both ornamental and 
useful. They cover arbours, are trained over 
pales and up the walls of cottages, which they 
enhven by the brightness of their blossom, 
while every day produces a supply of whole- 
some and nutritious food to the owner. 

Uses. — The same as those of the kidney bean. 

The mode of propagation is by sowing 
the seeds, or by planting the small tu- 
berous roots saved from the last crop. 
These should be dug up in autumn, be- 
fore the frost has killed the haulm, and 
be kept in boxes of sand in a cellar tiU 
the end of April, when they may be 

Sowing and planting. — Being rather 
more tender than the dwarf sorts of kid- 

ney bean, they do not admit of being 
planted earlier, nor should the tubers be 
planted sooner, as both may become 
rotten in the cold damp soil before vege- 
tation can take place. In Scotland, one 
sowing or planting will be sufficient, 
as the plants will continue to bear as 
long as the season lasts. In England, 
where vegetation is more rapid, and the 
season longer, later sowing or planting 
will be necessary, making the difference 
in the times of sowing about ten or fifteen 
days. They should be sown in lines not 
nearer than 1 2 feet from each other, that 
being the height to which they will grow 
if in good soil, and supported with stakes 
so high. 9 feet may, however, be taken 
as an average height ; and as that is more 
than can be conveniently reached from 
the ground, a greater height would be 
next to useless. The seed being larger 
than those of the kidney bean, the driUs, 
whether for planting the seed or the tu- 
bers, should be not less than 3 inches 
deep, and the seed or roots placed 9 inches 
distant in the Hne. 

Subsequent culture. — What has been said 
regarding the pea is quite applicable to 
this crop also : when the haulm has 
reached the height of 8 or 9 feet, it should 
be topped, for reasons given \pide Kid- 
ney Bean, Pea, &c.) If the production of 
pods be greater than the consumption, 
the oldest should be picked off before the 
seed is much more than formed in them, 
as, if left on, the plants would be unne- 
cessarily weakened, and the continuance 
of the crop much diminished. Where 
stakes are difficult to procure, the run- 
ners may be topped when 2 or 2^ feet 
high. This dwarfing, although it lessens 
the produce, nevertheless admits of good 
crops being obtained. 

In staking runners, long slender rods 
are preferable to the branching sticks used 
for pease. These should be stuck along 
both sides of the row, as soon as the 
plants are 6 inches in height, and placed 
in a diagonal direction, reversed on each 
side, so that, when the row is finished, 
the supports will have the appearance of 
diamonded trellis-work. The intention 
of setting the stakes in this manner is to 
afford a more ready means to the stems 
of the plants to ascend by and twine 
round. These rods should meet at top, 
for, unlike the pea, which branches 



out as it ascends, and therefore requires 
to be kept more open at top, the runners 
branch most near the bottom, and are 
thinly furnished with side branches to- 
wards the top. As noticed for pease, 
strong wide-meshed netting, attached to 
poles driven in along the rows, may be 
very advantageously used where rods are 
scarce ; and poles, furnished with cross 
pieces of lath, about a foot in length, 
nailed to them, will serve well for attach- 
ing tarred cord or common twine to their 
ends, and thus enclose the plants between 
three, four, or five lines of cord, according 
to their heigh t. A very goodwayof train- 
ing is to plant two rows 4 feet ajjart, to 
procure rods of sufficient length to admit 
of their thicker ends being thrust into the 
line of each row. The smaller ends may 
be brought together at the top, thus 
forming an arch or curvilinear trellis. 
These rods, if sufficiently strong, need 
not be nearer each other than 3 or 4 
feet; and lines of cord should be stretched 
from one to the other, taking a turn 
round each in passing, and extending the 
length of the rows. Four or five lines of 
cord thus fastened will form a very excel- 
lent trellis for the runners to grow over, 
and form at the same time a nice shady 
arbour. Three larch poles, set in a trian- 
gular form, and fixed together at the 
summit, form a good pyramidal conduc- 
tor for such plants. The London market- 
gardeners' practice is to top the plants 
when they begin to form pods; and when 
the object is to gather the crop in a green 
state, immense quantities are thus pro- 
duced. Where, however, seed is to be 
ripened, in this country at least, stakes 
are found to be indispensable. Cottagers 
may attach cords to the wall under the 
eaves of their house, fastening the lower 
end to stumps of stick driven into the 
ground. If a prepared border is made 
along the bottom of the wall, and the 
beans set in it, they will entwine them- 
selves around the cords, and thus improve 
the appearance of the cottage, and afford 
an excellent supply of a nutritious veget- 
able food. 

Soil and manure. — A soil richer, and even 
deeper, than that suited to the pea is in 
this case required. In newly-broke-up 
soils, all the leguminosse prosper well; 
and in older ones, if rich in humus, they 
produce wonderful crops. Light, poor, or 

gravelly land, although it hastens the 
maturity of the crop, is incapable of 
yielding such returns as those we have 

Forcing. — The scarlet runner, on ac- 
count of its rambling growth, is unsuited 
for the forcing-house, and hence is never 
obtained earlier than the period of its na- 
tural growth. 

Taking the crop, and subsequent preserva- 
tion. — The young pods are gathered when 
from 2| to 3| inches in length, and be- 
fore the seed begins to form within thera. 
When rapidly grown, they may be used of 
a larger size, and in that case they are cut 
into long narrow slices when about to 
be dressed. When the seeds have fully 
formed in them, they are unfit for use in 
their green state. When grown for their 
seed, whether for future sowing or for 
haricots, they are pulled up when fully 
ripe, dried in the sun and stacked by, and 
afterwards separated from the pods for 
use, either by being thrashed out or by 
hand-picking, and the seed bagged or 
otherwise stored by till wanted. 

Approved sorts, and their qualities. I . Scarlet 
runner. — Attains the height of from 9 to 12 feet; 
flowers beautiful red, and abundant ; pods rough 
on the outside; neTertheless they are, whUe 
young, as crisp and as well flavoured as any of 
the dwarf sorts ; beans, when dry, dark red and 
spotted. Kjnown also as the tall scarlet runner, 
a mere seed-list name. It is the Haricot d'Es- 
pagne, or ficarlate, of the French. = 

2. White Dutch runner. — Pods rather longer 
and smoother than in the last ; flowers and beans 
white ; does not continue so long in a bearing 
state as the last; is known as the case-knife 
runner ; scarcely attaining so great a height as 
the last. 

3. Painted lady. — Resembling the last two in 
habit; the flowers, however, are variegated, 
being of a bright scarlet colour, intermingled 
with pure white, and hence very ornamental; 
not so productive as the last two, nor quite so 
delicate to eat. We believe this to be the same 
as the York and Lancaster runner of some seed- 
catalogues. It is the Haricot d'Espagne, jl fleur 
bicolore, or panache, of the French. 

These are the principal sorts in cultivation in 
Britain. The Americans possess many varieties 
of haricots, such as the Lima pole bean, but, 
like the Sieva and other sorts, they are by far 
too tender for our climate ; and the same may 
be said of several European sorts, which, upon 
trial, are either too tender, or inferior to those 
named above. Of these we may name the Prague 
runner, or red pea, which, although related more 
to the true kidney bean than to the section in 
which the three above runners stand, has some 
merits also, the pods being tender, while the 
seed is round, and, when ripe, rather thick- 



skinned, mealy, and in flavour resembling the 
Bweet chestnut. The Haricot d' Alger, Prague 
bicolor, Prague jasp^, are varieties of the Prague 
runner, the beans of all of which become soon 
unfit for use. 

Insects and diseases. — These are the same as 
those attacking the order leguminosse generally, 
and the kidney bean in particular {which see). 
The seed of all the runners cannot be depended 
upon to vegetate above a year. Besides the in- 
sects noticed in article Kidney Bean, all the 
leguminosse are liable to the attacks of slugs and 
snails, from the time they appear above ground 
until they attain the height of a foot or so, after 
which they seldom trouble them. Their de- 
struction is simple : dusting the plants morning 
and evening with caustic lime in powder, as re- 
commended for pease, will soon rid the plants of 
these pests. 

General remarks. — There have been few sub- 
stitutes found for any of the leguminous plants 
which are cultivated as articles of food. The 
white lupin, Lupirms alhus, has from the earliest 
ages been extensively grown in Spain, Portugal, 

and Italy for the ripe seed, which is used in the 
same manner that haricots are by the French. 

Several species of lentil are cultivated on the 
Continent also for soups and haricots: these 
are chiefly Ervum lens, the common lentil ; E. 
ErvUia, the winter lentil ; Lathyrus sativus, the 
Spanish lentil ; Cicer arietinv/m, the chick pea, 
&c. Both lentils and lupins are cultivated in 
Italy now, as they were in the days of Pliny, as 
green manure, being ploughed or dug in when 
they had attained their greatest size, but be- 
fore they had formed their seed, in which 
case it was supposed they would rob the 
ground of more than they restored to it. This 
remains a question for modem chemists to 
solve. Pliny states that beans also were culti- 
vated in the vicinity of Macedonia and Thessaly 
for the avowed purpose of being dug into the 
ground, and that this was done just as they 
began to bloom. 

One lb. of liver-coloured kidney beans (which 
sort is of medium size and weight) contains 792 
beans. One lb. of scarlet runners contains 428 



The natural order to whicli the Brassica- 
ceoiis plants belongs, contains plants of 
the greatest importance to man. The 
whole order is pre-eminently European : 
166 species are found in the north and 
middle of Europe, and 178 on the shores 
of the Mediterranean. Dividing them 
into the two hemispherical divisions of 
the globe, it appears that while only 
about 100 species are natives of the 
southern, there are about 800 natives of 
the northern. "The useful qualities of 
the turnip, radish, the rape, and the cab- 
bage, and all its multiform varieties, are 
all well known. The greater part of the 
order consists of plants possessing high 
anti-scorbutic powers. These appear to 
depend upon a certain acrid, volatile, oily 
principle, the chemical nature of which is 
imperfectly known. It is to be remarked 
that plants of this order are always eat- 
able when their texture is succulent and 
watery, as in the roots of the radish and 
the turnip, and the leaves of the cabbage 
tribe. Cruciferse are said to possess a 
greater share of azote than any other 
tribe of plants, as is apparent in their 
fetid smell when fermented."-— ^or^M 

§ 1. — THE CABBAGE. 

Natural history. — Brassioa oleraoea is the 
type of a numerous family, consisting of the 
white and red cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, 
savoy, Brussels sprouts, and the borecoles, all 
of which are believed to have sprung from the 
wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea), specimens of 
■which are to be foimd on the sea-shore at Dover, 
and at various other places in our own country, 
as well as in some other parts of Europe, but 
always in chalky or calcareous soil. Botani- 
cally, it ranks in the natural order Cruciferaj, 

sub-order Orthoplocess (from orihos, upright; 
'plohe, fold — cotyledons), and tribe Brassicse 
{Orthoplocece siliquosce); and stands in class Tetra- 
dynamia and order Siliquosse in the Linnsean 

The name is derived from Bresic, the Celtic 
name of the cabbage. Brassica was the name 
by which it was recognised by the ancient 
Romans, proceeding from prceeeco, because it 
was cut off from the stalk. The Latins gave it 
the name of caidis, from which our modern 
names cole, colewort, are derived. The term 
cabbage is in general understood to mean those 
varieties which form a firm head, by reason of 
the leaves turning close over each other, in 
contradistinction to those open kinds, like the 
borecoles, &c., which are called kales. Three 
varieties of cole are mentioned by the eldest 
Greek historians — the crisped, or ruffled, which 
they called Seliuas or SeUnoides, from its re- 
semblance to parsley ; the other. Lea ; and the 
third, Corambe. Chrysippus and Dieuches, two 
learned Greek physicians, each wrote a book on 
the properties of this plant, and Cato and 
Pythagoras wrote in its praise. Apicius loathed 
them, and Drusus Csesar held them in no es- 
teem, while his father, the Emperor Tiberius, 
thought highly of them. The discovery of the 
art of distillation is attributed to the simple 
circumstance of an ancient physician having 
been called suddenly away from a mess of cab- 
bage he was eating; he placed another plate 
over that in which his cabbage was, to keep 
them warm, and finding, on his return, the in- 
terior of the uppermost plate covered with 
moisture, he reasoned on the cause, and ulti- 
mately discovered the art of distUlatiou. 

The introduction of the cultivated cabbage 
into Britain was no doubt the work of the 
Romans ; and its dissemination afterwards may 
be attributed to the earliest ecclesiastic com- 
munities, who ever had an eye to the good 
things of this life. In all probability it would 
reach Scotland and Ireland by the same means, 
although it has been asserted that it was scarcely 
known in the former country till the time of 
Cromwell, whose soldiers are said to have brought 
it with them from England. Gerard is the oldest 
English author who has written fully on this 
useftd vegetable ; he mentions the white-cab- 
bage cole, the red-cabbage cole, the curled gar- 



den cole : " the Savoie cole is," he says, " num- 
bered amongst the headed coleworts or cab- 
bages." He, notices the curled Savoy, but says, 
"the swollen colewort of all others is the 
strongest," and which he received from Master 
Nicholas Lete, who brought the seed out of 
France. The same author says, " Rape cole is 
another variety ; they were called in Latin 
caulo-rapum and rapo-catdis — participating of 
two plants, the coleworts and turnips, from 
whence they derive their name. They grow in 
Italy and Spain, and some places in Germanie, 
from whence I have received seeds for my 
garden. ' They must,' he says, ' be carefully set 
and sown, as musk melons and cucumbers.' 
This variety has now become one of our hardiest 
field plants." — Phillips. 

There is scarcely an instance in the whole 
vegetable kingdom of a plant that has produced 
so great a number of varieties, differing so much 
in appearance and qualities, as the Brassica 
oleracea : few would suppose that the wild cab- 
bage found on our sea-shore is the parent of 
such a progeny. In its natural state, with its 
green wavy leaves, without the appearance of a 
head, and, to superficial observers, scarcely dis- 
tinguished from the wild mustard or charlock, 
it is as dissimilar to one of its own offspring, the 
drumhead cabbage, as it is to a Tarragonian 
grown cauliflower, which is said often to attain 
the weight of 40 lb. 

Use. — In a variety of forms this esculent 
is in almost universal use throughout the whole 
civilised world. The Greeks and Romans used 
it in a raw state, to counteract the intoxicating 
efieots of wine. One modem physician, at least, 
has recommended it for a like purpose. The 
Romans threw trefoil and nitre into the pot 
along with the cabbage, believing that such 
would cause them to boU green — a department 
in cookery in which many good housewives 
plume themselves not a little at this day. All 
vegetables, if fresh gathered, may be boiled 
without the least change in colour, if put into 
hoiling water with a handful of salt, and allowed 
to boil in plenty of water, leaving the vessel un- 
covered. The uses to which it was applied by 
the ancients are given by PhilUps, in his " His- 
tory of Cultivated Vegetables," vol. iL p. 99, 
summing up the whole with the observation 
that they believed it " light of digestion, and 
that it clarified the senses when moderately 

The large drumhead cabbage is used exten- 
sively in Germany, and throughout the north of 
Europe, for making saur-kraut. The heads are 
cut into small shreds with a knife or plane 
made for the purpose, are packed in barrels or 
tubs along with vinegar, to which salt and 
cloves are sometimes added, and in this state 
they are preserved in excellent condition till 
late in spring : when used, it is stewed over a 
slow fire, and served up with most kinds of 
meat. In England they are pickled, and used 
for the same purposes as the red cabbage, 
which latter is grown principally in Britain for 
pickling. On the Continent it is mucb esteemed 
when slowly stewed in an earthen pan, along 
with a few slices of onion, and a larger propor- 

tion of apples, in which state it appears at most 
tables during winter, and is both excellent and 
wholesome. In all cases the cabbage is most 
wholesome when eaten young ; and hence the 
EngHsh, and the Scotch now following their ex- 
ample, prefer them in the form of collards, cab- 
bage-plants, or cabbage-sprouts, and like to see 
them brought to the table quite green and tender. 
In country places in England, and in most of 
our Scotch green-markets, they are only to be 
found when of a large size, thoroughly hearted, 
blanched white within ; in which case they are, 
particularly when long cut, exceedingly un- 
wholesome, often tough, and in general flatu- 
lent and indigestible. 

Propagation. — All the varieties of Bras- 
sicee are raised from seed annually, but 
they may all be also propagated by cut- 
tings—a method employed to preserve 
any particular variety from changing its 
character, which all are exceedingly liable 
to do when propagated by seed, on ac- 
count of the natural disposition of the 
plants to shoot into hybrids. Hence our 
seed-lists are so crowded with names, 
and hence also the difficulty we often 
experience in getting seed which will 
produce plants identical with their pa- 

Almost all the Brassicse produce sprouts 
— the cauliflower and broccoli less freely 
than the others. By means of these, any 
choice kind can be increased by cuttings, 
and thus perpetuate the identical variety 
without the chances of its becoming de- 
teriorated by rearing them from seed. 
However carefully seed of this family is 
saved, we are never certain in the results, 
and what we may have genuine and pure 
one year may become, by intercourse be- 
tween neighbouring plants of the same 
family, next to useless another. The 
idea of propagating them by extension — 
that is, by cuttings — did not, however, 
arise from this alone. It was introduced 
into England about thirty years ago from, 
the Brazils, where the climate is too hot 
for the cabbage to perfect its seeds. 
The manner of proceeding is this : — The 
sprouts, when from 4 to 5 inches long, 
are taken from the stem of the plant, and, 
according to their state of succulency, are 
exposed to the atmosphere to cauterise 
the wounded part. In summer, a day 
and a night is in general sufficient ; while 
in winter two or three days may be re- 
quisite. The cut end of the sprout is 
dipped in caustic lime or dry wood-ashes, 
to dry up the moisture. They are then 



planted like any other cutting — produ- 
cing, in due time, plants fit for use, and 
cuttings for further propagating supplies. 
Amateurs might in this way keep up a 
succession of stock without the trouble of 
sowing seed. The great advantage, how- 
ever, is in keeping the stock uncontami- 

Sowing and planting. — The time of sow- 
ing for a principal crop, to come into use 
the May following, is by long experience 
fixed by the London market-gardeners to 
be from the 25th of August to the 1st of 
September. A fortnight earlier is expe- 
dient north of Newcastle, unless in very 
favourable situations, when the 25th of 
August may be taken. Much of the dan- 
ger attending too early sowing is in the 
plants running to seed in spring without 
hearting. No doubt there is something 
in this; but seed of a good variety, and at 
least a year old, is not hable, under proper 
management, to do this. It is, however, 
well to make two sowings in all suspi- 
cious cases — the one during the first 
week, and the second during the last 
week in the month. Plants from this 
sowing should be planted out for good 
by the middle or latter end of October, 
the plants having been previously re- 
moved from the seed-bed as soon as they 
are fit to handle, and being transplanted 
into a nursery-bed in what is called the 
pricking-out manner. The largest of 
these should be planted first, and the 
smaller afterwards, which may extend the 
season of their final planting to the first 
or second week in November. This is to 
be considered as affording a general spring 
or early summer full crop. Towards the 
end of February or beginning of March, 
sow, to secure plants fit for planting out 
in May, June, and July, generally as the 
ground is cleared of early crops of pease ; 
this will give a supply fit for use during 
the latter part of summer and autumn. 
These are the two general sowings. For 
particular purposes, and in peculiar situa- 
tions, a sowing will sometimes be required 
to be made by the beginning of February, 
to secure an early summer supply, should 
accidents have come over the crops of the 
August sowing, and also if it be appre- 
hended that that crop should be insuffi- 
cient for the supply. 

In sowing seed of all the Brassicse, and 
at whatever season, there are certain 

helpmates sent us in the feathered part of 
the creation, who thin our sowings. In so 
far they do good, but sometimes they over- 
do this act of kindness by thinning too 
much. Now as these are, according to 
our notions, friends we cannot dispense 
with, seeing the good services they render 
us, in a way and by means we could not 
do for ourselves, we must not, like bar- 
barians, talk of their destruction. We 
must protect ourselves from their over- 
officiousness in this matter, by covering 
our seed-beds with netting closely secured 
at the edges, but elevated from 9 inches 
to a foot over the general surface, which 
is easily done by setting in a few slight 
branches to support the netting. It is a 
poor crop that will not repay the trifling 
trouble and expense of this ; and he who 
thinks the matter of so little consequence 
to himself as to disregard this precaution, 
is rightly served to find his seed entirely 
abstracted. Many other means have been 
proposed ; we know of none so simple 
and so efBcacious. Strewing the surface 
with lime, wood-ashes, soot, &c., are all 
very well in their way ; suspending half a 
score of egg-shells from lines run in all 
directions, stuffed cats, owls, hawks, &c., 
are the vestiges of the dark ages of horti- 
culture; and even our first published T^oisXo- 
danglers, fig. 23, stuck full of feathers, are 
but sorry preventives. 

Fig. 23. 


Seed for what is called cabbage cole- 
worts — that is, young cabbage-plants, to 
be used while quite young, and, before 
they indicate hearting, a sort of produce 
much in use about London, and now be- 
coming generalinprivate gardens — should 
be sown between the middle of June and 
the end of July, so as to be fit for final 
transplanting during August, September, 



and October, as ground becomes vacant 
for this purpose in particular. 

Chappel's colewort, not much known 
beyond the London market, should be 
sown during July, August, and Septem- 
ber, transplanted very close together, and 
upon all spare pieces of ground, under 
fruit-trees, &c. They come into use early 
in winter or spring, and are much 

Late or drumhead cabbage is sown for 
general crops either in August, and kept 
over winter, being planted out in October 
or November, or early in spring, say 
February or beginning of March, and 
planted out in May or June. The for- 
mer is the Scotch practice, the latter the 

A great deal depends as to the period 
of sowing, particularly for main spring 
crops, upon situation and circumstances. 
The rule laid down by the London growers 
in this respect may be taken as the latest 
period, as every circumstance is in their 
favour. Not so in cold climates and cold 
soils ; and to meet the requirements of 
these, the seed should be sown earUer, 
from a week to a month, according to the 
unfavourableness of the place and circum- 
stances. To sow too early would make 
the plants too strong, and certainly en- 
danger their running to seed : to sow 
too late would be to have plants too 
weak to stand the winter ; and should they 
even do so, they will be late in coming 
to perfection. At the July sowing, it 
oftentimes appears that the ground is 
dry, in which case it will be of great ad- 
vantage in securing a strong and rapid 
germination, to soak the ground with 
water some hours before putting in the 
seed; but, to prevent the soil from caking, 
it will be well to fork it over before sow- 
ing. The seed may with advantage, under 
such circumstances, be also soaked a few 
hours in tepid water. After sowing, if 
the weather continue hot and dry, shade 
the beds with branches or otherwise till 
the plants appear above ground, when 
the shading should be gradually removed. 
As soon as the plants are above ground, 
dust them over morning and evening with 
finely-pounded caustic lime, as a precau- 
tion against insects. 

All the varieties of the Brassicse, with 
the exception of the cauliflower and the 
CouveTronchuda, or Portugal cabbage, are 

exceedingly hardy, and therefore, in all 
ordinary cases, the most open and exposed 
situation should be fixed upon for the 
seed-beds. The exception to this is in 
cold places, where the early spring sowing 
will require the shelter of a warm south 
border, and in many cases the assistance 
of a slight dung-bed heat. Wherever the 
seed is sown, it should be freely exposed 
to the sun and air, and of all things 
shaded spots should be avoided. The 
seed should be sown thin. A bed 4 feet 
wide and 20 feet in length will require 2 
ounces for the smallest-growing varieties 
of early cabbage, such as Aitken's match- 
less, &c. For those of larger size, such 
as the vanack, the same quantity of seed 
will sow a bed 4 feet broad and 36 feet 
long. One ounce of seed will give from 
2000 to 2500 plants. Cover to the depth 
of I inch from the alleys, if the soil be 
light and well pulverised ; if not, make the 
surface smooth with the back of a spade, 
and when the seed is sown, cover with a 
light compost to the above depth. 

All the Brassicaceous tribe are very 
much improved by transplanting assoonas 
the young seedling plants are fit to handle, 
which will be when the young leaves have 
attained the size of about 2 inches in 
length. At this time they shotdd be care- 
fully removed from the seed-bed, and, if 
the weather be dry, the bed should re- 
ceive a good watering, which will facili- 
tate the operation of lifting without injury 
to the tender roots of the plants : the 
nursery-bed should be prepared by pre- 
vious manuring and digging, and its sur- 
face, if dry, well watered previous to 
planting; and when the young plants 
are set therein, it should receive a gentle 
watering, to settle the soil about the roots. 
If the sun is powerful, a slight shading 
will be beneficial during the day until the 
roots have taken hold of the ground. 
This is more especially necessary for sum- 
mer transplanted crops. In such nursery- 
beds, they should remain until well rooted, 
and, at planting, be set from 3 to 4 inches 
apart, according to the size of the variety. 
A second transplanting is often found 
beneficial to give greater strength to the 
plants, to encourage the multiplication 
of roots, &c., but in this second removal 
they should have a third more space ac- 
corded them. By such means plants 
will attain a good size, and be fit for final 



transplanting the moment ground is 
cleared for them, thus economising hoth 
space and time. Those intended to be 
set in nursery-beds during winter should 
be planted from 4 to 5 inches apai-t each 
way, for too thick planting is injurious 
in two ways— it draws the plants up 
slender, and prevents the circulation of 
air amongst them, by which many damp 
off during winter. Great care ought to 
be taken that each sort is kept separate, 
and that all be correctly labelled to pre- 
vent mistakes in spring. The same at- 
tention should be paid to Brussels sprouts, 
savoys, and such kinds of borecoles or 
■greens as may be required early in the 
summer. Transplanting all the cabbage 
tribe into nursery-beds is of great advan- 
tage to them ; it renders them stocky 
and well rooted ; and as this operation has 
for its object only the preservation of the 
plants during winter, it follows that a 
rather poor soil and open situation should 
be afforded them. It is of no iise, how- 
ever, to treat the Portugal cabbage in the 
above way; it is too tender to stand our 
climate, and therefore is better sown in 
spring in a moderate temperature, so as 
to be fit for final planting by the end of 
May. In cold, damp soils, we have found it 
of advantage to cover the surface between 
the rows of aU newly-planted-out things, 
when the operation is delayed till too 
late a period, with finely-sifted coal-ashes 
to about an inch in thickness; they tend 
greatly to exclude the frost, and absorb a 
considerable quantity of humidity; be- 
sides, they render the ground comfortable 
and clean to walk upon. In many places 
where the crops are liable to be thrown 
out by winter frosts, tanners' bark is laid 
on the surface with beneficial effects. A 
good breadth should be planted by the 
first week in November, as little advan- 
tage would arise from planting again till 
the latter end of January. A supply of 
young plants for spring planting out 
should also, early in November, be re- 
moved from the seed-beds, and planted 
out in nursery-beds to stand the winter. 
In moist situations, the most open and 
exposed piece of ground should be chosen 
for this purpose, and, of all others, shaded 
and confined places should be avoided. 

Under ordinary circumstances, the plants are 
set in their new loccde by the dibber, of which 
figs 24, 25, and 26 are examples ; but when the 



Figs. 27. 

planting-thowb ls. 

plants are large, as it is the object to remove them 
with as little 
Figs. 24. 25. 26. check to their 

growth as pos- 
sible, the plant- 
ing - trowels, 
figs. 27 and 28, 
should be used. 
The dibber is 
too well known 
DiBBEBs. to require any 

description; the 
broken handle of an old spade forms one of 
the best kinds, which only requires to be cut 
to the length of 10 or 12 
inches, and to have its 
perforating end bluntly 
pointed. The trowel is a 
more perfect implement, 
and is employed in the 
removal of plants of a 
larger size than can be 
safely planted by the 
dibber. In using either 
the pointed or semicircu- 
lar trowel, figs. 28 and 29, 
the young plants may be 
taken up with a consi- 
derable ball of earth at- 
tached to the roots, while they suffer no in- 
jury by the process. A more perfect mode of 
transplanting by the use of the trowel is that 
by taking two of these, one in each hand, thrust- 
ing them down on opposite sides of the plant, 
at the same time drawing the handles slightly 
outwards ; the faces of the trowels are thus made 
to collapse so much as to press the soil about 
the roots, and hence enable the operator to take 
the plant, with ball entire, from the seed-bed to 
its ultimate destination, and to place it in its 
new abode without the least 
check to its growth. As we 
shall have to refer frequently 
to transplanting, we may as 
well here show the construction 
of transplants, which have been 
long in use, for transplanting 
such crops as the Brassicse, at 
present under our consideration. 
Fig. 29 is called Saul's Trans- 
planter, because that intelligent 
horticulturist brought it into 
public notice many years ago in 
the pages of the " Gardeners' 
Magazine." It appears, however, 
to be an improvement on a 
similar implement invented by 
the Rev. Mr Thornhill, about 
1820, and used by him for trans- 
planting turnips. It may be 
thus described : The blades are 
opened by pressing the lever a 
towards the handle, when they 
SAUL'S open outwards, and in this 

TBANspLANTEK. gtatc arc thrust in the ground, 
having the plant within them ; 
a counter pressure causes them to collapse, and 
to embrace the ball firmly, and in this state, the 
transplanter being drawn upwards brings with 

Fig. 29. 


it the plant and ball entire. It is then taken to 
its new site, set in its place, when the handle a 
is again pressed inwards, and the blades open 
and are withdrawn, leaving the plant and its ball 
entire, to be filled around with earth, and the 

Fig. 30. 

Fig. 31. 



Fig. 32. 

operation is repeated on another subject. Fig. 30 
shows a modification of this implement, wherein 
the blades are opened by moving the slider a 
upwards, and, when thrust down around the 
plant, the blades collapse by pressing the slider 
downwards. The operation afterwards is the 
same as the last. Upon exactly the same prin- 
ciple, but with much more mechanical ingenuity, 
is the transplanter of Mr M'Glashan constructed, 
which is admirably adapted to such operations. 
Fig. 31 will explain its form; its mode of opera- 
tion will be at once under- 
stood. Fig. 32 represents 
another modification of trans- 
planters ; it is constructed of 
two semicircular pieces of 
iron polished to a bright sur- 
face, which all transplanters 
should be, because we know 
practically they enter the 
ground better, and deliver 
the ball more entire than 
they would do if used in a 
rusty condition. These semi- 
circular pieces are furnished 
with handles a a, riveted to 
them, and are inserted into 
the ground so as to enclose the plant between 
them. In this state they are attached to each 
other by two iron pins, passing through the 
eyelet-holes welded on their edges, b b b; 
on their being pulled up, the plant is ele- 
vated with its ball attached. Our objection to 
this implement is, that the radius of the blades, 
if we may so call them, is the same at bottom as 
at top, which renders it possible that they may 


be puUed up without bringing the ball with 
them; or if so, that it may drop out during its 
transportation to its new site. The others we 
have shown are different; they coUapse the ball 
firmly — and not only that, but by their construc- 
tion they embrace it tighter 
Fig. 33. at bottom than at top,render- 

ing it next to impossible that 
the ball shall be extracted, 
and also that it cannot slip 
out afterwards until relieved 
by the removal of the pres- 
sure upon it. Were the 
blades made in a tapering 
manner, then all the condi- 
tions of other similar trans- 
planters would be fulfilled. 
All these transplanters are 
merely modifications of fig. S3, 
long used in France for simi- 
lar purposes. Its principle 
will be readUy seen by our 
figure : the handles a a are 
pulled outwards when the 
blades are thrust into the 
ground. They are pressed 
TRANSPLANTER, iuwards whcu the operation 
of lifting upwards is desired. 

In planting all the brassicaceous plants, 
drills should be drawn, 3 inches deep, at 
the distances apart which are to be allowed 
each variety ; for amongst the tribe of 
early cabbage, to which most of our pre- 
vious remarks apply, there are compara- 
tively large-growing and small-growing 
sorts. The type of the former may be 
instanced in the vanack, and of the latter 
in Atkin's matchless. The ground should 
be prepared by heavy dunging and deep 
digging; but in this, as in all similar cases, 
trenching 2 or 2i feet deep is better. The 
early sorts are set in lines from 15 to 18 
inches apart, but Atkin's matchless, and 
one or two others, may safely be set at 
12 inches only. The former should be 
from 1 foot to 15 inches distant in the 
line, while the latter may be set at from 
10 to 12 inches. Plant, if possible, on 
moist days; if the soil is dry, run a 
good soaking of water into the drills pre- 
vious to planting. Preserve the roots 
entire of those that have been trans- 
planted into a nursery-bed, as every root 
is to them of importance. Those that 
have been drawn direct from the seed- 
bed should have the tips of the tap- 
root shortened, but none of the others. 

The Scotch, late, or drumhead cabbage 
— for it is known by all these names — is 
seldom grown in gardens, unless where 
the bounty of the proprietor is, as it 



sliould be, directed to the wants of tlie 
poor, by providing them during winter 
with soup made from the scraps which 
fall from his own table — then the drum- 
head cabbage comes in well ; and also 
when saur-kraut is made for winter use, 
this vegetable is indispensable. It attains 
a very large size, and therefore requires 
room. At planting, they should be set in 
rows 3 feet apart, and the plants 2 feet 
distant in the line. This also depends on 
circumstances, for there are larger, taller, 
smaller, and dwarfer varieties of this kind. 
The above is the maximum distance. 

Sttbsequeni culture. — After planting, all 
that is required till they attain perfection 
is keeping the ground clear of weeds, 
stirring it frequently and deeply during 
summer, and drawing a little earth about 
the necks of the plants when about 9 or 
10 inches high, which not only supports 
them in an upright direction, but offers 
opportunity for the roots to form near the 
surface, thereby increasing their means 
of collecting food, and greatly tending to 
encourage the more rapid growth of the 
plants. Some disapprove of the earthing- 
up plan, and as a substitute draw the 
drills deeper at planting, which seems to 
amount to the same thing. White cab- 
bage is grown for three purposes, the 
first of which is to procure heads fully 
formed and hard, the second is to draw 
for use before hearting, and the third to 
furnish sprouts from the old stems for a 
long time after the head has been cut off 
for use. The first of these are called full- 
hearted cabbages ; the second, cabbage 
plants or collards ; the third, cabbage 
sprouts. To have them in the former 
state, they must be sown four or five 
times a-year. To have them in the se- 
cond state, oftener ; and in the third case, 
such as the vanack, an English variety, or 
M'Ewan's, a Scotch variety (the latter 
little known), should be selected. These, 
if planted in autumn or spring in good rich 
soil, will, after the first heads have been 
used, continue often for a couple of years 
sending up a fine and abundant supply 
of sprouts. When sprouts are not re- 
quired, the old stems should be pulled up 
as soon as the heads are cut, and con- 
signed to the rot heap. If left in, they 
greatly exhaust the soil for no end or 
purpose. Should any of the plants run 
to seed soon after planting, remove them 

without loss of time, and replace them 
with strong plants from the nursery-bed, 
using one or other of the transplanters 
noticed above. Early in spring, when it 
may be wished to have close-hearted cab- 
bages, as soon as the leaves give indication 
of turning inwards, tie the whole of them 
loosely together with strings of matting 
or slender twigs of willow. During long- 
continued droughts, water abundantly; 
and as all watering with pure water does 
little other than assist to render soluble 
the fertihsing matter that may happen to 
be in the soil, and watering with spring- 
water does little more than chill the 
ground, and merely sustains the existence 
of the plants, it is better, seeing that 
there is the same labour in both cases, 
to water all growing crops with liquid 
manure. Water, however applied, is 
thought to injure the flavour of culinary 
crops. With the cabbage tribe it is the 
reverse, as they seem to be improved in 
flavour by it. It also prevents the plants 
from becoming stunted in growth, which 
induces a disposition in them to favour 
the production of aphides on the leaves, 
and other insects on the roots. The roots 
left in the ground after the heads are cut 
off, when the intention is to have a suc- 
cession of sprouts from them, should have 
the remaining leaves cut off, the ground 
between the rows forked up, and if a good 
manuring be applied at the same time, 
the benefit will be evident in the greater 
supply, and its longer continuance fit for 
use. To make the most of the ground 
when the breadth is planted at the dis- 
tances directed above for the larger-grow- 
ing sorts, strong early-sown coleworts 
may be planted, either one or two between 
each two permanent plants, according to 
the space accorded them. These cole- 
worts or coUards will be useful to pull up 
for early spring use, before the principal 
crop arrives at its full size. When cab- 
bages are out, the leaves should be all 
removed from the stem, and all the em- 
bryo sprouts, excepting five or six of the 
best placed and most promising, to pro- 
duce sprouts for table use. If all but one 
be displaced, it will grow rapidly, and soon 
become as large and fine as the original 
head. Such cabbages as have been cut 
during May and June will, by this treat- 
ment, yield another crop in July. 

Soil and manure. — The first cannot be 


too rich or too deeply wrought, and the 
latter can hardly be applied in too large 
a quantity. The whole tribe are gross 
feeders. The plant in its original state, 
as we have already shown, is a native of 
the sea-shore and of calcareous soils ; it 
is consistent, therefore, with reason that 
hme and salt should be added to the 
natural constituents of the soil they are 
planted in. We have applied gypsum as 
a top-dressing to the surface between the 
rows, with the most beneficial effects, to 
aU crops of the Brassica tribe, to which it 
seems admirably adapted. Its action 
appears to be directly and indirectly use- 
ful to such crops — directly as the food of 
plants, because, being soluble in water, it 
supplies sulphur and lime; and indirectly, 
because of its action on the volatile car- 
bonate of ammonia, which becomes fixed 
when these substances meet. In the latter 
case, gypsum acts in the soil on the am- 
monia contained in rain water, in the same 
way as it does when applied to dunghills. 
A double action takes place between gyp- 
sum and carbonate of ammonia, when 
they meet in solution. Each of these 
salts being decomposed, their elements 
unite in the form of carbonate of lime 
and sulphate of ammonia, and the advan- 
tages from the change arise from the sul- 
phate of ammonia not being volatile, as 
the carbonate of ammonia is. Stable- 
yard dung, if applied with gypsum to fix 
or retain the ammonia evolved from the 
former during the process of turning it 
over, and during the fermentation of the 
mass, will, in the case of rich manure, 
require to be used in the proportion of 
one cwt. of the latter to a ton of the for- 
mer. Superphosphate of lime has been 
found a useful assistant to cabbage crops, 
and where manure is scarce it may be 
sown in drills prepared for them at plant- 
ing, or a little (say a dessert spoonful) put 
in each hole before the root is introduced. 
TaUngthe crop, and mhsequent preserva- 
tion. — When the plants have hearted, the 
heads are cut off for use, just as they be- 
gin to show the first indication of blanch- 
ing towards the centre, which is undoubt- 
edly the proper time; some, however, 
cut them in a more advanced state, prefer- 
ring quantity to quality. Cabbage plants, 
coUards, or coleworts — that is, young 
plants which are not intended to heart — 
are pulled up by the roots and tied up 

into bundles, the roots being either wash- 
ed or cut off to keep the leaves cleaner. 
Sprouts are gathered by being cut off the 
stems at various sizes and ages, from the 
time when they have only five or six 
leaves in size, until they form into little 
cabbages of the size of a swan's egg. It 
is in the intermediate stages, however, 
that they are most esteemed. It is sel- 
dom in Britain that artificial shelter is 
required for any of the white or red cab- 
bage tribe. In cold places, however, they 
may be laid over on their sides, and their 
whole stems buried under ground. (Vide 
Broccoli, section 5.) The full-hearted 
cabbage is often cut from the stems on the 
approach of severe frosts, but it is better 
to retain the stems attached, and these 
are buried entirely in dry soil, and so 
deeply covered that the frost cannot 
reach them. They should, however, be 
placed so far apart that the one may not 
touch the other. In peaty soils, cabbages 
thus buried will keep for months, that 
soil containing so great an amount of 
antiseptic properties. 

Approved sorts of white cabbages (Brassica ole- 
racea, var. Ca/pitata) and their properties.— the 
improvement tbat has taken place of late years 
in the whole of the Brassica tribe is perhaps 
greater than in any other division of cuKnary ve- 
getables. Such sorts as Atkin's matchless, Sut- 
ton's imperial, Sutton's dwarf comb, Enfield 
market, Shilling's queen, &c., have taken the 
place in most of our best gardens of the sugar- 
loaf, early York, &c. of bygone days. These 
sorts are more esteemed for their delicate fla- 
vour and tenderness, when cooked at a proper 
age, than for their largeness of size — a merit 
only fitting for the lowest grade of market pur- 
poses. These require, in consequence of their 
small size, less space to gi-ow in than the larger 
and coarser kinds, and will, nevertheless, yield 
as good a return, of the same extent of surface, 
as their larger allies. 

1. Sutton's dwaif comh. — When grown along 
with other sorts, we found it last year the ear- 
liest of any. It is small, hearts well in spring, 
andaffords a good supply of very delicate sprouts 
throughout most of the summer. It was planted 
12 inches apart. 

2. Sutton's imperial. — Another excellent early 
spring variety from the stock of Messrs Sutton 
and Sons, Reading ; rather larger than the last, 
but equally early, tender, and useful, producing 
sprouts during the summer ; planted 1 3 inches 

3. Athin's matchless. — A small early cabbage 
of great excellence ; conical when full grown ; 
the leaves remarkably wrinkly, somewhat like 
a savoy; planted 12 inches asunder; stands the 
winter well ; a variety of the early York, but much 
superior, if large cabbages are not required. 



4. Knight's early chuarf. — A nice little hardy 
sort, whioli may also be set at a foot apart each, 

5. Early Dutch twist. — An excellent cabbage 
of the smallest size, very delicate, and may be 
planted almost as close together as a crop of 

6. Cattel's dwarf Barnes. — A small early sort 
of great merit. 

The above are the smallest and earliest of 
cabbages, and exceedingly weU suited for small 
gardens and private family use. They should 
be sown more frequently than the larger-grow- 
ing sorts, so as to keep up a succession of young 
and delicate heads, much after the manner of 
sowing lettuce. 

7. Early nonpareil, Shilling's qmeen, Shillings 
superb dwarf, , Tiley's early marrow, early em- 
peror, early imperial, are all equally excellent 
for second earlies and second-sized cabbages. 

8. Pomeranian cabbage is thus described by 
Mr Thompson in " Journal of Horticultural So- 
ciety," vol. V. p. 280 :— " It is remarkable for its 
conical tapering form, very compact, and firm 
to the apex. It is very hardy, and may be cul- 
tivated like other hearting cabbages ; but it may 
be interesting and useful to know that, at Macon, 
in France, the market-gardeners take it up out 
of the quarters when fiilly grown before winter, 
and lay it in the soil, to the neck, in a sloping 
direction. Thus treated, it withstood the severe 
winter of 1847. The quarter thus cleared can 
be trenched and prepared for other crops — an 
important advantage in small gardens. It is 
likely to prove valuable in colder situations than 
is suitable for the Battersea and other cabbages 
grown in the neighbourhood of London." 

King of the cabbages, London market, Wheeler's 
imperial, VanacTc, Sprotboro, Paignton or Penton, 
M'Ewan's, are all admirably adapted for general 
crops, where large returns are required. The 
vanack has been cultivated above a century in 
the gardens of Colonel Wyndham at Petworth, 
Sussex, but it was only brought into general no- 
tice about thirty years ago. It has the merit of 
throwing out fine sprouts, which attain a large 
size for eighteen months or two years after hav- 
ing been first cut. M'Ewan's is of similar cha- 
racter, but of Scotch origin ; it is difficult to . 
seed, as it goes on sprouting and growing for 
almost any length of time. The Paignton is of 
Devonshire origin, named from a village of that 
name, where it has been cultivated for ages. Its 
properties are much the same as those of the 
two last. The Sprotboro is a Yorkshire cabbage, 
also of great excellence, in habit and properties 
much resembling the last four. The Paignton is 
also known in seed-shops as the Cornish, Penton- 
ville, and curled. 

To this section we may usefiilly add Chap- 
pell's colewort, which is little known out of the 
London market, where it is brought in immense 
quantities as an open green cabbage, being pulled 
before it hearts, and is sold as a colewort, and 
much esteemed. Colewort, cabbage-plants, and 
collet are synonymous terms, used for cabbages 
cut for use before hearting, and to be eaten in a 
young state. 

The early York is probably the type of all our 

best early cabbages, many of which, however, 
excel it in delicacy ; no other sort is known to 
have the ribs and veins less prominent, which 
are its principal points. The vanack is again 
the type of the imperial, Fulham, and Battersea. 
Of the Portugal cabbage there are two varieties, 
a taller and a dwarfer sort. The Pomeranian is 
very distinct from all others, is a good late sort, 
of conical form, almost terminating in a point. 

Approved sorts of Prasdca oleraoea capitata, 
Y&v.l)epressa,De C. — Large Drumhead. — Known 
also as the Scotch, cattle cabbage, flat pole, and 
Strasburg. Of this there are several sub- 
varieties, differing chiefly in shortness of stem, 
concavity or flatness of head, &c. Of these De 
CandoUe has recognised two distinct forms; 
viz., Srassica oleracea depressa (depressed or 
flattened drumhead), and B. oleracea sphcerica 
alha (spherical or great round Scotch cabbage). 
Those of dwarf habit are the best, as, being for 
winter use, they stand the frost better when 
close to the ground than when high above it. 
Unless, as we have already stated, a soup- 
kitchen is to be supplied, or saur-lcraut is to 
be made, a small plantation of either of these 
varieties will be sufficient even for a large gar- 
den. In small ones, unless a head or two be 
required for pickUng (and even for this purpose 
the red cabbage is preferred), we consider it 
the least profitable of the family to grow, as it 
is of little use after the head is cut off. It still 
occupies a place in most farmhouse gardens and 
cottages in Scotland, and frequently appears m 
our markets— an evident symptom how far 
we are behind our southern neighbours in the 
art of vegetable cookery. 

The seed should be sown, in most parts of 
Scotland, from the middle to the end of August, 
and a strong rich soil should be chosen. In the 
warmer parts, and generally throughout England, 
it is better to sow in March, to prevent the 
crop coming into use too early in the following 
autumn, for this is to be regarded as a winter 
esculent. The autumn-sown crop is sometimes, 
if the plants are forward, planted out in the 
early part of November, but in general about 
the beginning of April following. Those sown 
in February or March should be transplanted 
in May, June, or July. Their whole routine 
afterwards is the same as for savoys or other 
cabbage. To have heads of a large size, plant 
at the distance of 3 feet by 2|; give abundance 
of liquid manure during their growing season, 
or, in default of that, fork in a good dressing of 
half-decayed rich stable-manure, using a fork 
for the purpose, of which Dr Yellowlee's, fig. 34, 
is a good example. 

Fig. 34. 


Dr Yellowlee's forJc. — Forks are preferable to 
spades for digging the ground, because, from 
their construction, the soil is much better 



broken and pulverised, and the operation as 
speedily performed. They are much better 
when the ground to be loosened is occupied 
with the roots of trees or other plants, because 
less injury is likely to befall them. The entire 
length of this fork is 3 feet 3^ inches, the length 
of the handle being 2 feet 2 inches ; the prongs 
are 7 inches apart at top, and 6 inches at the 
point; the length of the prongs, which are three 
in number, is 1 SJ inches, and at the top | of an 
inch square, tapering to a point. The straps 
fixing the head to the handle are 11 inches long 
and 2 inches broad, and 4 an inch thick at the 
centre, tapering off at both sides. 


The Portugal cabbage (Brassicm oleracea, var. 
Oblonga — Couve tronchuda, large-ribbed or Por- 
tugal cabbage, or Braganza) was introduced into 
England about 1821, from Trauxuda in Portugal, 
and is sometimes called Trauxuda kale. Of this 
there is a dwarf variety, much cultivated in Por- 
tugal, and known by the name of MiU'ciana. This 
excellent vegetable, too little grown in Britain, 
is not exactly of the hearting kind. The centre 
leaves are deprived of their green or leafy part, 
leaving the ribs, which are boiled, and used 
much in the manner of sea-kale. It is exceed- 
ingly delicate, and in this respect different 
from the rest of the cabbage tribe. The dwarf 
variety Murciana {Brassica oleracea, var. costata, 
chou de Beauvais) is somewhat earlier, and 
throws out numerous suckers from the lower 
part of the stem, which the tall variety does 
not. It is much more tender than any of the 
others, and rarely stands our northern winters. 
For early crops, the plants should be sown in 
August, and kept under frames all winter, like 
cauliflower; or better, they should be, like it, 
sown on a slight bottom heat in February, 
and hardened off for transplanting in April or 
beginning of May. Its subsequent culture, &c., 
resembles that of cauliflower [which see). 

[The most extraordinary production in the 
cabbage tribe is Kerguelen's Land cabbage, the 
JPringea antiscorbutica of botanists, first dis- 
covered by Captain Cook, the circumnavigator, 
and subsequently observed by Dr Joseph 
Hooker as a native of Kerguelen's Land, or 
Island of Desolation, situated in the centre of 
the Southern Ocean— a cold, humid, barren, 
volcanic rock, on which that distinguished 
naturalist recognised only eighteen species of 
vegetation, but amongst them this brassioaceous 
production. It is described by him in the 
" Flora Antartica " as very abundant, particu- 
larly close to the sea. Its root-stocks are from 
3 to 4 feet long, and lying close to the ground, 
bearing at their extremities large heads of leaves, 
sometimes 18 inches across, and so like those of 
the common cabbage, that if growing in a gar- 
den they would scarcely excite attention. They 
form a dense white heart, that tastes like mus- 
tard and cress, but much coarser. It abounds 
in an essential oil, which renders it more whole- 
some than the common cabbage. It may never 
be worth the attention of the British cultivator, 
but its existence in that desolate island, so far 

removed from civilisation as to be considered 
the most remote of all islajads from any conti- 
nent, suggests two important, although somewhat 
different, considerations. The first and most 
important is, that the Disposer of all that is 
good should have placed there a plant so valu- 
able to those who traverse those little-visited 
seas, subject to one of the most fearful of aU 
human diseases, scurvy, and that also presented 
to them the moment they put their foot on 
shore, where, from its luxuriance and abun- 
dance, it is likely, as Dr Hooker observes, to 
prove for ages to come an inestimable blessing 
to ships touching at this far distant isle. The 
next consideration is, how came it there ? "The 
contemplation of a vegetable," he says, " very 
unlike any other in botanical affinity, so emi- 
nently fitted for the food of man, and yet inha- 
biting the most desolate and inhospitable 
spot on the surface of the globe, must equally 
fill the mind of the scientific inquirer and the 
common observer with wonder." A plant no- 
where else recognised leads to the belief " that 
it was created, in all probability, near where it 
now grows — leads the mind back to an epoch far 
anterior to the present, when the Island of De- 
solation may have presented a fertility of which 
this is, perhaps, the only remaining trace." We 
know there is a theory recently promulgated, the 
adherents of which will account for the existence 
of this plant, in its unique form and isolated 
position, on the supposition that numerous 
centres of dispersion and new creations of 
developments exist, and that these do not in 
the slightest degree disturb the harmony of the 
general design of creation. 

" One of the most mysterious of such pheno- 
mena is the change by which certain hving 
entities seem to pass from the animal to the 
vegetable state, or vice versa, without decom- 
position, or apparent disorganisation of fabric. 
Professor Von Esenbeck was the first to publish 
his opinions on the subject in 1814. His obser- 
vations were made chiefly upon the filamentous 
algas, particularly the Osoillatorise. The animal 
state is inferred from the spontaneous move- 
ments of the individual, the vegetable state 
from its immobility. A monad or active mole- 
cule issues from the summit of the filament, and 
frolics in the fluid in which the plant vegetates. 
Ultimately a period arrives in which a complete 
metamorphosis ensues, the moving monad being 
gradually converted into a motionless vegetable." 
— The Eev. Patrick Keith Clark's Botanical 
Lexicon, p. 264.] 

§ 3. — RED CABBAGE. 

Eed cabbage {Brassicce oleracea:, var. Capitata 
rubra, De C. ) Of this there are several varieties, 
differing only in their size, height, and colour. 
Medium-sized varieties are to be prefeiTed, as 
also are low-growing ones, on account of their 
being less liable to sustain injury from frost dur- 
ing winter; but colour is of all the most impor- 
tant, as its chief use is for stewing or pickling, 
when a fine red colour adds much to its appear- 
ance. The sorts, or rather names, in the seed- 
shops, are, dwarf red, tall red, red pickling, early 



blood-i'ed, large ted, drumhead, Dutch, and the 
Aberdeen red — a coarse, open-hearted half cab- 
bage, half borecole, much grown in the North 
of Scotland, in cottage and farm gardens, on 
account of its extreme hardiness. 

The first and fourth are the best, if they can 
be procured genuine. They are sown, planted, 
and managed in the same way as the drumhead 
cabbage, noticed above, only, being of much 
smaller growth, they may at final planting be 
set at the distance of 2^ feet apart row from 
row, and IJ feet in the line. On the approach 
of severe frost they should be taken up, and 
either buried in dry soil, or' hung up by the 
roots in a dry airy shed, where they will keep 
for a long time. When the heads are cut, the 
roots should be immediately removed, as no 
longer of use, and to prevent exhausting the soU. 


Natural history, — Brussels sprouts {Brassica 
oUracea bullata, gemmifera, De C, bud-bearing 
cabbage). Of this much-esteemed vegetable, in- 
troduced into this country from the Continent 
only of late years, there are only two varieties, a 
taller and a dwarfer grower, varying in height 
from 1 to 4 feet. The former is the most pro- 
ductive, on account of its greater length of stem, 
along the whole length of which the sprouts, 
like little cabbages, are thickly set. The latter 
stands the winter best. It derives its name of 
chou de Bruxelles from having been extensively cul- 
tivated around Brussels from time immemorial. 
Uses. — It is used much in the way other 
cabbages are, being sent to table stewed, and as 
a garnish for butcher-meat, and at the best 
tables is presented, from the size of a large 
marrow-fat pea, which they indeed somewhat 
resemble, to that of their natural full size, 
somewhat under that of a pigeon's egg. The 
outer leaves being carefully removed, the hard, 
compact, little sprout is presented whole. 
Sometimes they are boiled, which is done with 
great care, using plenty of water, and that at 
the boiling point, when they are thrown in, 
adding a handful of salt, and leaving off the lid 
of the vessel. With the view of preserving their 
delicate green colour, they are covered with a 
rich stock sauce, in which vinegar and nutmeg 
form a part. They are also served boiled with 
white sauce, and in private families with melted 
butter. The quantity grown throughout the 
north of France, Belgium, and Holland is truly 
astonishing, whole fields of them being seen all 
over the country. 

Sowing andplanting. — Regarding their 
cultivation, they are sown early in April, 
and transplanted in June, into rows 2 
feet apart, and the plants set 18 inches 
distant in the line. Their sowing, trans- 
planting, &c., differ not from that of early 
cabbage : the same proportion of seed is 
also used. The soil, however, is in a dif- 
ferent condition. If planted in soil as 
highly manured as that for other cabbage, 

the sprouts would be produced coarse, 
large, and open, whereas the smaller and 
more compact they are the better. In 
Belgium, where an almost constant suc- 
cession of sprouts is kept up, they sow on 
a slight hotbed in February, prick out on a 
warm border, and transplant towards the 
end of April. They afterwards make two 
or three separate sowings, at the distance 
of three weeks from each. 

In England, for private families, two 
sowings are necessary — one in February, 
on slight bottom-heat, and the other in 
April. In Scotland, they often sow in 
August, and keep the plants over winter 
for spring planting, and again in March 
for a secondary crop. In the former, the 
first-sown crop comes into use in Sep- 
tember, in the latter in November, at 
which time vegetation is moderated in 
growth, and the crop lasts till March; 
the second following in April and part of 
May, if the crop be taken up in February, 
and replanted to give it a check. By 
early and late sowing, and the superior 
advantage of climate, the Brussels mar- 
ket is supplied from the end of July to 
the beginning of May following. "The 
London practice," says Mr Cuthill, a high 
authority in such matters, " is to sow in 
May ; but it should," he remarks, " be 
March. The Scotch sow them in August. 
Sown in May, it is impossible for the 
plants to get so tall, stout, and cover the 
stems so well with fine large sprouts, as 
when sown in March. I have had them," 
he says, " 3 feet high, covered from top to 
bottom, each stem producing one peck of 
large close sprouts." 

Subsequent culture. — The ground should 
be kept well stirred by frequent hoeing, 
not mere surface -scratching with a 
Dutch hoe, which, were it not for gravel 
walks, and that as seldom as possible, 
should be banished from gardens. The 
draw-hoe is better; and even that, beyond 
the mere cutting down of small weeds, 
which should not be allowed to appear, 
will be much better substituted by the 
Vernon hoe, fig. 3, or any of the modi- 
fications of it. When the plants are 
about a foot high, draw a little soil around 
their roots ; and when about three parts 
grown, and while the sprouts are forming, 
the side leaves should be broken oiF, a 
few at a time, to give room to the sprouts 
to swell, and also that, by their removal, 



more of the energies of the plant may be 
thrown into them. It has been recom- 
mended to cut off the tops when the 
sprouts are fully formed, and this is a 
part of the Belgian practice. We prefer 
their retention, as from their form and 
position they protect the sprouts during 
winter from wet, frost, and snow. The 
top itself forms a useful vegetable after 
the sprouts are gathered, and, singular 
enough, possesses quite a different flavour 
from them. Many are deterred from 
cultivating this excellent vegetable, sup- 
posing it either too tender or less produc- 
tive than a crop of cabbage, neither of 
which is the case. It is a plant calculated 
for simultaneous cropping, and may, there- 
fore, be planted along with potatoes, 
placing the plants alternately in the rows. 

" Select, if possible, a rich stiff loam for 
them ; plant 18 inches plant from plant, 
and 2 feet row from row ; keep the ground 
well loosened by the hoe. Moulding up 
the stems is never practised, and as soon 
as the plants reach their height, which is 
known by the top beginning to cabbage, 
the loiter ought to be cut out. This throws 
all the strength into the sprouts down the 
stem, making the bottom ones as good as 
those on the top." — Cuthill, in Market- 
Gardening around London, p. 24. We have 
given reasons above for not cutting the 
tops off where danger is expected from 

Taking the crop. — When the sprouts 
have nearly attained their full size, they 
should be gathered for use, taking the 
largest first, and so on in succession, cutting 
them off with a sharp knife. When taken 
to the vegetable house (an apartment in 
all good gardens, where the vegetables are 
carried to be washed and dressed _^< /or the 
cook), the outer leaves should be neatly 
cut off; and if moderate care has been 
taken they need not be washed, as that 
would spoil their flavour, particularly if 
to be sent to a distance. When dressed, 
they should be put into a small punnet 
basket, fig. 35, which is made of thin split 
laths, and of various dimensions — from 
3 to 6 inches deep, and from 6 to 9 inches 
in diameter, according to the sort of vege- 
table or fruit to be placed in them, and 
with or without handles, to suit various 
purposes. In such baskets all the most 
choice vegetables are carried, such as 
forced potatoes, kidney beans, Brussels 

sprouts, mushrooms, &c. This is a branch 
in garden refinement that has, nothwith- 
Fig. 35. 


standing steam communication, not as 
yet reached Scotland. They can be pur- 
chased in Covent Garden for a mere trifle, 
and no garden should be without half a 
hundred of them at the least. 

General remarhs. — An unfounded prejudice 
exists against tome-saved seed. Carelessly as 
much of this branch of horticulture in Britain 
is conducted, it is not much better on the Conti- 
nent, at least where seed is saved /or exportation. 
The case is different as regards that for home 
consumption. ( Tide Saving Beassica Seed, at 
the end of this chapter.) The safe way to save 
a pure stock, once obtained, is to propagate by 
planting the sprouts in spring after the manner 
of cuttings. 


Natural history. — The broccoli {Brassica ole- 
racea, Botrytis asparagoides, De C.) The broc- 
coli is of more recent introduction to Britain 
than the cauliflower, from which they are sup- 
posed to have originated. In Miller's time, only 
two varieties were known, the white and purple, 
and from these it is more than probable that all 
our present varieties have emanated. The white 
varieties of broccoli resemble the cauliflower 
much, only they are much hardier and constitute 
a winter vegetable, whUe the former is adapted 
only for summer and early autumn. The white 
varieties are in all respects preferable to the pur- 
ple or other coloured sorts. 

?7ses.— These are as a substitute for cauli- 
flower during winter and spring, when the other 
cannot be had in perfection. 

Mode of propagation. — The same as the 
cauliflower, &c. 

Sowing and planting. — The early varieties, 
such as the purple Cape, improved purple 
Cape, Walcheren, early white Cape,Grange's 
early cauliflower broccoli, and Gillespie's 
early, should be sown the first and second 
week in May for English practice, and a 
fortnight earlier for the Scotch climate, 
so as to have them in to succeed cauli- 
flower, from the beginning of September 



and onward till Christmas. Another 
sowing of the same kind should be made 
during the second week of June for 
the south, and not later than the first 
week for the north. These will stand 
over winter, and come in early in spring. 
Plants from the first of these sowings 
should be transplanted for good about the 
first of June, having been previously 
pricked into a nursery-bed, to give them 
strength and abundance of roots. Other 
varieties, of which there is a great num- 
ber, should be sown about the second and 
third week in May for the south, and ten 
days earlier in the north ; and, if trans- 
planted about the middle of June, will, 
from their difference in growth, produce 
their heads during March, April, and 
May. As a general rule, calculating upon 
the kinds, for an autumn supply sow in 
April, for a spring supply in May, making 
an allowance of a fortnight between sow- 
ing at London and at Edinburgh, unless 
slight artificial heat in the latter case is 
had recourse to. The mode of sowing, 
the quantity of seed, and the earliest man- 
agement are the same as for early cabbage 
(which see). Transplanting has been ob- 
jected to by some as having a tendency to 
cause such early sorts as the white and pur- 
ple Cape to button, as it is technically called 
— that is, to run up prematurely to flower, 
before the plant is suf&ciently strong to 
bring the flower to perfection. And the 
means employed is to trench and manure 
the ground in May, to tread it firmly down, 
and to sow the seeds in lines 2 feet apart, 
dropping three or four seeds into each 
hole, made at the distance of 2 feet apart 
from each other. When the plants come up, 
they are all destroyed except the strongest, 
leaving one in each hole. The ground is 
kept deeply stirred during summer, and 
the plants are earthed up in the usual 
manner. The same mode has been re- 
commended for early-sown cauliflower, 
lettuce, (fee. We think careful trans- 
planting preferable. 

Subsequent culture. — This is the same as 
for early cabbage. The distance apart 
must ever be governed by the size of 
the variety — thus, for example, Knight's 
dwarf protecting wiU require only 18 
inches plant from plant; while the larger- 
growing kinds, such as Elletson's gigantic 
k,te white, should be set 3 feet distant row 
from row, and the plants 2 feet apart in the 


line. Much, however, in this depends on 
the soil and its state of cultivation. Deep 
stirring of the ground between the rows 
is all they require during the rest of the 
summer. It is only in very cold and 
damp localities, and in very inclement 
winters, that broccoli requires protection 
during winter ; but it is advisable, with 
all the kinds intended to stand over till 
spring, to lay them over in November, 
which operation is performed by opening 
a trench at one end of the field, forming 
the back in a slanting direction, taking 
up the plants with as much earth about 
their roots as possible, removing two or 
three of the lower leaves, and setting 
them in the trench inclining towards the 
sloping bank, and covering up the roots 
and stems close to where the first pair of 
leaves issue. If the ground is much on 
the incline, begin at the lower part, so 
that the leaves of the plants may point 
downwards, to prevent the snow and rain 
settling in their hearts. This process not 
only prevents the weight of snow break- 
ing down the leaves, but, by the check 
the plant sustains, causes the fibre of the 
leaves to assume a more tough and less 
succulent form by lessening the supply of 
food by the roots, and thus renders them 
less hable to injury from frost. In very 
unfavourable situations, the plants, when 
fully grown, may be carefully taken from 
the exposed part of the garden and re- 
planted in the above manner in a more 
dry, warm, and sheltered place. It is, 
however, imprudent to set them in a 
damp or shaded situation. 

When broccoli has attained its full 
size, which it will have done in most 
situations by the middle of November, 
the plants might be taken up carefuUy 
and disposed of as we have suggested 
(see post) for full-grown celery. This, in 
moderate climates, may be uncalled for, 
but in less favoured places it would secure 
their preservation, and at the same time 
clear the ground either for other crops, or 
for improvement by trenching, &c. In 
such cases the ridges should run in an 
east and west direction, the earliest kinds 
being placed with their heads towards 
the south, while the later sorts should 
have theirs in the opposite direction. 
This position would tend to accelerate 
the one and retard the other. A bank of 
broccoli thus arranged could easily be 



protected on the top by a roofing of 
boarding, straw-thatobed hurdles, or a 
tarpauling covering, which would ward 
off at once both wet and frost. Great 
care, however, must be taken in such a 
mode of protection that the plants be not 
crowded too closely together, else the 
want of a free circulation of air amongst 
them would be as disastrous to their safe 
keeping as if they had been left to take 
their chance where they were grown. As 
soon also as the heads are cut for use, 
the foliage should be instantly removed 
for the preservation of those that remain. 

Laying in dry farm or stable litter 
between the rows, as high as the length 
of the stems, would protect the roots, but 
would afford no shelter to the leaves and 
hearts. Nor do we approve of Mr Knight's 
recommendation of transplanting in Sep- 
tember, setting them deep in the ground 
with a view to encourage young roots 
from the stem to assist in swelling out 
the flower in spring. The late-flowering 
sorts will make roots when laid down as 
we have proposed, which will be in action 
during April and May, and no doubt will 
produce this effect. Those that flower be- 
fore that period will have no such means 
of support, but must depend upon the sap 
already elaborated in the plant during 
the previous summer and autumn. 

Soil and manure. — As we have said of 
cabbage, the soil can neither be too rich 
nor too deeply dug or trenched, the 
object in both cases being bulk of pro- 
duce — unless, indeed, a very early supply 
is required, when a less luxuriant state in 
the plants may induce earlier maturity. 
All the Brassicse are improved by lime, and 
to this may very safely be added a slight 
top-dressing of salt once or twice during 
their growth, the whole tribe being indige- 
nous to calcareous soils, and in close proxi- 
mity with the sea. Copious manuring with 
sea-weed, where it is readily procured, 
has produced excellent crops : a slight in- 
quiry into the cause will lead us to view 
common salt as the stimulating ingre- 
dient. From experiments now in course 
of trial, we believe that flower of sulphur 
would be ultimately considered an excel- 
lent ingredient, not only as entering into 
the constitution of the plant, but as a 
preventive to the attacks of insects. 

Taking the crop.— For the highest class 
tables broccoli should be cut when about 

the size of a goose's egg, three heads 
forming a genteel dish. When for ordi- 
nary purposes, it should be taken when 
nearly full-grown, and before what is 
technically termed the curd is broken — 
that is, the flower opening — for on its 
firm and compact appearance much of 
its merit depends. 

Approved sorts and their qualities. — 1. Granges 
early cauliflower broccoli is an old variety that, 
if procured true, still stands high in estimation, 
having a head nearly as large and as white as a 
cauliflower. The foot-stalks of the leaves are 
long and naked; the leaves somewhat ovate, 
slightly lobbed at the base, very slightly waved, 
and incurving a little over the flower, defending 
it from frost and wet. Not a large grower, 
and, being upright in habit, may stand at 2 feet 
distance apart. If sown in April or May, it will 
flower from the end of September till the end 
of December. Successional sowings of it should 
be made from April till the end of June. The 
London market-gardeners sow only four sorts, 
of which this is the principal, the others being 
the Waloheren, late London white, and the early 
purple or sprouting broccoli. 

2. Waloheren. — Comparatively new; first pro- 
duced by Mr Legg of Bishopsthorpe ; so closely 
resembles cauliflower as to be scarcely distin- 
gvdshable from it. The leaves are more curled 
than in the cauliflower, and its constitution is of 
a hardier nature, standing our ordinary winter 
in the open garden, and withstanding better the 
extreme droughts of summer. Mr Legg's prac- 
tice in keeping up a constant succession is to 
sow the third week of April, middle and end of 
May, the middle and end of June, and the 
middle and end of July. For early spring use 
he sows about the 25th or 27th of August, 
keeping the plants through the winter under 
hand-glasses in the usual manner, leaving, how- 
ever, only three or four plants under each glass. 
Of itself, by the above timeous sowings, it will 
become a complete substitute for all the others,- 
and be at any time scarcely distinguishable from 

3. Gillespie's. — A fine white early autumn sort 
much grown about Edinburgh ; does not appear 
to be as yet much known about London. Treat- 
ment the same as for Grange's early. The same 
distance also. 

4. Early purple or sprouting, attaining the 
height of from 2 to 3 feet ; somewhat spread- 
ing; requires to be set 3 feet apart. Much 
grown by the London market-gardeners, and is 
much prized by French cooks, who dress the 
little sprouts in a variety of ways. The flower 
is close-headed, and of a fine purple at first, if 
the seed is genuine. It branches into sprouts 
afterwards, but is apt to lose its colour and 
become greenish, as well as to produce nume- 
rous small green leaves intermixed with the 
flower, if set in too rich ground. The London 
growers sow it along with all their other broo- 
colis in May, when it comes into use in Novem- 
ber, and continues all the winter, as fresh 
sprouts of flowers are produced from the alee of 



the leaves after the head is cut. We sow in 
April to secure flowers in November. Some- 
times a second sowing is made in June, which' 
produces flowers the following April. 

5. Purple cape. — A very early variety, the 
culture, &o. of which we have already noticed. 
The last two are almost the only purple sorts 
worth growing, and the five described the best 
of the very early varieties. 

6. EUetson's gigantic late white. — One of 
the largest as well as latest white broccolis; 
dwarf on the stem; but, as the leaves spread 
considerably, it should be accorded 3 feet dis- 
tance each way. 

7. Willcow late white. — As large as the last, 
but hardly so late ; grows taller, and requires 
the same space. 

8. Hammond's white cape. — An excellent pure- 
white broccoli, flowering about December. 

9. Knights protecting. — If not so pure a white 
as the others, it possesses the great merit of being 
exceedingly hardy ; and, being of M&ry dwarf 
growth and small size, it may be planted 15 
inches asunder, thus yielding a great return of 
produce off a small space, and therefore excel- 
lent for small gardens. Its heads are larger 
than might be expected from so small a plant. 
It is known from all others by a bracteal leaf, 
which is produced on one side of the flower as 
if it were designed for protection from frost and 
wet. It appears to be an improvement on the 
small green Danish, from which it may possibly 
have originated. 

10. Chappie's large cream. — A very large 
and excellent variety, to which may be added 
Dilston's bride and Snow's superb white, two 
first-rate sorts. The latter is a dwarf variety, 
with broad leaves and short petioles, in size and 
colour resembling a fine cauliflower. If sown 
in the neighbourhood of London in May, it will 
come into use in November. If sown in Scot- 
land in April, it will come in at the same time. 

To those who require the hardier varieties, 
we would recommend the Siberian, late green, 
or Danish, which are all the same. It has been 
proved to be the hardiest of any, coming in late 
in spring, when the slow increasing heat of the 
sun tends to swell it out to a fair size. The 
leaves are somewhat purplish, very much waved 
and indented; 2 feet apart is sufficient for it. 
The Eussian dwarf is also equally hardy and 

Besides, there are about thirty other varieties 
possessing less or more merit, and perhaps 
nearly half as many more names to be found in 
seed-lists, which are either worthless or pos- 
sess similar or inferior merits to those in the 
above selection. They have been selected from 
about forty named sorts, which were grown 
within two years in the Dalkeith gardens. 

The following broccolis are popular; their 
names, however, will suffice. Late dwarf purple 
Syrian, winter imperial. Dancer's pink cape, 
Adam's superb early white. Snow's winter white, 
impregnated white, Portsmouth cream-coloured, 
Sumner's late white, early Malta, Howden'a 
purple, hardy green cape, American white, Tam- 
worth white. Miller's dwarf, Stewart's early 
white, Addison's — the two latter much esteemed 

about Edinburgh. Indeed, Stewart's early white 
and Gillespie's white are more grown by the 
market-gardeners than any others, coming in 
early in winter of a good white colour, and 
lasting till spring. 

The true Walcheren, by successful sowings, had the whole year through, and, with 
Snow's superb white. Grange's early cauliflower. 
Knight's protecting, and Hammond's fine white 
cape, may be considered quite sufficient to afford 
a supply the whole season. 

General remarks. — The difference between the 
broccoli and cauliflower is very slight The co- 
lour in some sorts of the former is no doubt 
sufficient to mark the distinction; but amongst 
the finer varieties of the white-flowering kinds of 
broccolis, this distinction almost vanishes. Pro- 
fessor de CandoUe, who has taken more pains 
to describe and systematise the order Cructferse 
than any other botanist, has not forgotten to 
mark the differences which exist between them. 
He states, first, that both are varieties of each 
other, or rather varieties of the same race — Bras- 
sica oleracea botrytis, or cabbages producing 
heads or flowers of an eatable description, but 
of a very different organisation from the cab- 
bage. From a very interesting paper upon this 
subject by that eminent botanist, published in 
the " Transactions of the London Horticultural 
Society," vol. v., the following brief extract is 
taken : — " The bunches of flowers, instead of 
being loosely spread into a pyramidal form, like 
those of a panicle, are close from their basis, and 
form a kind of a regular corymb ; to which is 
added a second character, that may be consi- 
dered as a natural consequence of the first : the 
pedicles, from being tightly kept together before 
their time of blossom, lose their shape, grow 
fleshy from adhering to each other, and in ge- 
neral produce nothing but the rudiments of 
abortive flowers ; so that, contrary to all other 
varieties, where the leaves and stalks are alone 
taken for culinary purposes, in this the floral 
foot-stalk is the only part eaten. This race com- 
prehends two varieties, viz., the cauliflower and 
the broccolis." 

Their difference is thus shown : — " The Bras- 
sica cauliflora (cauliflower) has generally a short 
stem, white-ribbed oblong leaves, the pedicle 
uniting at the head of the primary branches into 
thick, short, irregular bundles, in the shape of a 
corymb ; it appears to be a degeneration of the 
Brassica oleracea costata, or Portugal cabbage. 

" The Brassica cymosa (broccoli) ; its stem is 
more elevated, the leaf-nerves less prominent, 
the pedicles altogether less thick and close ; they 
are also longer, so that, on becoming fleshy, they 
resemble in shape the young shoots of aspara- 
gus : hence the name Asparagoides given by an- 
cient botanists to broccoli. The broccoli seems 
to be a degeneration of some variety of the chou 
cavalier, tall or open cabbage. It is divided 
into two sub-varieties, the common or white 
broccoli, and the purple or Maltese broccoli ; and 
each of these is again divided into several kinds 
by the practical gardener." 

Cultivation, by improving the finer kinds of 
white broccolis, is narrowing the distinctive 
marks ; but although so nearly alike, they must 



ever remain distinct, inasmuch as they derive 
their origin from two very distinct types, namely, 
the Portugal cabbage, and the tall curled kale. 
The oauHflower originated also in the south of 
Europe — some say the island of Cyprus — while 
the other originated in the north of Europe, but 
whether in Germany or Britain we have no cer- 
tain means of knowing. Others think the broccoli 
of ItaUau origin ; and hence the older authors, 
in describing the then two only known varieties, 
call them Brassica Italica alba, the white broc- 
coli; and Brassica Italica pwpurea, the purple 

To obtain seed: — "Such plants of each variety 
must be selected in March or April as most per- 
fectly agree with their pecuUar characteristics, 
and are not particularly forward in advancing 
for seed. As the stems run up, some growers 
recommend the leaves to be taken away ; but 
this must be injurious. Mr Wood of Queens- 
ferry is particularly careful that no leaves appear 
on the surface of the head. He always lifts his 
plants, and plants them in another bed, water- 
ing them abundantly, as this, he finds, prevents 
their degenerating or producing proud seed ; 
and when the head begins to open, he outs out 
its centre, and leaves only four or five of the 
outside shoots for bearing. The sulphur-coloured 
he always finds the most difficult to obtain seed 
from. As the branches spread, four or six stakes 
should be placed at equal distances round each 
plant, and hooped round with string to support 
them, and prevent their breaking. When the 
pods begin to form, water should be given re- 
peatedly, and occasionally some thrown over the 
whole plant, which tends to prevent mildew. 
Before the pods begin to change colour, those 
from the extremity of every shoot must be taken 
away, as these yield seed which produce plants 
very apt to run to seed without heading, and 
by an early removal the others are benefited. 
The branches ought to be gathered as soon as 
the pods upon them ripen. Different kinds 
must never be planted near each other, or they 
will reciprocally be crossed. The seed ripens in 
August or September; and it is often recom- 
mended to preserve it in the pod until wanted, 
but the general practice is to beat it out as soon 
as it is perfectly dry." — Cottage Gardeners'' Dic- 

§ 6. — THE SAVOY. 

Natv/ral History. — The savoy {Brassica ale- 
racea buUata major, De C.) has been known in 
Britain as a cultivated plant since the time of 
Gerard, who specially notices them, and ranks 
them amongst hearting or heading cabbages. 
It is sufficiently distinct from all these in the 
wrinkled leaves, which form its chief charac 
teristic. The Brussels sprout is considered a 
sub-variety of this, but it is much more removed 
from it, in appearance, than the savoy is from the 
cabbage. It forms an excellent, hardy, and pro- 
ductive winter esculent, and is divided into two 
pretty distinct classes, the green coloured and 
the yellow. 

Its use is the same as the cabbage, being used, 
when fully headed, during winter, and as sprouts 

or coUards, in some families, during most of the 

Propagation. — It is propagated by seed 
sown annually, or by cuttings of the 
young sprouts in spring, after the head 
has been cut off. 

Sowing and planting. — In many parts 
of Scotland these are sown in autumn, at 
the same time as cabbages, &o. are, for 
next summer's consumption. This, how- 
ever, can only hold good in very cold and 
late localities. In others, the crop would 
be too forward, for they are not required 
in a full-hearted state before November. 
There are circumstances, however, when 
this is different; namely, where green 
savoys are required during most of the 
year, in the form of collards, like young 
cabbages. Sowing, therefore, to meet 
these demands, must be made frequently. 
(Vide Early cabbage.) For a general au- 
tumn and winter crop, a sowing towards 
the end of February, and another towards 
the beginning of April, will be sufiScient, 
so that the plants may be set in their per- 
manent position in May, June, or July. 
Half an oz. of seed will be sufficient for a 
seed-bed of 36 square feet. 

The distances, &c. of the plants are 
in all respects the same as for cabbage, 
allowing those that are to be drawn as 
collards the same distance as cabbage, 
collards, and those which are to remain 
to form perfect heads, from 24 to 26 
inches between row and row, and 20 
inches between plant and plant. 

Subsequent culture. — An open and ex- 
posed situation is the best, beginning- 
planting out as the young plants are 
ready in the nursery-beds ; for it is im- 
portant that they be removed from the 
seed-bed as soon as their leaves are about 
2 inches in breadth. Choose the strongest 
plants for first planting, following up with 
the weaker in the course of a week or two, 
or as ground falls vacant from other 
crops. May and June is a good time for 
transplanting, when the crop is wanted 
during August and September, for south- 
ern practice ; and the same time, or 
even towards the middle of July, for 
northern climates. The first, unless for 
market purposes, is perhaps too soon for 
English family use, as, during August 
and September, more desirable vegetables 
are in use. July and August are there- 
fore a preferable transplanting season for 



English consumption. In planting sa- 
voys, as well as any other of the Brassica 
tribe, observe if any of the young plants 
are clubbed or have knotty protuber- 
ances on their roots ; if so, cut them 
closely off; but it is better to throw 
away such plants entirely, as they never 
make good plants afterwards. Soil has 
much to do with this clubbing, and it is 
found to be far more prevalent in poor 
gravelly soils than in those that are deep 
and rich. Savoys may be planted in the 
simultaneous mode of cropping ; as, for 
example, between rows of previous stand- 
ing crops, Uke pease, beans, early cauli- 
flower, or the like, that are sufficiently 
advanced to be cleared off before the 
savoys will require the entire ground. 
The general crop will last in use from the 
beginning of November tiU the beginning 
of March, after which they will begin to 
run to seed, and should then be removed 
either to the rot-heap or the pigs, or be 
dug in as green manure for the succeed- 
ing crop. 

Soil and manure. — These can hardly be 
too rich, and in a highly cultivated state. 
The same manures as for cabbage should 
be appUed. 

Taking the crop, and subsequent preserva- 
tion. — In autumn, when the plants have 
attained their full size, and before they 
have become quite hard, they are fit for 
use, and in that state are more wholesome 
than when older ; as all vegetable matter 
blanched white from deficiency of light 
is in a less fitting state as articles of food 
than when of their natm-al colour. In 
severe winters, the full-grown crops may 
be taken up and preserved as recom- 
mended for drumhead cabbage ; and for 
prolonging them in a useful state till late 
in spring, the same means may be em- 
ployed as stated for broccoli. 

Approved sorts and their qualities. — 1. Dwarf 
green curled. — A useful, hardy, smallish sort, 
fit for small gardens, requiring only 18 or 
20 inches space each way. Excellent for use 
before it becomes fully cabbaged. Known 
also as small dwarf green curled, pancalier de 

2. OatteTs green cmled. — An improvement on 
the last. 

3. Marcellin. — A new variety of excellent 
quality, growing much larger than either of the 
above, and hence requiring more room on the 

4. Gape, or drumhead.— Hhe largest variety 

6. Globe. — Very finely curled, grows taller 
than most others, yet not spreading in propor- 
tion. Known also as large green curled, large 
green, large late green. 

6. Dwarf yellow, — Curled ; differing from the 
dwarf green only in colour, which we think no 

7. Feather-stemmed savoy. — This curious and 
useful variety has been in existence for several 
years, being raised by Mr Barnes of Bicton, and 
is a cross between the savoy and Brussels sprout. 
Notwithstanding, we do not remember having 
seen it noticed in any seed-catalogue. It is 
what may be called a sprouting savoy, produc- 
ing numerous sprouts along the stem. A sow- 
ing of it should be made about the middle of 
April, and another about the 10th of May, 
planting out as the plants are of fit size, in the 
usual manner of savoys and other winter greens. 

From an excellent article upon the Varieties 
of Savoy, by Mr E. Thompson, in " The Gar- 
deners' Chronicle," 1850, p. 244, being the 
results of experiments made in the gardens of 
the London Horticultural Society, we make the 
following additions : — 

8. Early green curled, or new early. — Small 
outer leaves, rather plain, deep green ; hearts 
readily, and is of excellent quality. It is con- 
sidered the best for early use. 

9. Early flat green curled. — Middle sized, veiy 
dwarf and fiat headed, deep green, tender, and 
very good. 

10. Early dwarf green curled. — Dwarf green, 
similar to the early green curled. 

11. Large green German, or large late green. 
— " This," Mr Thompson says, " is the largest 
kind of savoy, and the best amongst the large. 
The leaves are plainer than in the other varie- 
ties ; the head roundish, a little flattened, like 
a drumhead cabbage, which it also approaches 
in size. It is hardy, withstanding the frosts of 
ordinary winters well." This we apprehend to 
be the same as our cape or drumhead. 

12. Conical savoy. — Bather small, pointed 
green, hardy, of very good quality, but affords 
much less weight of produce than several of the 
preceding sorts. 

13. Early yellow savoy. — Middle-sized, round- 
ish, yellow ; hearts easUy, of tender substance 
when cooked, and very good, but some object 
to the colour. 

14. Early long yellow. — This, like the preced- 
ing, is an early variety, but it does not heart 

16. Earliest JJlm savoy. — Described by M. 
Vilmorin, of Paris, in " Bon Jardinier," as being 
very dwarf, quickly forming a heart, which, 
though not large, is excellent. "It has been 
proved in the London Horticultural Society's 
garden, and stated by Mr Thompson as being the 
earliest in cultivation. It may be planted, in 
proportion to its size, considerably closer than 
the larger kinds." It is too small for market 
purposes, but in private gardens would no doubt 
be an acquisition. 

It is somewhat singular that a long cultivated 
and popular vegetable like the savoy should 
have remained so long so true to its original 
character. Indeed, with the exception of the 



feather-stemmed, scarcely any change has taken 
place for years. 


Natural history. — The origin of the name 
cauliflower (Brassioa oleracea Botrytis cauli- 
Jlora, De C.) ia from the Latin cauUs, a stalk, and 
fero, to bear ; its original name being coleflorie, 
or colieflorie. It is first mentioned by Gerard, 
who says, " The white cabbage is next best to 
the cole flourey ; yet Cato doth chiefly com- 
mend the russed cole ; but he knew neither the 
whites nor the cole flourey, for if he had, his 
censure would have been otherways." PVom 
this it appears not to have been known in his 
day ; subsequent Eoman authors, however, men- 
tion it in such terms as to leave little doubt of 
its great antiquity, but of its origin we know 
nothing. Pierre Pompes, an old French author, 
says, " It comes to us in Paris, by way of Mar- 
seilles, from the isle of Cyprus, which is the 
only place I know of where it seeds." From 
this account Philips remarks, " It would appear 
that cauliflowers were not much cultivated in 
France in 1694, when his work was published ; 
and the French have at present no distinct 
name for this vegetable, but call it choujkur, or 

Uses. — The heads or flowers are considered 
one of the greatest of vegetable delicacies when 
served up at the table, either plain boiled, to 
be eaten with meat, like other Brassicse, or 
dressed with white sauce, after the French 
manner. It is much used as a pickle, either by 
itself or forming an ingredient in what is called 
mixed pickles. It may also be preserved a con- 
siderable time when pickled in the manner of 
saur kraut. It also forms an excellent addition 
in vegetable soups. 

Propagation. — This is by seed sown at 
various times, for the purpose of keeping 
up a succession. It is scarcely capable 
of propagation by cuttings, and in our cold 
climate must ever be regarded as an annual 
plant ; for keeping autumn-sown plants 
under glass, or otherwise protected during 
winter, does not constitute a biennial. 

Sowing and planting. — Three or four 
sowings annually is the usual practice ; 
but the seasons of sowing depend some- 
what on circumstances, of which climate 
is the principal. The most prevalent 
practice, however, is to sow between the 
18th and 24th of August ; the plants of 
which sowing, when about 3 inches high, 
are transferred to a nursery-bed, and set 
about 4 inches apart. When sufficiently 
strong — which they will be by the middle 
of October — they are planted out in shel- 
tered places, at the bottoms of walls, 
under hand-glasses, in cold pits or frames, 
in beds to be hooped over and covered 
with canvass, and sometimes they are 

potted and kept under glass till spring, 
when they are planted out for good in 
the warmest situation the garden offers. 
These plants flower during May and June 
following. The second sowing is made 
about the end of February or beginning 
of March, on a moderate hotbed, the 
plants being finally planted out in Aprilj 
but they should have the advantage of a 
nursery-bed, if only for a few weeks, to 
strengthen them. These produce flowers 
during July and August. The third sow- 
ing is made about the beginning of April, 
in the open ground ; and the plants, after 
being pricked out in a nursery-bed, are 
finally transplanted in June, and will pro- 
duce flowers from September until de- 
stroyed by frost. These are all import- 
ant matters to attend to. Autumn-sown 
plants, if destroyed by frost during winter, 
may be replaced by others, forced upon 
hotbeds in spring, in time for the first 
planting ; but a week's delay or advance 
in the third sowing may lead to the dis- 
appointment of either having the crop 
too early to supply the demand during 
October, November, and December, or 
it may be too late to flower at all. The 
above is the English practice, so far as 
dates are concerned. In most parts of 
Scotland, from the 1st to the 12th of 
August is the proper time for sowing the 
first crop, and a week in advance will be 
wise as regards the third. As for the 
second, as artificial means are employed, 
the exact date must ever be left to the 
discretion of the cultivator. 

The London practice is to sow "the 
seed of spring cauliflower about the 20th 
of September, in open beds. Towards 
November, when the weather is begin- 
ning to get cold, frames and hooped beds 
are got ready in light rich land. The 
plants are pricked out not more than 4 
inches apart each way : during the winter 
they are kept dry ; no rain is allowed to 
fall upon them, but, whenever practi- 
cable, plenty of air is given to them. 
Frost has little effect on them under 
hoops j but when excluded long from air, 
and kept in darkness, they sometimes 
suffer from damp to a considerable ex- 
tent. They are planted out in the richest 
and earliest ground, in February or the 
beginning of March." — Market-Gardening 
round London, p. 22. 

Some of our best English gardeners 



sow a fourth sowing about the middle of 
July, choosing a warm border, or throw- 
ing up ridges of soil and sowing the seed 
on the south side of the ridge, which 
ridges, of course, should run in an east 
and west direction. When the plants 
come up, they are thinned out to the dis- 
tance of 9 inches or a foot apart, and 
allowed to remain without transplanting. 
In November nice little heads will be 
produced ; and if not convenient to cover 
over the ridges with a roofing of boarding 
or thatched hurdles, as a protection from 
frost, the plants may be taken up and 
treated as noticed below. This late sow- 
ing seldom succeeds in Scotland, unless 
in warm, dry localities, such as along the 
shores of the Forth, where little rain or 
snow falls, and, from proximity to the 
sea, frost is seldom severe. 

Half an ounce of seed is sufficient to 
sow a seed-bed of 36 square feet. Thick 
sowing should be avoided. 

The method of sowing and planting is 
in all respects the same as for early 
cabbages {which see.) 

The following ingenious method of 
keeping up a supply of cauliflower is 
communicated by Mr Henry Baily, of 
Nuneham Park, Oxfordshire, to " The 
Journal of the London Horticultural So- 
ciety," vol. V. p, 103. Mr Baily is one of 
our most enlightened horticulturists ; his 
method has both novelty and excellence 
to recommend it, and as his situation is 
not one of the warmest in England, similar 
success may attend those who follow his 
example. The true Walcheren sort only 
-is used. " The first sowing for the spring 
crop is made about the 25th of August, 
and another, for smaller successional 
plants, a week later, upon an open bor- 
der. As soon as the plants are large 
enough they are transplanted," that is, 
pricked out ; " and as soon after that as 
they have made a few roots, they are 
again transplanted into small pots, called 
sixties : they are then placed in an open 
airy situation (either a frame, vinery, or 
peach-house, which is dormant), simply 
requiring protection from severe frosts; 
as they fill the pots with roots, larger ones 
are provided, and early in February the 
first crop, or handlight division, is planted 
out in a south border ; the holes for their 
reception having received a barrowful of 
rotten dung, the mould is re-turned, form- 

ing a little hillock, on which these plants 
are placed, and covered with the glass till 
they begin to be established. The smaller 
plants are reserved for a successional 
crop, potted into larger-sized pots, and 
placed in temporary frames, covered with 
mats in severe nights, but fully exposed 
in fine genial weather. This crop is gene- 
rally planted out in the alleys of the as- 
paragus beds, completes its growth before 
the tops of the asparagus become too 
high, and then has its duration prolonged 
by the shade of its branches. 

" For the next crop in succession I sow 
in pots, about the middle of February, 
subjecting the plants to the same routine 
of potting, &c. Other sowings are made 
at intervals between this and the 20th of 
May, when the last crop is sown, which 
should be planted on a south border, for 
autumn use — extending up to Christmas, 
with protection. 

"For the February supply, an early 
white broccoli, grown by Mr Wilmot, of 
Isleworth, is invaluable. It is sown the 
end of May, and should be taken up and 
protected in a cool vinery, as our winters 
will not admit of the production of cauli- 
flower at that season, as the fine climate 
of Naples does. 

" The roots should never be allowed to 
get matted in the pots, or the plants to 
suffer any check. It will readily be con- 
ceded that our object in the cultivation 
of those culinary vegetables, whose stems, 
leaves, or flowers are eaten, is to grow 
them in the most rapid and luxuriant 
manner, avoiding any check at any period 
of their growth : any curtailment of those 
resources of plants which have a tendency 
to increase their luxuriance, and conse- 
quently render them more tender, must 
therefore, be detrimental, and it is to 
avoid checking the growth of the plant 
that the practice of potting is adopted. In 
dry weather, when the plants are drawn 
out of the seed-bed, and planted with a 
common dibber, receiving daily dribblings 
of water, many will perish, and all will be 
materially injured. By the mode I have 
described this is avoided, and labour saved 
in the end. After planting out, a copious 
watering is given, either in the evenings 
of bright days or in dull and cloudy wea- 
ther, when it is not rapidly evaporated." 
Such a mode as this is well adapted to our 
northern climate. 



Subsequent cultivation. — The safe preser- 
vation of the plants during winter de- 
serves attention. They should be reared 
in an open, airy situation, and, when the 
leaves are about 2 inches in breadth, as 
we have stated above, should be invariably 
transferred to a nursery-bed, in an equally 
airy place, kept free from weeds and dead 
leaves, encouraged to make numerous 
roots, which transplanting considerably 
assists ; for the stockier and stouter they 
are got to be, without being drawn up 
tall and slender, or of too gross and suc- 
culent habit, the better they will stand 
the winter. It is not, therefore, expe- 
dient to have the nursery-bed too rich, 
as this would induce them to send down 
naked tap-roots, and assume a degree of 
grossness that would ill enable them to 
withstand the frost. 

Hand-glass protection. — In October the 
hand-glasses should be filled, and those 
best fitted for the purpose are such as are 
constructed in pieces, so that the top may 
be removed entirely, or in part, on all 
favourable occasions, for the sake of ven- 
tilation, but more so to prevent the plants 
being drawn up or advanced farther than 
necessary. The glasses used for this 
purpose by the London market-gardeners 
are usually large bell-glasses, fig. 36, 
blown of green coarse 
glass, 18 inches in dia- 
meter and 20 in 
height, with a glass 
nob at top, answering 
the purpose of a han- 
dle. The better sort, 
however, is as shown 
fig. 37, and is made of 
cast-iron. The four 
sides are in separate 
pieces, and put toge- 
ther by projections at 
the corners, fitting into each other, and 

Fig. 37. 

Fig. 36. 



fastened by a wedge, and are each 20 
inches square. Lead, zinc, wrought-iron, 
copper, &c., are the worst possible mate- 
rials to construct such utensils with. 
Some substitutes for these have been 
proposed, but their utility verifies the old 
saying — " Saving at the spigot, and losing 
at the bung-hole." The cast-iron hand- 
glasses will last for fifty years, the others 
not as many months. They are glazed 
with the fragments of glass which abound 
in all gardens where hothouses exist. 
The manner of planting under hand- 
glasses is this : — In the best exposed place 
of the garden, dig out holes in number 
agreeing with the number of bell or hand 
glasses at disposal. These holes should 
be 2^, feet square, filled with one-half 
rotted stable-manure, and rather more 
than the other half the soil taken fi-om 
the hole, so that the place, when finished, 
may be 4 inches higher than the sur- 
rounding soil. The hand-glass should be 
set upon this preparation to mark its 
dimensions, and five plants placed in each 
space — one in the centre, and one within 
4 inches of each corner of the space. 

These are to be regarded as the per- 
manent plants, but, to secure as many 
more as can be, with a view to their 
being taken up in spring and planted 
elsewhere, six or seven more plants may 
be pricked in between them. The glasses 
are to be set at first over them, supported 
on four bricks, one at each comer, and, 
as the winter draws on, these are to be 
removed, and the glasses set on the surface 
of the ground, or rather pressed about an 
inch under it, the better to exclude the 
cold. Ventilation must now be attended 
to by lifting the top off entirely, or par- 
tiallyas shown in our fig., and only closing 
it entirely doM^n when severe frosts exist. 
The bell-glasses are to be managed in a 
similar manner, only on good days they 
may be elevated on one side an inch or 
two, or entirely removed. Here the ad- 
vantage of the hand-glass in pieces will 
be apparent. These glasses may be placed 
at 3 feet apart, which will afibrd sufficient 
room for each patch of plants to develop 
themselves fully when the glasses are 
removed in April. 

Wall protection.— Those transferred to the 
bottoms of walls will, in general seasons, 
stand well, and, if thinned out in spring, 
the superfluous plants being transplanted 



to an open part of the ground, will come in 
a fortnight or three weeks after those left 
to enjoy the reflected heat of the wall. 
In preparing the space for them at the 
bottoms of walls, which need not be more 
than 9 or 12 inches in breadth, no great 
fear need be apprehended of injuring the 
roots of the wall-trees, as these are, for 
the most part, progressing outwards. The 
soil may, therefore, be loosened up with 
a fork, and a good supply of stable- yard 
manure added, the plants set about 6 
inches apart, to be afterwards thinned in 
spring to a foot distant. All the care 
required is to remove the leaves fallen 
from the trees, to dust the plants fre- 
quently for the suppression of slugs, and, 
in cold and damp localities, to cover the 
surface between them with finely-sifted 
coal-ashes to counteract damp. 

Frame protection,. — Plants for this pur- 
pose should be taken up from the nur- 
sery-beds : the taking up we consider 
essential, and much more than adequate 
to the saving of time which would result 
from placing the frames at once over the 
plants still growing in the beds. About 
the end of October or beginning of No- 
vember transplant these into a bed of 
moderately conditioned soil, setting them 
6 inches apart, so that the air may circu- 
late freely through them. One precau- 
tion necessary in cold, damp, strong soils, 
is to elevate this bed 6 or 7 inches above 
the ground-level, to insure freedom from 
damp ; cover with glass-lights at first till 
the plants take root, and afterwards, 
upon all occasions when frost or snow is 
apprehended, giving abundance of air 
at all other times. Cover the glass with 
canvass during severe frosts, keep the soil 
dry, and introduce between the plants, 
stiU further to insure this, an inch in 
thickness of finely-sifted coal-ashes ; re- 
move decaying leaves, pull up weeds, 
and leave till spring arrives, when more 
copious supplies of air must be given, and 
the plants gradually inured to stand the 
common atmosphere, when they may be 
transplanted out for good, which, accord- 
ing to climate, will be about the end of 
March or beginning of April, setting the 
plants in a warm place and in a highly- 
enriched soil, in rows 2| feet asunder, and 
18 inches plant from plant. In trans- 
planting, remove with as much soil as 
possible about the roots, for which the 


transplanters, figs. 29, 30, and 31, will be 
found useful. 

Winterinci in pots. — Where very early 
crops are wanted, and where there is fit 
accommodation, a set may be planted in 
48-sized pots in October, and kept under 
a glass frame, cool peach-house, or the 
like, till February, when they may be 
turned out of the pots with their balls 
entire, and planted in a pit covered with 
glass in a richly-prepared bed, and there 
allowed to produce their heads or flowers. 
Cauliflowers, at so early a period of the 
season, will only be regarded by those 
who profess to distinguish a superior 
quality in the cauliflower over a fine 
well-grown broccoli, which, at the same 
season, will be in high perfection in the 
open garden. This we, however, know 
to be the case with some persons, and 
therefore, to provide for such a taste, 
it will be advisable to adopt the potting 

Spring-sown crop. — Plants originated 
from seeds sown in February or March 
should be also transferred to nursery-beds 
to harden and gain strength; in these 
they should be allowed 6 inches apart 
plant from plant, to facilitate the opera- 
tion of lifting with balls by the trans- 
planter. About the end of April or 
beginning of May (all, however, depend- 
ing on the weather, which, of late years, 
seems to put all nice calculations of this 
kind completely out of the question) they 
may be transplanted into the open quar- 
ter, setting them in lines 3 feet apart, 
and the plants 2^ feet apart in the rows. 

The summer-sown crop is to be treated in 
a similar way to the last, and transplanted 
about the middle of July at the same dis- 
tance as the last. 

Throughout their season of growth the 
same management is required as already 
detailed for other Brassicee, taking care 
that every one that begins to flag or 
droop its leaves, showing very evident 
symptoms of being attacked at the root, 
be taken up, and without further cere- 
mony consigned to the nearest hothouse 
furnace, and, in default of that, to the 
nearest fire ; for by this means such insects 
as are the cause of these disasters may be 
greatly limited in their future operations. 

Some excellent cultivators contend that 
the middle of August is not the proper 
season for sowing, and that the whole 




routine of wintering them, as usually is 
done, has a tendency to give unnecessary 
checks to the plants, and that it would be 
better to sow for early spring planting in 
the first week of October, on a very gentle 
bottom-heat, close to the glass, and to 
prick out the plants, as soon as they can 
be handled, into another bed, keeping 
them still close to the glass. This is the 
practice of Mr Barnes of Bicton, who says, 
in "Cottage Gardener," vol. vi. p. 309, 
" The last week in October and the first 
week in November they are potted into 
small 60's, and plunged under frame or pit 
lights, still close to the glass, and in due 
season they are again shifted as required 
into larger pots. At the beginning of Ja- 
nuary they get their last shift into 7-inch 
pots — that is, those intended to be turned 
out under hand-glasses the first week in 
February — ^but those plants intended to be 
grown on and forced in pots in some hot- 
house, are, of course, shifted into 10-inch 
or 12-inch pots ; and those intended to be 
planted out into the borders and quarters 
are pricked into temporary shallow frames 
and turf-pits, in order to apply temporary 
shelter during the severe winter weather, 
by placing over them spare-lights, thatched 
hurdles, (fee." 

Soil and manure. — Much of the delicacy 
and excellency of the cauliflower depends 
on the quickness of its growth ; therefore, 
to promote this, the soil cannot be too 
highly enriched, nor too deeply culti- 
vated ; and, as all the tribe thrive best in 
new soil, the deeper the ground is dug, 
and the more new or rested matter that 
is turned up for the roots, the better. 
Almost all highly-manured garden soils, 
if deeply trenched, will produce the cauli- 
flower in great perfection ; yet, in newly- 
broke-up soils, all the Brassioae will luxu- 
riate equally well even with a much more 
limited dependence on manurial applica- 

Taking the crop and subsequent preserva- 
tion. — The young heads or flowers are 
used when of the size of about 2 inches in 
diameter, and from that until they attain 
their greatest size, which may be taken as 
a maximum at 8 or 9 inches in diameter. 
It is not, however, size that constitutes 
the properties of a fine cauliflower, but 
its fine white or creamy colour, its com- 
pactness, and what is technically called 
its curdy appearance, from its resemblance 

to the curd of milk in its preparation for 
cheese. When the flower begins to open, 
or when it is of a warty or frosty-like 
appearance, it is less esteemed; and indeed, 
when exceeding the size of about 3 inches 
in diameter, it is only fit for secondary 
market purposes. Nor should it, during 
summer, be cut above a day before it is 
to be used. 

Towards the middle of November, 
should the weather prove severe, both late 
caiiliflower and early white cape broccoli, 
then coming into flower, should be care- 
fully protected. To this end the plants 
may be taken carefully up by the roots, 
and three or four tied together, and sus- 
pended with their heads downwards from 
the roof of some cool shed or outhouse, 
where there is not too much air, yet 
which is free from damp : strong currents 
of air would exhaust the sap from the 
plants too rapidly, and the flowers would 
become tough and uneatable, because the 
roots cannot now make up the deficiency. 
The leaves, after they have been hung up 
for a few days, and have become some- 
what dry, should be folded round the 
flowers and secured by a string. 

The best way, however, to preserve 
them during winter, is to take them up 
with as much soil about their roots as 
possible, and to replant them in light, 
dry, sandy soil in an open shed, where 
the accommodation of a regular structure 
does not exist. Figs. 676, 677, vol. i. p. 
437, may be referred to as examples of 
such. In cool pits, frames, &c., they may 
be kept in a good state for many weeks ; 
and even divesting the flowers of their 
leaves and burying them in masses of 
peat-earth has, from the antiseptic nature 
of such a soil, a very beneficial eifect on 
their keeping. In mild localities, the 
mere breaking down of a leaf or two over 
the flower is found suflioient protection, 
as it wards ofi' both wet and frost so long 
as the temperature does not fall above 
4° or 5° below freezing : but in colder 
places it is necessary to protect them as 
we have stated, or by taking up the plants 
and laying them in by the heels — that is, 
replanting them in a slanting direction, 
and covering the roots and stems fully 
up to the middle of the leaves, in a shel- 
tered and northern border, and covering 
them with branches and straw laid over 
them to throw off the wet, yet admit air, 



or by any other means most convenient 
at hand. The drier, however, they are 
kept, under such circumstances, the bet- 
ter. They have also been kept for seve- 
ral weeks by being taken up when quite 
dry, the leaves folded over the flowers, 
and the whole bxiried in a trench in a 
dry soil. It is well in doing so to place 
them tops undermost, leaving a small 
portion of the roots above ground, which 
serves to draw them up by when wanted. 

When' the heads are cut and dressed 
for the kitchen, the stems should be cut 
off close under the flower, all the leaves 
removed, excepting two or three of the 
very young embryo leaves which are next 
to the head ; these are dressed along with 
the flower, and make a better appearance 
on the table. If caterpillars are trouble- 
some, place the flowers in a pail of clean 
water with a handful of salt for a couple 
of hours in the vegetable-house, before 
sending them to the kitchen. This will 
dislodge any insects that may have taken 
shelter within the flower. 

It often happens that one or other of 
these expedients may be useful even for 
prolonging summer crops, when the one 
crop does not follow immediately that 
preceding it, or during dry summers, 
when the principal crops become likely 
to be exhausted before the next comes in. 

Approved sorts and their qualities. — The cauli- 
flower, unlike its ally the broccoli, has, by some 
not easily understood cause, remained pretty 
constant to what we may suppose was its ori- 
ginal state. For long we had only presented to 
us in seed-lists the early and late cauliflowers. 
These, however, have had some additions made 
to them — if even only nominal ones, we may be 
thankful, seeing how we cultivators are beset 
with such long lists of names, as a reference to 
the articles Pea, Bean, and Bboccoli will abun- 
dantly show. 

1. Early London white; 2. Early Dutch; 3. 
London particular; i. Fine late; 6. Large Asia- 
tic; 6. Large late German; 7. Walcheren; 8. Mer- 
cer's new pearly; 9. New dwarf late Cyprian; 
10. Epps's superb; 11. Early cauliflower; 12. 
Early Leyden— are all names to be found in seed- 
lists. Concerning the merits of Nos. 3, S, 7, 8, 
9, 10, 11, and 12, Mr Thomson says Nos. 3, 8, 
9, 10, and 11 appear to be all the same, and 
to these we have little fear in adding Nos. 1 and 
2. He believes 1 and 12 to be identical vrith 
Legg's "Walcheren broccoli. His conclusion is, 
that two varieties — namely, the large Asiatic and 
"Walcheren— are found to be those most deserv- 
ing of cultivation. The true "Walcheren is dis- 
tinguished from all others by its bluntly-rounded 
and broad leaves, and the closeness and almost 
snowy whiteness of its heads, even when grown 

to a large size. It is most difficult to procure 
genuine seed of this variety. Those who are 
fortunate enough to procure it once should, if 
possible, save the seed themselves. For man- 
ner of doing so, vide end of this chapter. 

§ 8. — THE SEA-KALE. 

Natural history.— Searkale {Crambe maritima) 
belongs to the natural order CruciferEe, and Lin- 
neaen class Tetradynia, and order SUiquosae. 
The name Crambe is derived from the Greek 
name for sea-cabbage. 

Although of comparatively modern cultiva- 
tion in Britain, the date of the introduction of 
this vegetable into our gardens is not correctly 
known. Mr Curtis states, upon the authority 
of Jones of Chelsea, that he (Jones) saw bundles 
of it in a cultivated state exposed in 1753 in the 
Chichester market in Sussex. Mr Maher, in a 
communication in the "London Horticultural 
Society's Transactions," vol. i., asserts that sea- 
kale was known in this country above 240 years 
ago ; and that it was used by the inhabitants of 
the sea-coast as a common dish, is stated by 
both Parkinson and Bryant. The former flou- 
rished about 1629, which is the date of the pub- 
lication of his " Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Ter- 
restris ;" the latter somewhere about 1783, when 
he published " Flora Dijetetica." Strange as it 
may appear, sea-kale plants were sent from this 
country by Lobel and Turner, 250 years ago, to 
the Continent, where, at this day, in many parts, 
gardeners scarcely know it by name. It is now 
pretty common in the Paris markets, but we 
have scarcely seen it in any other ; nor have we 
met with it in a cultivated state in any way ap- 
proaching to what is seen even in the neighbour- 
hood of Edinburgh, where its cultivation was 
attended to as early as it was in the neighbour- 
hood of London. Mr Gordon of Fountain Bridge 
gives sensible directions for its culture in his 
" Gardeners' Dictionary," published in 1774 ; 
and Dr Lettsom, it is well known, only brought 
it into notice around London in 1767. In 1853, 
a comparatively small breadth of it is cultivated 
around our northern metropolis, while around 
our southern one some hundreds of acres are 
covered with it. Professor Martyn and Mr Cur- 
tis, by their publications, brought it into notice 
in England. In the south of Europe it is 
scarcely known ; in the north it is only beginning 
to be attended to. Several young German and 
Danish gardeners we have had in the gardens 
at Dalkeith only recognised it as a botanical 
plant, never having seen it in a cultivated state. 
The same taste prevails in America. Our oldest 
English authority for any knowledge of this 
plant is Gerard, who gives its native habitats, but 
says nothing regarding its cultivation. It was 
known in the time of Pliny to the Romans, who 
called it Halmyridia ; and although they do not 
appear to have taken it into cultivation, they 
used it as a sea provision during long voyages ; 
gathering it where it grew wild, and cutting it 
up, they put it in barrels where oil had recently 
been kept, and these they stopped closely up, 
so that no air could reach the contents. 



The sea-kale is a native of the sea-coast of 
Britain, as noticed by Gei-ard, who observes, in 
his " Herbal," that " the sea-oolewort groweth 
naturally upon the beach and brim of the sea, 
where there is no earth to be seen, but sand and 
rolling pebble-stones." It is often found grow- 
ing out of the crevices of the rocks even of our 
highest cliffs. When it grows lower down, it 
sometimes gets covered with sand, and thus be- 
comes naturally blanched, which circumstance, 
no doubt, led to our blanching it artificially. 

Use. — The young shoots and stalks, when from 
the length of 3 to 9 inches, are the parts used. 
These, however, unless blanched (etiolated), are 
no better than the coarser kinds of borecole, but 
when blanched they become exceedingly deli- 
cate, and much prized. The ribs of the leaves, 
even after they are nearly fully developed, are 
sometimes used, being peeled and eaten as as- 
paragus. In either state they are tied up in small 
bundles and boiled, and served up with meat 
like cauliflower, covered with white sauce,melted 
butter, or on toasted bread. This kale cannot 
be too much boiled, so long as its form is not 
broken down ; it should then be thoroughly 
drained, and set a few minutes before the fire, 
to allow more of the moisture to escape by eva- 
poration, which renders it more crisp and better 

Propagation. — Being, unlike the ma- 
jority of the Brassioae, a hardy perennial, 
it is propagated by seed, and also by 
cuttings of the roots, which are replete 
with buds or eyes around the bottom of 
the crown, which are sufiSciently -visible ; 
and also with dormant buds all over the 
surface of the roots, which are invisible, 
but will develop themselves if the roots 
are cut up into small pieces and planted. 
It is, however, in the estimation of some, 
best raised from seed, as such plants, at 
least for the first and second year, de- 
velop only one principal bud or eye on 
the top of the crown, throwing up a much 
stronger and better formed head than 
they do afterwards when several buds are 
allowed to expand. This, however, may 
be corrected by rubbing oiF the eyes when 
they have attained the size of large peas. 
The London market-garden practice is to 
propagate by the root in preference to the 
seed, and in the following manner : — " To- 
wards spring, after the produce has been 
all cut, the roots are' taken up ; all the 
thongs," the long naked roots, "are cut 
off, and laid in large heaps ; and as soon 
as the cut part or upper portion becomes 
hardened, ground is prepared for its re- 
ception by manuring and trenching. The 
roots are then planted out a foot apart, 
in rows 18 inches asunder, and a crop of 

lettuces are planted between them : as 
soon as the buds become visible, all are 
cut out except the strongest one, the 
ground is kept clean, and nothing more is 
done till November, when they are ready 
again for forcing." 

Sowing or planting.— Seed is sown in 
March ; the roots planted at the same 
time. In cold damp soils, the beginning 
of April is better for the latter purpose ; 
but much in this respect depends on the 
wounded parts of the roots being well 
healed over, else there is danger of their 
rotting. The seed is best sown in drills 
2 inches deep and 6 or 8 inches wide, 
scattering the seed equally over the bot- 
tom to give the young plants more room 
when vegetation takes place. Some sow 
in beds in the broadcast manner, either 
of which will do equally well, as the 
plants are only to remain there for one 
season, when they are to be taken up and 
transplanted for good. Two ounces of 
seed will sow a bed of 36 square feet, or 
if in drills a foot apart and 8 inches in 
breadth, the same quantity will suflSce. 
The seed is large and light, very often 
either too old or imperfectly formed ; but 
this is easily ascertained by cutting them 
through the middle : if sound, the seed 
will be found plump and solid. They 
should be covered to the depth of 2 
inches. Sometimes they are sown where 
they are to remain, in which case the 
same quantity of seed will sow a piece 
of 75 square feet in drills 2 feet apart, as 
it must in this case be sown thin. Care 
must be taken, when the plants come up, 
that they be thinned to the distance of 
15 inches. Some divide the ground into 
beds, and set the cuttings or young plants 
in rows in them 2 feet apart, and the 
plants 18 inches in the line : when three 
rows are thus planted, a space of 3 feet is 
left as an alley, and another bed of simi- 
lar dimensions formed. Others, instead 
of thin-planting the beds, make shallow 
holes along the line, and drop three or 
four seeds in each, leaving one plant only 
to come to maturity. Some people think 
that in this way the plants are stronger 
than when subjected to transplantation. 
For ourselves, having practised all the 
ways, we could -never see much difference 
in the results. 

The seed usually vegetates in four weeks. 
Mr Martin's plan of increasing sea-kale is 



thus given by Mr Cuthill, in " Market- 
Gardening round London," p. 20. " At 
taking-up time " — that is, when the esta- 
blished roots are taken up for forcing, 
beginning in November, and continuing 
till the middle or end of February — " all 
the thongs are cut off from the plants. 
The small prongs or end roots are at once 
cut into 4-inch pieces, and laid together 
in a heap for the winter. In February 
they are deposited thickly in beds, and 
covered with mould an inch deep ; when 
sprouted, it is seen by the buds which is 
the top, and by the roots which is the 
bottom. The ground being prepared, 
they are planted" as described above. 
" This last plan makes finer plants, as 
the whole of the strength is in the roots 
when cut off in winter, which is not the 
case after they have produced a crop. 
After forcing, the pores of the thongs must 
be empty, and they take a long time in 
recruiting." When seed has been sown 
the previous season, the young plants 
should be carefully taken up the . March 
following, preserving their roots with the 
utmost care ; they are then to be planted 
in richly-manured and deeply-trenched 
groimd, in rows 2A feet apart and 15 in- 
ches in the line, if the intention is to take 
them up the following winter for forcing. 
If, however, the crop is planted with a 
view to its remaining several years, either 
to be blanched where it grows, by cover- 
ing with the sea-kale pot and the influ- 
ence of the sun, or to be covered with 
leaves, dung, &c., and excited into growth 
during winter, then the rows should be 
3 feet apart, and the plants set 2 feet 
apart in the row, to allow a full develop- 
ment of the large foliage during summer, 
for on this much of the success of the 
future crops will depend. 

In planting seedlings, as 
the roots have very few 
fibres, they may be set with 
the planter, fig. 38, which 
is a wooden dibber 3| feet 
in length, with a cross- 
handle at top, and another 
cross-piece as a gauge with- 
in from 9 to 12 inches of 
its point, made so as to 
shift to suit the length of 
the roots to be planted, 
which will in general aver- 
sEAKALE DiBBBK. agc ffom 9 luches to a foot. 

Fig. 38. 

The lower part, which is to perforate the 
soil, should be 3| inches in diameter, and 
tapering to 2 inches at the point, which 
should be left obtuse. The holes being 
made by one man using the perforator, 
and being guided by a line, another 
should follow, having, the roots arranged 
with their tops all in one direction ; and 
as the holes are made, he drops a plant 
into each, slightly filling in the soil about 
them with his foot as he progresses. 
From this it will be seen that propaga- 
tion by the root is the most expeditious 
way, giving a saving of time equal to 
one season. 

Subsequent cultivation. — Whether the 
plants are originated from seed, cuttings 
of the roots, or division of these, retaining 
the crowns entire, it is necessary that the 
ground around them should be kept clear 
of weeds, and also that it be repeatedly 
stirred up between the rows, and that not 
in the scufiling manner performed by the 
Dutch hoe, but well roused up by means 
of the Vernon hoe (fig. 3, page 38), 
care being taken that the extending roots 
be not mutilated. In spring, when the 
buds are beginning to break through the 
ground, and also once or twice during 
the growing season, a top-dressing of salt 
should be applied in quantity about 1 lb. 
to the square yard. The crop should be 
gone over in November in Scotland, and 
October in England, at which time the 
offices of most of the leaves will have 
ceased. Those that have changed to a 
yellowish hue may safely be removed as 
no longer useful, and this will admit 
light and air to assist the ripening of the 
buds. Where the beds are not intended 
to be destroyed, and the plants taken up 
for forcing, the ground between them 
should be forked up, and a good dressing 
of rich manure applied in which salt has 
been liberally incorporated. In this state 
the young crop, as well as those intended 
to be blanched without artificial heat, 
should remain till spring. Many recom- 
mend covering this crop with leaves or 
litter as a protection from frost — a recom- 
mendation wholly unnecessary, unless in 
some of the highest and coldest parts of 
Scotland, where such a precaution may 
be worth the trouble : for although the 
plant is a native of our own country, 
still its natural habitat is close to the sea, 
and never inland. What degree of frost 



it may stand without injury has never 
been accurately ascertained. 

A portion, however, of the crops should 
be covered early in November, so that it 
may be got readily at during winter, to 
take up for forcing. Some of the London 
market-gardeners grow their sea-kale for 
permanent crops in rows from 4 to 6 feet 
apart, and in autumn, after the foliage 
has fallen off, they cover the crowns with 
soil dug from the alleys to the depth of a 
foot or 15 inches, by which means they 
procure it finely blanched in spring, and 
at little expense. As soon as this crop 
is cut, they level down the ridges, and 
crop with other things between the rows. 
Remove every flower-spike as it appears, 
for the production of seed is much harder 
upon the energies of the plant than taking 
a crop/rom it. 

Soil and manure. — In a cultivated state, 
sea-kale does not appear to be very par- 
ticular about either, succeeding in most, 
provided the former be sufficiently deep 
and dry at the bottom, and that the latter 
be rich and incorporated with saline mat- 
ter. Deep trenching where the land will 
admit of it is important, and where that 
is not naturally the case it may be ren- 
dered so by excavating broad alleys be- 
tween the beds, and elevating them with 
the material taken out. 

Forcing. — From the middle of Novem- 
ber till it comes into use in the open air, 
this vegetable may be had in great per- 
fection, at a season when other choice 
vegetables are scarce, and this at little 
trouble or expense. In former practice 
it was recommended to force the crop in 
the ground on which it grows ; than this 
there can scarcely be a more unsatisfac- 
tory, uncertain, and expensive process 
recommended. The objections we should 
state are, the waste of manure in pro- 
ducing the necessary heat by fermenta- 
tion, the waste of time in carrying in 
and out, turning over and adding to the 
material, the uncertainty of the heat 
produced, the expense of blanching- pots, 
open wooden cages, or whatever other 
means may be used to separate the fer- 
menting material from the crowns of the 
plants ; the deterioration in flavour, the 
trouble in examining the state of the crop 
and of gathering it, and lastly, the injury 
inflicted on the plants by keeping them 
so long in a state of excitement. To 

avoid much of all this, and at the same 
time to insure a certain return within a 
given time, the best method is to adopt 
the lifting or taking-up process. To pre- 
pare the plants for this, forms, as in the 
case of taking up asparagus, an important 
element in the rotation of crops. Plants 
should be grown for the special purpose : a 
seed-bed should be sown annually, from 
which to transplant the young plants in 
March into lines, in ground deeply 
trenched and abundantly enriched, setting 
them 3 feet apart row from row, and 15 
inches in the line. If these are stimu- 
lated abundantly during the season after 
planting, care being taken that they do 
not form flower-stalks, and that all lateral 
buds are displaced as they appear on the 
sides of the main stems, throwing the 
whole energy of the plant into the centre 
bud or crown, the roots will be in excellent 
condition for taking up for forcing as soon 
as their buds are fully matured, and the 
foliage has died away, which with us, in 
general, is about the beginning of Novem- 
ber. The roots should then be carefully 
taken up, carrying with them as many of 
the small fibres as possible : soil is of 
little consequence, except in so far as it 
may be conducive to the preservation of 
the roots. For although these are not 
much required for the natural purpose of 
collecting food for the plant, under the 
treatment to which they ai-e to be sub- 
jected, they are valuable, inasmuch as 
they, along with the bud and stem, con- 
tain the elaborated matter formed during 
the past summer, and hold it in store for 
the formation of the shoots and leaves, 
which the excitement of a moderate tem- 
perature and slight humidity will call into 
action. The best situation in which to 
place the roots is on the floor of a regular 
mushroom-house, or, in the absence of it, 
the floor of a cellar, outhouse, or enclosed 
shed, into either of which a sHght tem- 
perature can be thrown by means of a 
hot-water pipe or otherwise. The advan- 
tage of such places is, that while the 
necessary heat can be applied, light may 
be sufficiently excluded to insure blanch- 
ing, while air to a certain extent is ad- 
mitted, which is of no small consequence 
to the crop. In such places also the pro- 
gress of the crop can readily be ascer- 
tained, and the gathering effected with 
facility. It matters little what the soil is 



in which the roots are set ; they derive 
no benefit from it further than exclusion 
from light and air, and being kept in a 
state of uniformity as regards moisture. 
This we apply pretty copiously by water- 
ing the roots and soil with tepid water, 
though others object to watering after the 
roots are arranged. In placing the roots, 
they are set closely together, and the soil 
is wrought regularly in amongst them, and 
up to within 2 inches of the tops of the 
crowns. Some, where the demand is not 
very great, place the roots in boxes or large 
flower-pots, which they place in any dark 
and out-of-the-way place ; and in this way 
we have seen as fine blanched sea-kale at 
Christmas, in a wine-cellar in the city of 
London, as we ever saw in any quarter. 
Under the stages in plant-houses, behind 
the flues in early vineries or peach-houses, 
or, indeed, wherever there is a vacant square 
yard of space, this vegetable may be pro- 
duced in perfection. We state these simple 
means, because they are within the reach of 
most or of all, and also with a view to get 
rid of the waste of time and material by at- 
tempting to produce it in the open ground. 
From five to six weeks will be required 
between the time of setting in the roots 
and gathering a dish, in places without 
any artificial heat ; in such as have a 
uniform temperature of from 50° to 60°, 
the time will range from two, three, to 
four weeks, sometimes less. It is, how- 
ever, best to allow excitement to go on 
very slowly, as the shoots will be much 
finer and stronger. When the crops are 
gathered, the old roots are thrown away. 
Those, however, which have been forced 
latest may be out up into pieces of 3 to 
4 inches in length, and planted in lines 
to produce a succeeding supply. Young 
seedling plants are, however, much pre- 

The practice of the London market-gar- 
deners is thus described by Mr Cuthill : 
"When all the frames are removed, the 
dung and mould where cucumbers grew 
during summer are taken away, the 
trenches, which are 2 feet deep, are again 
filled with hot dung, and mould to the 
depth of 8 inches is put on the dung. 
The sea-kale roots are dug up, all the 
small buds round the main eye are pared 
off, leaving that by itself, which induces 
it to push stronger and finer. And now- 
planting is commenced : a furrow is cut 

out by the spade across the bed, and they 
(the roots) are put in as thickly as possi- 
ble. 5 feet across will hold from twenty- 
five to thirty roots ; the next furrow is 
cut out at 4 inches from the last, and so 
on till the whole is finished ; from 4 to 6 
inches of straw is placed immediately on 
the crowns. The beds are hooped over, 
and straw is put over the hoops ; and in 
this way I have seen 50,000 plants forced 
during the winter and spring, and that by 
one man alone." If we calculate that five 
heads are quite ample for an ordinary dish 
suitable to a large family, this grower 
must have himself provided no less than 
10,000 dishes of this excellent vegetable 
by artificial means, and pro'bably double 
that number from the open air. Such 
data will give some idea of the produc- 
tion and consumption of a London mar- 

Forcing the plants where they grow 
requires from six to seven weeks from the 
time they are covered up until the crop 
is fit for gathering. This, however, to 
some extent depends on the season and 
the quality of the fermenting material ; 
and to effect this in the best manner, 
trim off all the decaying leaves from the 
plants, stir the surface up slightly around 
them, sprinkle about a teacupful of salt 
or caustic lime around the crowns, or 
water with lime-water to banish the earth- 
worms, Lumbricus terrestris, L., which are 
apt, upon the application of heat, to throw 
up their casts about the young kale, and 
thus render it very dirty. The same 
means secure the buds from the attacks 
of snails. Helix aspersa, and slugs, Limax 
agrestis, L., the milky-slug, L. ater, L., 
the black slug ; L. Maximus, the black 
striped slug ; and Testacellus scutulum, the 
shield slug, which are all apt to feed upon 
the young buds, and certain to gather 
round them in consequence of the genial 
heat. Over either of these a spadeful of 
clean river or sea sand should be placed, 
or, in default of these, a spadeful of finely- 
sifted coal-ashes, either of which keeps 
the young kale quite clean and fit for 

The sea-kale pots should then be placed 
over them, one pot to a plant, and over 
these the fermenting material, to a depth 
sufiicient to raise a fine genial temperature, 
not, however, exceeding around the pots 
60°; less will do. 




The best kind of sea-kale pot is that 
represented by our fig. 39 ; it consists of 
two parts — a body, a, and a top, b — which 
latter is necessary, as it can be taken off 
to examine the state of the crop, and also 
to gather it without hav- 
ing to remove the whole 
of the material. They 
are of various sizes — from 
10 to 14 inches in dia- 
meter, and from a foot 
to 20 inches in height. 
There are other contri- 
vances to effect a similar 
end, such as boxes per- 
forated with holes, others 
made of 2-inth laths nailed together, and 
about as far apart from each other, the top 
ones being left loose for lifting when the 
crop is to be gathered. Reason points 
out the defects of these, as they do not 
exclude the moisture, accompanied with 
various gases, which are evolved during fer- 
mentation of rank stable-yard litter, and 
which, in many cases, communicate a dis- 
agreeable flavour to the kale. 

Amateurs may readily force sea-kale, if 
they have any dark warm cellar or out- 
house, or one that can be heated to some- 
thing like 55°, in the following manner : — 
Procure an old cask or a large packing- 
box ; perforate the sides of either with 
holes 2| inches in diameter, and about a 
foot apart, making the first row of holes 
a foot from the bottom. Procure the 
roots; divest them, if large, of a few of 
their most extending roots; place them in 
the bottom of the cask or box, with their 
crowns exactly opposite the holes : when 
the first row is thus arranged, pack the 
roots around with sand or soil of any de- 
scription, and work it well amongst them ; 
over this arrange another set of roots in 
like manner; proceed till the box or cask 
is full. Give a gentle watering with tepid 
water as the process of packing proceeds. 
In the course of a fortnight, three weeks, 
or a month, according to the heat in the 
apartment, the young buds will begin to 
protrude through the holes, and in another 
week or so many of them will be fit to 
cut for use. 

As a general rule, avoid a high tem- 
perature, whatever method is followed ; 
from 55° to 60° is the proper heat to 
secure a certain return. 

Taking the crop.- — When the kale is from 

3 to 6 inches in length, it is then in the 
most proper state for use. Each bud 
should be cut off with a sharp knife, 
taking about a quarter of an inch of 
the crown attached to its base to keep it 
together in compact form. This portion 
of the old crown is to be neatly pared 
down close to the part where the young 
sprout springs from, the kale dipped in 
clear water to remove any dust that may 
have attached itself to it in the process of 
gathering, and then be placed in a pun- 
net-basket, of which fig. 35 is an example. 
If to be sent to a distance, it is best tied 
up in small bundles, which prevents the 
tops from being broken. From four 
to six buds make a dish. Three stout 
plants will produce about five dishes in 
a season when forced, and an ordinary 
managed plantation in the open air will 
continue in bearing about six weeks. 
There is only one variety known. 


Natural history. — Borecole {Brassicm oleracea 
sabellica, De C), a family of the Brassicae tribe 
both useful and numerous. The chief charac- 
teristic of the borecoles is that they are open- 
headed, not hearting like the cabbages, nor pro- 
ducing eatable flowers, like the cauliflower and 
broccoli. They are for the most part extremely 
hardy, and we entertain a strong notion that 
some of them are very early removes from the 
Brassicce oleracea in its wild state. Some of the 
sorts are much cultivated in the north of Scot- 
land, a circumstance arising from their hardy 
constitution, for, deprive them of that, and those 
varieties to which we allude have not a redeem- 
ing quality — ill-coloured, coarse, rambling-grow- 
ing subjects, requiring long boiling and a strong 
digestion. Prejudice, we believe, continues the 
cultivation of those over that of one of the very 
best of the family, the German greens or Scotch 
curlies, which we believe to be equally hardy. 
They all belong to the same natural order, to 
the same class and order in the Linnjean ar- 
rangement as the rest of the esculents comprised 
in this chapter. Borecoles, in one shape or other, 
are cultivated in every country where attention 
has been paid to the rest of the Brassioaceous 

Uses. — The crown or centre of the plant is 
cut out towards the middle of November, and 
continues to be used throughout the whole 
winter, while in spring numerous small delicate 
sprouts are formed, which are acceptable at 
that season. When properly cooked, they are 
tender, sweet, and delicate, and are by some 
supposed to become intenerated after being 
exposed to the frost. The coarser sorts may 
be thus improved, the better sorts do not require 



it. The young tops of the Buda kale are some- 
times, in spring, blanched by turning a flower-pot 
over it ; or better, by placing a sea-kale pot on 
it ; or the roots may be taken up any time dur- 
ing winter, and planted in a bed of soil in a 
dark cellar, and treated as has been recom- 
mended for sea-kale. The bulbs, like turnips, 
found on the surface of the Egyptian kale or 
kohl-rabi, are stewed, boiled, and mashed like 
turnips, and sometimes sliced in some German 
salads. The tender tops of the others are served 
to table plain boiled, as a garnish for meat, and 
should assuredly accompany it in the popular 
Scotch winter dish "beef and greens." They 
enter largely into soups, and form an ingredient 
as essential in the national dish, " the kail-brose 
of old Scotland," as horse-radish does in that 
of " the roast-beef of old England." Scotch 
greens are often mashed with butter and pepper, 
and served in imitation of spinach, and, like it, 
garnished with hard-boiled eggs. 

Propagation. — Most of the varieties, 
being annuals or biennials, are propagated 
by seed ; those that are perennial or 
half shrubby, like the Woburn kale, are 
increased by cuttings, and some may be 
grafted on other sorts, {vide art. Propaga- 
tion BT Grafting). One ounce of seed is 
sufficient to sow a bed of 40 square feet. 

Sowing. — The latter end of March, in 
April, the first week in May, and lastly, 
about the 12th of August, are the sea- 
sons adapted to England ; for Scotland, 
generally ten days earlier in each case. 
For the most part, however, those sown 
about the beginning of August, in the 
North, stand over winter, and are trans- 
planted in spring. The English sow Ger- 
man greens, or, as they call them, Scotch 
kale, during the first week in April. In 
the last week in August a sowing is made 
of Buda kale, to be transplanted before 
the 1st of October, to furnish a late crop 
of greens in spring. 

The method of sowing, &c., is the same 
as for savoys (which see). 

Subsequent culture. — The same as for sa- 
voys. In all cold exposed places, and where 
much snow is expected, it is expedient to 
lay them over in November, as recom- 
mended for broccoli, as their leaves are 
very liable to become broken by the 
weight of snow, particularly the taUer- 
growing kinds. 

Soil and manure. — The borecoles being 
of less luxuriant habits, and it being also 
desirable that they should stand the 
winter, the soil need not be so highly 
manured as for the other varieties of 
Brassicse. Where the ground is not re- 


quired for other crops or purposes, they 
may be made to succeed the summer pea 
crops, and, indeed, if ground be scarce, 
may be planted between the rows of late 
pease, or interlined with potatoes. 

Approved sorts a/nd their qualities. — Great 
confusion exists in this section of the Brassicae, 
probably arising from the circumstance that 
the cultivation of them is for the most part 
local, those that are grown in one part of the 
kingdom being almost unknown in other parts. 
Although we have been engaged for some years 
proving various sections of culinary vegetables, 
we have not as yet had time to bestow the 
same attention on the present section; and 
rather than mislead, we shall quote the substance 
of an excellent paper by Mr Thompson, being 
the results of his experiments carried on in the 
garden of the Horticultural Society of London, 
where an immense number of sorts by name 
were grown together, to enable him to draw 
the conclusions regarding their nomenclature 
and merits ; and certainly to no one better 
qualified could such an' experiment have been 
intrusted. Mr Thompson begins by observing 
that " the varieties of these are endless : they 
differ in having stems dwarf or tall, leaves more 
or less cut or curled; in colour, green, purple, or 
variegated with purple, red, green, and yellow. 
The transformations of all these render any 
attempt to give minute descriptions quite useless. 
It will be sufficient to point out the general 
characters of varieties that may be usefidly dis- 
tinguished as such. 

" Dwarf green curled, or dwarf curled kale, 
dwarf German greens, very dwarf green curled, 
dwarf winter curled, Scotch kale, green Scotch 
kale, dwarf curlies, French dwarf curled, Canada 
dwarf curled, Labrador kale, green borecole, and 
dwarf green borecole. By one or other of the 
above names this is certainly known to every 
one. The Canada dwarf curled was found to 
represent exactly the finest dwarf ourhes grown 
many years ago in many parts of Scotland, the 
plants being very dwarf and closely curled. 

" Tall green curled, or tall German greens, 
tall Scotch kale, tall green borecole, and tall 
greens," with a host of French and German 
synonymes, for in both countries they are ex- 
tensively cultivated. " Height usually from 2 
to 3 feet, but 2 feet is the preferable growth. 
The plants are capable of bearing severe frost, 
and, like the preceding, it affords the best 
greens from the time when the first frost has 
mellowed its flavour, until the middle of Feb- 

" Purple borecole, or purple or red borecole, 
tall purple kale, purple winter greens, brown 
kale, purple kale, curled brown kale, curled red 
kale. This in its formation and habits differs 
little from the tall green curled, but the colour 
is deep purple. As the leaves enlarge, they 
have an inclination to become green, but the 
veins still retain the purple hue. 

" Variegated borecole, or variegated kale, varie- 
gated plumage kale," with various French and 
German synonymes. " A sub-variety of the 
purple borecole, having the leaves beautifully 




variegatedjSometimesgreeu and yellowisli white, 
green and purple, bright red, purple and green. 
It is occasionally employed for garnishing, but 
it is very good cooked after frost. It is not 
quite so hardy as the purple borecole. 

" Dwarf purple borecole and the dwarf varie- 
gated we merely sub-varieties of the two pre- 
ceding, distinguished by their dwarfer habit of 

" Buda hale, or Prussian kale, Prussian or 
Buda kale, Buda greens, Eussian kale, Ham- 
burg kale, Anjou kale, Manchester kale, aspara- 
gus kale, Duke of York's kale, Camberwell kale ; 
and so closely alUed as not to be worth dis- 
tinguishing from it are, the Jerusalem kale, 
Delaware greens, Delaware kale, ragged Jack, 
jagged kale, and the dwarf feathered kale. The 
Buda kale is not so tall as the purple borecole ; 
very hardy; leaves purpUsh, somewhat glaucous; 
cut and fringed. 

" Wohurn perennial kale. — This is a tall va- 
riety of the purple borecole, with foliage very 
finely divided and fringed. The plant lasts 
many years, and may be propagated by cuttings, 
as it neither flowers readily nor perfects well 
its seeds. Its produce at Woburu is stated to 
have been more than four times greater than 
either that of the green or purple borecoles, on 
the same extent of ground. The weight of pro- 
duce from 10 square yards was 144 lb. 10 oz., 
but some of the largo kinds of cabbages and 
savoys will exceed this considerably, and prove 
of better quality. The Wobum perennial kale 
can, therefore, only be recommended where the 
climate is too severe for the more tender kinds 
of the cabbage tribe. 

" Tree cabbage, or great cow cabbage. Cesarean 
borecole," with many French and German syno- 
nymes. " This grows to the height of 6 feet, and 
in La Vendee and Jersey it is reported that it 
attains the height of 12 feet and upwards. The 
leaves are large, smooth, or but slightly curled ; 
its sprouts are said to be good when cooked. 
Its merits have, however, been greatly over- 
rated, for when tried [in England] against" other 
cabbages, its produce was nothing extraordinary. 

" The thousand-headed cabbage is allied to the 
preceding, but does not grow so tall, and sends 
out numerous side-shoots. On the whole, it is 
preferable to the tree cabbage. 

" Flanders hale is a tall-growing kind, distin- 
guished from the tree cabbage by its purplish 

"Cockscomb kale produces sprouts along the 
ribs on the surface of the leaves, but it is of 
little value." 

To these kales we may add the imperial heart- 
ing or cabbaging kale ; and we believe the Ger- 
man cabbaging borecole of some seed-Usts to be 
the same. It appears to be a sub- variety of the 
dwarf green curled, dwarf in growth, the leaves 
standing nearly upright, turning in slightly to- 
wards the centre, finely curled, and of great ex- 
cellence as a small delicate variety. 

The palm borecole is a tall rambling kale of no 
estimation in Britain. It is cultivated in many 
gardens in France under the name of Chou Pal- 

The Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinenm L.), 

although recognised as a species by botanists, 
has much the appearance of being connected with 
both the cabbage and the turnip. It is an annual 
of rapid growth, for, if sown at midsummer, it 
wiU ripen seed the same season. It is cultivated 
insomeofthe gardens around Paris, and has been 
tried in the Horticultural Society's garden at 
Chiswick ; the results, however, lead to a behef 
that it is not suited to the cUmate of Britain. 

The khol-rabi, or turnip-rooted cabbage {Brassi- 
ca oleracea Caulo-rafa commwnis De C.)^ — Of this 
there are two varieties, the one having the tur- 
nip-shaped bulb, of a pale-greenish colour ; the 
other of a purplish-plum colour. The plant is 
of low growth. The part chiefly used is a tur- 
nip-looking bulb, formed by the swelling of the 
stem, which is short. It is extremely hardy, 
and much grown in the north of Europe, where 
the bulb is dressed whole, and eaten with sauce 
or with meat, as turnips usually are. The seed 
should be sown on a warm border in February 
or March, and planted out when the plants have 
attaiaed the height of 6 or 7 inches. For suc- 
cessional crops, sow again in April and May ; the 
latter will produce plants for winter use. It 
should be eaten while young, as it becomes hard 
and stringy, and does not boU soft if left to be- 
come old. 

Diseases and insects. — Amongst the diseases 
that affect the brassioaceous tribe is the white 
rust, called by many the mildew, perhaps on 
account of its white appearance. The white 
rust is even more formidable than the mildew. 
Both are fangi, and although deriving their 
origin from nearly the same causes, are different 
in their botanical as well as their injurious dis- 
tinctions. The common white rust (Cyspopus 
candidus of Greville, Uredo Candida of Persoon) 
produces a white leprous appearance on the 
leaves of the plants. These white patches of 
parasitic fungi not only disfigure but materially 
injure the plants, as all parasites must do, 
whether of vegetable or animal origin, because 
they derive their very , existence by exhausting 
the energies of the plant. Again, there is the 
Botrytis parasitica, which, in mild winters, sadly 
destroys the foliage of brassicaceous plants, and 
often attacks them while quite young. A third 
production of this kind, but happily of much 
rarer occurrence, has recently been discovered 
travelling, as it were, southward. This is Cylinr 
drosporium concentricum, figured nearly thirty 
years ago by Dr Greville, and at that time 
abounding in the vicinity of Edinburgh, and de- 
tected by several botanists. Its first detection in 
England was only in 1850, and that no farther 
south than Northamptonshire. It spreads rapidly 
over the surface of the upper and under side of 
the leaves of most of the BrassicsB,the cauliflower 
in particular. These parasitics have been mi- 
nutely examined by the Eev. M. J. Berkeley, 
A.M., F.L.S., an acute observer in these mat- 
ters, and are pronounced by him to have no 
affinity with the genus Uredo, and still less with 
the parasitic moulds to which mildew properly 
belongs. These humble means at the disposal of 
a supreme Being, insignificant as they may appear 
even when viewed under the power of the best 



microscopes, are often a scourge to man. Whole 
crops of Brassicae have often been completely 
destroyed by their united force. The only re- 
medy at present known is caustic lime in fine 
powder, or clarified lime-water, administered to 
the plants upon the first appearance of the 
fungi, and continued vigorously until its disap- 
pearance. An interesting account of these pa- 
rasites -will be found in the third volume and 
also in the sixth volume of the " Journal of the 
London Horticultural Society," to which the 
cryptogamic reader is respectfully referred. The 
EryHphe comimmis (Link, common mildew) is 
often found on the leaves, more especially in 
dry weather, for which an efficient remedy has 
been discovered in flowers of sulphur, thrown 
over the plants by one of the newly-invented 

The most fatal disease, however, the Brassioa 
family is liable to, is what is called the club in 
the root, from the many swellings or tubercles 
formed upon it, varying in size from half an inch 
in diameter to two or three. This is the pro- 
duction of the larvse of Ov/rcidio contractus of 
Marsham, which, piercing the skin of the root, 
deposits its eggs in the hole, lives during a time 
on the sap of the plant, and then escapes and 
buries itself for a time in the soil. Frequent 
transplanting seems to be the first remedy, be- 
cause by it the plants acquire numerous roots 
to throw strength into the plant ; the next is to 
draw up every plant affected, and consign it to 
the flames ; the third is next to useless, namely, 
cutting off the protuberances and retaining the 
plants. The first has this advantage, that whUe 
it greatly encourages lateral roots, the grub pre- 
ferring those that are ramose, parts of these may 
be removed, while, at the same time, the others 
are throwing in support to the plant, enabling it 
to outgrow the disease. Renewal of soil is im- 
portant, while the application of the whole list 
of mineral manures has not had the desired 
effect. Guano, placed in the holes at planting, 
has been found beneficial In new soil this 
disease seldom appears. — {Vide section Turnip.) 

Snails and slugs are destructive to all the 
Brassica in a young state ; but as a good dust- 
ing of caustic lime so completely annihilates 
them, and a man can go over several acres 
per day sovring it broadcast, we do not see why 
we should occupy space with, or impose upon our 
readers the expense of any other remedy. Slug- 
picking and snaU-hunting has been a stereot^ed 
recommendation since the days of Mascall ; it is 
not in accordance with the intelligence of the 
present day. 

Tipiila okracew, crane-fly, known in England 
as gaffer long-legs, and in Scotland as daddy long- 
legs, is very destructive to most of the Brassicas 
in its larva state. The larva is easily known by 
its long cylindrical body being destitute of feet. 
The cognomen of long-legs is taken from the in- 
sect in its more perfect state. It appears that the 
best way of capturing it is by setting traps of 
slices of turnip, potatoes, &c., fixed to a wooden 
skewer, and sunk a few inches under the surface 
of the ground. The larvae wiU be attracted by 
them, and if they are pulled up every other 
day, thousands of them may be found attached 

to the baits, and can be readily scraped off and 
burnt, while the same baits may be reset. 

Fig. 40. 


Against the attacks of such multitudes of 
obscure enemies — and those we have noticed as 
chiefiy feeding upon the cabbage tribe are as 
nothing compared with the millions of millions 
that prey upon other productions of his care — 
all the boasted intelligence of man would not 
enable him to contend, were it not that nature 
has so beautifully arranged it that one species 
of insect is made to feed on another, and thus 
keep up the balance in regard to their numbers 
and effects. Birds are great destroyers of in- 
sects at all times, but more especially in those 
stages of their existence when they are most 
destructive to vegetation ; these, therefore, 
should rather be encouraged than destroyed. 
All crops can be easily protected from them 
during the time the seed is coming to maturity, 
or fruit ripening. Late frosts, hurtful in them- 
selves to vegetation, are equally so to newly- 
hatched insects ; and much of the damage laid 
to easterly winds and spring frosts may, upon 
strict inquiry, be found rather to arise from 
these minute enemies. To this we will have 
occasion to refer at some length in the fruit- 
garden department. Inundations during winter 
do much to thin insects in their subterranean 
retreats ; and this points out to us the utility, 
where it can be applied, of irrigation, or indeed, 
laying the ground for a week during winter 
under water. Some of the most despised mam- 
malia — the mole for example — are insectivorous, 
and destroy many of our enemies, the larvae of 
wireworms being to that animal a savoury meal. 
So much satisfied are we of their assistance in this 
respect, that we rather encourage than destroy 
them. Amongst insects themselves, the genus 
Carabidse, or ground beetles, destroy the pupae 
of moths and butterflies while buried in the 
ground. Many of the winged insects actually 



lay fheir own eggs in the bodies of living cater- 
pillars, and hence cause their destruction. 
But of all others, the very numerous family 
of Ichneumonidse ars the greatest destroyers, 
amounting in species to above 1300, the females 
of all of which deposit their eggs in the bodies 
of other insects. Ants, not very troublesome 
in themselves, destroy aphides in vast numbers, 
and could we induce them to take up their 
abode iu a border of cauliflower or early cab- 
bage, the Aphis brasdae would sustain a severe 

Catching moths and butterflies is a wholesale 
mode of lessening the number of forthcoming 
caterpillars. Searching for chrysalides during 
winter, and dusting the crops infested vrith 
caterpillars, are the most rational means of rid- 
ding our kitchen-gardens of such pests ; and to 
those means we may add cutting off the infested 
leaves, pulling up the roots whiclr they have 
perforated, and consigning them to the flames, 
which is of vast importance, and, if persevered 
in, would almost clear the ground in a season 
or two. Trapping by placing slices of turnip, 
carrot, or potato attached to a skewer, and 
taking them up every other day and destroying 
the insects attached, is a most eflectual method. 
But these or any other means, if not persevered 
in, will be as completely useless as all the nos- 
trums recommended either in past or present 
times. Stimulants such as guano assist in msh- 
ing the plants forward, and hence enable them 
better to withstand the attacks of insects. 
Spirit of tar mixed with the soil destroys them 
by insinuating its penetrating poison through 
their hardest covering ; and rape-cake has been 
found efficacious in a more extraordinary man- 
ner, the pupa feeding kinds devouring it until 
they die of repletion. Any or all of these may 
be tried with efiect in the preservation of brassi- 
caoeous crops, but, we repeat, they must be ap- 
plied in sufficient quantity and persevered in. 

The cabbage moth (^Mamestra brassiece, or Noc- 
tua brassiccB of some entomologists.) — During the 
evenings about the latter part of May, the moth 
in its perfect state may be seen flying about in 
the neighbourhood of cabbage-beds, and in July, 
August, and September, in its caterpillar state, 
will be found committing sad havoc in the heart 
of the fall-growing cabbages, as well as on the 
leaves of those less farther advanced. "The 
moth measures about IJ-inch from tip to tip of 
the fore-wings, which are dusky brown, clouded 
with darker shades, and marked with pairs of 
dark spots on their front edge ; from these 
spots proceed the streaks which mark the wings 
across; there are various spots on the wings, 
some yellowish, and those in the middle sur- 
rounded with white, the kidney-shaped one 
with a whitish grey crescent around it, and 
blackish beyond ; the wings have a grey yellow- 
ish-striped fringe, and near this, at the point 
farthest from the body, they have a row of 
black triangular marks; the hind wings are 
light-brownish grey, with dark veins ; the body 
and head are of various shades of blackish grey, 
with a darker stripe of the same colour down 
the centre of the back. The caterpillar is green, 
variously marked with grey or black, with a 

dark stripe down the back, and a dirty-yellow 
one down each side. The (spiracles) breath- 
ing-holes are white, surrounded with black, and 

Fig. 41. 


close above the yellow stripe. They bury them- 
selves underground, and remain in the pupa 
or chrysalis state all winter." — Cottage Gardener, 
vol, ii. p. 83. 

Fig. 41 shows the perfect moth and the grub. 

The white line brown-eyed moth, Mamestra 
or Noctua oleracea, is another enemy of the 
cabbage tribe. For figure and description, see 
section Tuenip. 

Aphis brassiocB (common cabbage-louse), fig. 
42, the winged male, and 43, wingless female, is 

Fig. 42. 


injurious in dry seasons. Dusting the plants 
■with black hellebore, Scotch snuff, caustic hme in 
powder, are the usual 
remedies. They usually Fig. 43. 

appear in greatest num- 
bers from the middle of 
July to the end of No- 
vember, and are found 
generally on the under 
sides of the leaves, the 
females being surround- 
ed with their young 
broods, while the males 
are to be seen wander- 
ing about, no doubt in 
search of mates. The 
male is pea-green ; the ^^^„^^^ ^,^,^_ 

head, collar, and back of wingless female. 



the body black; horns seven -jointed; trunk 
irregularly spotted with palish black ; nervures 
of wings dark brownish-black; legs black; base 
of thighs greenish. The female is of a yellowish- 
green and mealy white, spotted with black ; 
body large and heavy; legs black; base of thighs 
green ; horns shorter than in the male; the two 
first joints are green, while the third is ochreous ; 
eyes, four in number, two large ones in the head, 
and two smaller on the collar. 

The Powtia brassicm. — Well known as the large 
white garden butterfly, fig. 44, vfith black tips 

Fig. 44. 

of the second, green, with small yellow rings on 
the sides of the body ; and of the third, green, 
but striped down the back and sides with orange. 

Fig. 46. 


a caterpillar ; b chrysalis ; c butterfly. 

to its wings ; produces the equally well known 
green caterpUlar, so often found upon the cab- 
bage tribe in all stages of their growth. The 
caterpillars may readily be destroyed, and by 
doing so the increase of following years is 
greatly diminished, by dusting the plants over, 
twice a-day, as long as the insects appear, with 
finely-powdered caustic lime, shaken from a thin 
canvass bag, or by watering them over head with 
clarified lime-water. 

And associated with it are Pontia napi, fig. 45, 
and Pontia rapes, fig. 46, the small white-and- 
Fig. 45. 


a caterpillar ; b chrysalis ; c butterfly. 

green veined garden butterfly. The caterpillar 
of the first is greenish-yellow, with black spots ; 


a caterpUlar ; b clirysalis ; e butterfly. 

When fully grown, they retire to some sheltered 
dry place, and change into the chrysalis state, 
ready again in spring to change into their but- 
terfly state, to lay their eggs, and produce a fresh 
breed of caterpillars. 

The cabbage powder-wmged moth (Aleyrodes 
proletella L. — the Aleyrodes elielidonii of Lat- 
reille) often commits sad havoc amongst the 
cabbage and broccoli crops in its fly state 
during the month of November. They begin to 
make their appearance in May, and live under 
the leaves where they are hatched, abounding 
during the months of June, July, and August. 
They are thus described in " Gardeners' Chro- 
nicle " for 1851, p. 837 : " The aleyrodes is a 
minute fly, covered with white powder. The 
females have been observed about midsummer 
to remain quite quiet on a leaf for several days 
when about to lay their eggs ; and when they 
had left the spot where they had rested, a small 
circular space covered with white powder was 
observable, around which were irregularly de- 
posited from 9 to 14 eggs. These eggs are 
transparent, but afterwards turning to a yellow- 
ish tint. They hatch in about 12 days, and the 
young larvse immediately run a short distance 
to spread themselves more about the leaf, but 
in a few hours a scale is formed over them, so 
that they look like little tortoises or cocci, and 
exhibit no signs of life. The colour is almost 
white, with two yellow spots behind. They are 
not absolutely stationary, but only move very 
short distances as they increase in size, being 
furnished with six pectoral legs. The perfect 
insect is covered with white powder, the head 
and thorax black, variegated with yellow ; the 
eyes divided and black ; the antennse nearly as 
long as the thorax, slender, and five-jointed ; 
first basal joint stout, second very long, third and 
fourth shorter, the remainder slender ; the ros- 
trum bent under the breast in repose; stout, 
biarticulate, with two very fine bristles passing 
through ; the thorax sub-globose, the collar 
short, with three black spots; abdonien short, 
yellow or rosy ; the apex obtuse and dark ; wings 
forming a triangle in repose, and more or less 
deflexed, pure white, mealy ; superior wings 



largest, with a single nervure curved at the 
centre, where there is an obscure black fascid, 
with a black spot at the extremity; inferior 
wings smaller, with a central longitudinal nerv- 
ure ; six legs, rather long, black, and powdered 
with white; feet long, and composed of two 
equal joints, terminated with two very fine 
curved claws, with a hook between them. These 
little creatures seem not only to withstand the 
cold, but even to multiply during the winter ; 
for Eeaumur says he found them in every state 
. in December and January, as he had done in 
summer ; and this wUl account for their extra- 
ordinary increase, which, from the small num- 
ber of eggs laid by each female, appears at first 
to be inexplicable. Moreover, in less than a 
month the insects undergo all their changes — 
from the deposition of the egg to the pairing of 
the perfect progeny ; it is therefore possible to 
have twelve generations in a, year. Reaumur 
calculated that a single female might, in the 
course of a year, give origin to 200,000 descen- 

The best mode of lessening their numbers is 
to gather the infected leaves during winter and 
spring and burn them. Any choice plant at- 
tacked by them might be fumigated with tobacco 
smoke ; and, indeed, small crops might be covered 
with canvass, and undergo the same operation ; 
but such and all other means hitherto tried 
would be impossible with crops upon a large 
scale, as the brassioaceous tribe in general are. 

In some seasons they are more destructive 
than in others, and would become a frightful 
scourge to man, were it not that they have their 
natural enemies in a species of Cynips, and one 
also of Acarus, which feed upon them. 

Anthomyia irassicce of Bouche (the cabbage- 
fly).— The larvse of this insect live underground, 
in the roots and stems of most of the Brassica 
tribe, eating passages through them, and causing 
them to rot. It is one of the most destructive of 
insects, and is thus described in " Gardeners' 
Chronicle," 1841, by the authority above cited : 
"The male is darker, but of a brighter grey, with 
black bristles ; there is a black stripe half-way 
down the middle of the thorax, and a curved one 
on each side ; the body has a more decided black 
stripe down the centre, and the segments are 
marked by a line of the same colour ; legs and 
antennae blackish ; wings a little smoky. The 
female is pale ashy grey ; the eyes remote, with 
a dark chestnut-coloured stripe on the crown ; 
the wings are similar in tint to those of the 
foregoing species, but 
Fig. 47. the insect is considerar 

bly smaller, and this is 
the only striking difie- 
rence between the fe- 


Ceutorhynchus sulci- 
collis of Gyllenhal, fig. 
47, the Curculio pleuro- 
stigma of Marsham, de- 
posits its eggs beneath 
the outer covering of 
the stems of cabbages, 
as may be discovered 
during winter and 

spring by the appearance of numerous galls or 
small excrescences covering the stems close to the 
ground. Those are produced by the deposition 
of the eggs of this insect. On opening these 
galls, a small white maggot wiU be found within, 
without legs, the body bemg curved and fieshy, 
the head is palish orange, with chestnut-coloured 
jaws, the tips of which are black, as are also the 
two small eyelets, one on each side of the head. 
These larvje, when fully grown, quit the galls 
and secret themselves in the soil, and remain 
there to undergo their transformation, first to 
the pupa state, and next to the perfect weevil, 
being about one-eighth of an inch long, of a 
black shining colour, slightly covered with grey- 
ish hair, the head and pro-thorax coarsely punc- 
tured ; the cases of the wings have ten lines 
impressed on each, the interstices rough, the 
under side of the body covered with scales of a 
buff colour. The best remedy in the case of 
young plants is, as soon as the galls appear, to 
puU them up and bum them, by which means a 
riddance is made of the brood. To cut off these 
galls weakens the plants greatly. It is much 
the safest way to bum the plants at once. 

Amongst other insect enemies that attack the 
cabbage tribe, we have reason to suspect one or 
two species of 
Fig. 48. lulus (snake mO- 

lipedes), fig. 48, 
as they are often 
found in great 
numbers buried 
in and feeding 
upon the roots 
in a putrescent 
state. They may 
be detected in 
spring, in the roots of such cabbages as have sud- 
denly died when about half-grown. When in that 
state, if the plants are pulled up, the roots will be 
foimd in a state of decay just under the surface 
of the soil, and in the decayed part multitudes of 
millipedes will be found. The editor of the 
"Cottage Gardener" queries their beingthe cause, 
and remarks, vol. ii. p. 139, "The question 
arises, Is this insect the cause of the disease by 
wounding and eating the bark of the plant ? or 
does the parent wound the bark, depositing her 
eggs in the wound, and when wet, and the irri- 
tation produced by the larva;, complete the fatal 
wounding? or does the decay first arise, and 
then this millipede comes to it to feed upon the 
putrid part, and the mites (Acari), which fre- 
quent the places where decaying vegetable 
matter occurs?" This question appears as yet 
undecided. Mr Johnston's opinion is quite in 
accordance with our own, namely, that this 
" lulus does not attack the cabbage whilst this 
is healthy, but that the wound may be occa- 
sioned by the parent millipede, and that the 
young ones feed on the mites which frequent 
the decaying wound. The millipede, IuIvls pul- 
chellus," represented in our figure, " which is 
oftenest met with in these circumstances, is 
of a sandy-grey colour, having on each side a row 
of small crimson spots. The number of legs 
varies with the age of the insect, but the great- 
est number observed in lulus pulchellus has 


Natural size and magnified. 



been about 170. When disturbed, it coils itself 
round in the way represented in fig. 48. It haa 
been found in decayed onions and pansy roots, 
as well as in cabbage stems. Quick-lime and 
gas-lime, incorporated with the BoU, destroy or 
drive away these creatui-es." 

The cabbage is also infested by the Altica 
consobrina, or blue cabbage-fly, or flea-beetle, 
attacking the leaves; Anthomyia trimaculata, 
destroying the roots ; Altica concinna, the brassy 
cabbage-flea; Ya7iessa fluctuata, the caterpillars 
of which feed on cabbage-leaves. 

Saving seed. — The whole of the Brassicse 
are liable to change when grown from seed. 
They cross with each other so freely that it is 
scarcely possible to save the seed of any one 
variety with a certainty that seedlings from 
it will invariably come the same as the parent. 
Certain winged insects, such as bees, engaged in 
sucking the honey-like matter contained in the 
nectary, am appendage to the flower known to 
secret honey, and which is strongly exemplified in 
many cruciform flowers, to which tribe the Bras- 
sicse belong, carry the pollen or fertilising dust 
from one flower to another, and thus become the 
agents of nature in the creation of cross breeds, 
for hybrids or mules we cannot call them. Nor 
is it only in the same garden that these causes of 
intermixture take place; they extend over much 
greater surfaces — often to the extent of a mile or 
more ; and although we know that such do exist, 
we do not always know when and where they 
take place. It is impossible to save several 
kinds of brassicaceous seeds pure in the same 
garden, although Knight and others attempted 
this by covering over the flowers with fine gauze 
netting, and even by castrating the flowers when 
artificial impregnations of opposite plants were in 
course of experiment. It is, therefore, folly in 
people to save their own seed, unless their garden 
is far isolated from all others, as well as from 
fields where brassicaceous plants are cultivated. 
It would be, in a sense, foreign to our present 
purpose to follow this very interesting question 
further ; we will direct our attention now to 
the best means of saving seed, presuming only 
one sort is saved in the same garden within the 
same year. 

Cabbage-seed. — Select some of the best-formed 
specimens of the sort to be saved. They may 
either remain in the place where they have been 
growing, provided the climate is good, or the 
roots may be taken up and planted in the best 
situation the garden affords. In very cold and 
wet localities they should be planted at the 
bottom of a south wall, and when replanted 
should be set so deep in the ground that only 
a few inches of the stem may appear above 
ground. In spring they shoot up, and during 
summer the flower-stem is formed, and the 
flowers produced. The side branches of the 
stem should be cut away, as it has been proved 
by Bastion that the middle flower-stem pro- 
duces the best seeds, and that plants produced 
from them are much earlier, and more perfect in 
character, than are those produced from the side 
or lateral branches of the flower-stem. No doubt 
it would be of use as a precaution to cover the 

flower-stem, as soon as the flowers began to 
open, with fine gauze netting, were it only to 
protect them from the operations of the bees 
and other winged insects. Flower-stems from 
the sprouts should not be allowed to exist. In 
a few days after the flowers begin to open, im- 
pregnation takes place ; after that the covering 
may be removed, for no spurious impregnation 
can take place afterwards. Great cai;e should 
be taken that the flower-stems are supported so 
as to prevent their being broken by wind or 
otherwise, and also that the seed is allowed to 
ripen thoroughly. To secure such, it will be 
necessary, as soon as the seed pods are formed, 
to cover them with netting, so as to exclude 
birds from them, and also that the stalks should 
be out before the pods begin to open and shed 
their seed. All this may be considered trouble, 
but without such precautions no dependence 
can be placed on the purity of the stock. Com- 
mon seed-growers do not bestow this attention, 
because, at the miserably low price at which all 
kinds of seeds are now sold, it would not re- 
munerate them. They do their best, at least 
such of them as have a character to maintain. 
They visit their stock-farms frequently, and 
weed out all inferior plants, and do their best 
to secure a fair sample. They also avoid grow- 
ing plants of the same natural order near to each 
other, unless it be such as do not flower at ex- 
actly the same time. The critical period may, 
in a general way, be embraced within the space 
of a week, and there are several of the Brassicse 
that do not perfect their flowers within that 
period, and hence such may be grown side by 
side. Such, however, as experience has taught 
the seed-growers flower at the same time are 
grown on separate farms, or else they confine 
themselves to a less extended number of sorts, 
and occupythe ground with pease, beans, carrots, 
&o., from which there is no fear of contamination. 
Some, upon a small scale, plant their varieties 
of Brassicse on spots in the centre of com or 
other grain fields, and this greatly lessens the 
chances of intermixture. Seed-saving in private 
gardens is by no means a profitable speculation ; 
yet from the frequent disappointments we meet 
with, we are often driven to it as a measure of 
necessity. A superior stock of Brussel sprouts, 
or of Walcheren broccoli, or of a favourite cab- 
bage, is of too much importance to lose wan- 
tonly. Here, however, there is the consolation 
that as the seeds of most of the Brassicse will 
keep good for six or eight years, and even longer, 
we can save Brussels sprouts one year, Wal- 
cheren broccoli the next, and so on, including 
those other sorts that do not flower at the same 
time. The seed, when ripened, keeps best in the 
straw (using the phraseology of the trade), and 
where there is accommodation this may be done ; 
otherwise, the seed may be thrashed out when 
ripe, and kept in paper or canvass bags in a dry 
airy seed-room. It is of advantage to the seed, 
and a precaution against weevils, to examine 
the seed three or four times during the year, 
and to turn it out into a seed-sieve which has 
been already rubbed over with salad oil, and to 
toss the seed about in it until the skin receive a 
slight coating of th? oily matter, which will pre- 



vent the weevils from attacking it, and, by ex- 
cluding the air, tend to prolong the vegetative 
properties of the seed. All the BrassiciB seed 
is better of being kept for a time, for reasons 
elsewhere given. 

Brussels sprouts. — It is usual to save the seed 
indiscriminately from the flowers which proceed 
from the crown of the plant, as well as those 
which issue from the side sprouts. In both 
there is a difference. The experiments, in this 
respect, which we have been engaged in for 
some time, are not yet sufficiently matured to 
warrant us in oflering an opinion, which may 
some day be considered rather novel. Dr Van 
Mons of Brussels held the opinion that seed 
saved from the crowns or tops was preferable to 
such as originated from the side sprouts. 

CavXiflower and broccoli. — Both require a warm 
sheltered situation, yet one fully exposed to the 
sun — the former in particular ; and hence its 
seed is seldom well ripened in Scotland ; indeed, 
our best seed comes from Holland. The very 
finest and most perfectly formed heads should 
be selected, carefully taken up, and replanted. 
In spring, when the broccoli flowers begin to 
expand, the centre part should be cut out, leav- 
ing only five or six of the outside flower-shoots 
to come to seed. Transplanting the old stems 
from where they grew to where they are to pro- 
duce their seed, is thought greatly to improve 
its quality. By the check the plant gets during 
the operation, it is so far weakened that it 
is not so apt to button, or even prematurely 
to flower ; nor so likely otherwise to degenerate 
as it would be, if continued in its original place. 
The best remedy for either is seed well kept for 
several years. It was long thought that these 
seeds should be imported annually from Italy ; 
but this, so far as the broccoli is concerned, is 
quite uncalled for, as we have finer varieties of 
English origin than are to be found in Italy or 
anywhere else. The only difference in saving 
cauliflower seed is, that the plants require a 
warmer situation to be placed in, and instead of 
planting the stems in spring, as with broccoli, 
the plants of the last August sowing, preserved 
during winter, should be chosen : and as they 
produce their flowers or heads during May and 

June, the best specimens should be selected, 
and left where they are growing, that they may . 
experience no check to delay the season of 
ripening their seed. The same precaution 
should be employed as noticed for cabbage, and 
every encouragement given to accelerate their 
period of ripening. Our best cauliflower seed 
is imported from Holland, and for its quality 
we have much greater reason to thank the bet- 
ter climate than the growers, who are not over 
particular in the matter, as Dutch cauliflower 
seed is sure to sell. 

• The European names of the common mhUe 
cabbage are — Chou pomme, or Cabus blanc in 
French ; Cavolo in Italian ; Verca in Portu- 
guese ; Wiss kopf kohl in German ; Berza in 
Spanish ; and Witte kool in Dutch. The Por- 
tugal cabbage, or Couve tronchuda, is the Chou 
vert a larges cotgs of the French. 

Bed cabbage — Rood kool in Dutch ; Berza 
colorada in Spanish ; Chou pomme-rouge in 
French ; Cavolo rosso in Italian ; Koth kopfkohl 
in German. 

Samy — Herzkohl, or Wirsing, in German ; 
Cappucio in Italian ; Chou de MUan, ou Pomme 
frise in French ; Savooij kool in Dutch ; Berza 
de saboya in Spanish. 

Brussels sprouts — Chou de BruxeUes, or ijets, 
in French ; Sprossen kohl in German ; Spruit 
kool in Dutch : so little cultivated in the south 
of Europe as to have no other name than the 
French, Chou de BruxeUes. 

Borecole— Gho\x verte, or non pomme, in 
French ; Cavolo aperto in Italian ; Col in Spanish ; 
Grune kohl in German ; Groen kool, Dutch ; 
Kale, Saxon ; Open kale, Scotch. The palm 
borecole is the Chou palmier, and turnip-cabbage 
Chou navet of the French. 

Cauliflower— C)ion-&eur in French ; Bloem 
kool in Dutch ; Berza florida in Spanish ; Blu- 
men kohl in German ; Cavoli flori in ItaUan. 

Broccoli — Broccoli in French ; Broccoli in 
Italian ; Broculi in Spanish ; Scotsche kool in 
Dutch ; Italianische kohl in German. 

Sea-Jeale — Chou marin in French ; Col ma- 
rina in Spanish; Meerkohl in German; Zeekool 
in Dutch ; Crambe marina in Italian. 



This division comprises five sections of 
esculents, cultivated more as articles of 
luxury than of general utility ; they 
nevertheless form a most important divi- 
sion in garden arrangement, often occu- 
pying an eighth part of the whole extent. 

§ 1. — ASPAHAGUS. 

Natwal history. — Asparagus {Asparagus offici- 
nalis L.) belongs to the natural order Asphode- 
lese, and to the class Hexandria, and order Mono- 
gynia, in the Linntean arrangement. The name 
is derived from (A . inteTis) sparasso, to tear, on 
account of the strong prickles with which some 
of the species are armed. It is by no means a 
genus having much floral attraction, most of 
the species being rude climbers, with insignifi- 
cant flowers ; in general natives of warm 
countries, and of little value either in the arts 
or in domestic economy. One is a native of 
Siberia ; and the common cultivated sort is a 
native of light sandy soils on some parts of our 
sea-shores, as well as of the salt-water steppes 
of Russia — where it becomes covered with sand 
and salt water during high tides — and other 
parts of the north of Europe. 

It is said to attain an extraordinary size in a 
wild state on the banks of the Euphrates, and 
it has been suggested that roots of it should be 
imported to this country ; we believe, however, 
that it owes its great size there to local circum- 
stances, and that roots from these would with 
us become no larger than our own. The first 
notice taken of it as a cultivated plant is about 
200 years B.C., in the time of Cato the elder, 
who lays down very sensible rules for its culti- 
vation — much, in fact, as at present practised 
. — and very wisely recommends that the beds 
should only be allowed to remain in a bearing 
state for nine years. Suetonius, in his Life of 
Augustus, informs us how partial that emperor 
was to asparagus; and Erasmus confirms this. 
Pliny, in book xix. chap. 4, tells us that it 
was cultivated in the gardens at Ravenna in 
his time, of an enormous size, so that three 
heads would weigh a pound. Mr Grayson, of 
Mortlake, near London, has produced 100 

heads that weighed 42 lb., perhaps the largest 
ever grown in Britain. Gerard is the first Eng- 
lish author who notices it, and calls it sperage, 
a name, within our own recollection, used by 
some old gardeners. He derives the name as- 
paragus from the Latin asparagi, which he 
translates to signify " the first sprig or sprout 
of every plant, especially when it be tender." 
Gerard wrote in 1S97. It is most extensively 
cultivated around London, many hundred acres 
being occupied with it — some individuals, such 
as Mr Grayson, having from 30 to 40 acres under 
this crop alone. Around Paris and Vienna it 
is extensively grown, and that to great perfec- 
tion. Meager, in his " English Gardener," p. 
188, informs us that ip his time (1670) the Lon- 
don market was well supplied with forced as- 
paragus ; and the means employed then were 
much the same as those at present in use, 
namely, placing the roots on warm dung-beds. 

Uses. — Its delicate flavour is rather deterio- 
rated than improved by those additions which 
a skilful chef de cuisine deems necessary in the 
preparation of most other vegetables. It is 
usually boiled and served alone, to be eaten 
with melted butter and salt. It is also served 
on toasted bread, with a plain white sauce. The 
small heads are cut into pieces of | of an inch 
each, and served plain boiled as a substitute for 
green pease. In this latter way much of what is 
called the sprue, or small heads — or grass, as all 
asparagus is called — which reaches Covent-Gar- 
den Market is disposed of. Medically it is con- 
sidered diuretic, and in Paris is much used by 
people of sedentary occupations, like tailors, 
weavers, authors, &c., when they are troubled 
with symptoms of stone or gravel. It is said to 
promote appetite, and hence is served at an 
early period of the dinner. It is considered 
anti-scorbutic, and very good in dropsical cases, 
but is to be avoided by those troubled with 
gout. The roots possess those healing proper- 
ties more than the sprouts or buds ; and, if we 
are to believe Galen, Hoffman, Dr James, &c., 
it is because the roots contain more of the salt, 
from whence they derive that quality, than any 
of the parts grown above ground, which cannot 
imbibe it so copiously as the root itself receives 
it from the ground. It operates with much 
effect on the urinary organs, as all who eat it 
copiously know full well. But the most extra- 



ordinary virtue attributed to thia plant is given 
by Antoine Mizold, " Cent. 7, Memorab. Aph.," 
34, and Solienck, "Obs. Med. L.," i.— " If the 
root is put upon a tooth that aches violently, it 
causes it to come out without pain." Modern 
dentists do not believe in this — nor do we. In 
Queen Elizabcith's time, asparagus was eaten 
" sodden in flesh-broth, or boiled in fair water, 
and seasoned with oil, vinegar, salt, and pepper, 
then served at table as a salad." It makes ex- 
cellent soup, and is also used when ragoued. 
The part used is 3 or 4 inches of the 
young shoots or buds, taken just as they appear 
above the ground, which is generally in May 
and June. It is most esteemed when of a nice 
fresh green colour. The French blanch it, but 
they destroy the flavour peculiar to it by such 

Propagation. — In the first instance, all 
asparagus is originated by seed. It is 
then replanted when of one or two years' 
growth : the first, if the roots are strong, 
is preferable. 

Sowing and planting. — March is the best 
season for sowing. Some recommend sow- 
ing broadcast in beds; we have a penchant 
for the drill system, and in this case would 
recommend it. Prepare the ground by 
copious manuring, and deep-digging or 
trenching. Draw the drills a foot apart, 
and 2 inches deep. Sow thin : the seed 
is in general good, so there need be small 
allowance made on that account. One 
quart of seed will be quite suflicient to 
sow a bed in the broadcast manner of 
from 36 to 40 square feet. If sown to 
remain on the same ground (a practice 
seldom thought of in first-rate gardens), 
then a pint of seed will sow a bed 4^ feet 
broad by 30 feet in length. If the plan- 
tation is to be formed of roots from last 
spring's sowing, then 160 plants will be 
required for a bed 4^ feet wide and 10 
yards in length. This is the age at which 
they should be planted. The above cal- 
culation is made presuming that the usual 
practice is followed of setting four rows 
in a 4|-feet bed, and the roots 9 inches 
apart. We would rather plant three rows 
in such beds, and give the plants 12 inches 
from plant to plant, which will reduce 
the number of roots required, and tend 
greatly to the future welfare of the crop. 
Plants of one year's growth we prefer; but 
much depends on the way they have been 
grown, for sometimes one-year-old plants 
are stronger and better than three-year- 
old ones, where little attention has been 
paid to them. In this case, as in most 
others, plants sustaining a check in their 

early growth from starvation are seldom so 
luxuriant or so long-lived as those which 
have been carefully nursed. In sowing 
for permanent crops, it is best to sow in 4i- 
feet beds (three rows say, 18 inches apart), 
and when they have advanced to the 
height of 6 or 7 inches, to thin them out 
to 12 inches in the line ; or, as we have 
often practised, sow in single rows 3 feet 
apart all over the piece, and thin out the 
plants to a foot apart in the line. It is 
usual — and we find no fault with the 
practice — to sow a crop of onions along 
with the seed the first year : the onions, 
being sown broadcast, will not much in- 
jure the asparagus, while they will repay 
for the culture of the whole. For per- 
manent crops we prefer the single-drill 
system; but for growing for two, three, or 
four years, for the purpose of taking up 
the roots for forcing, it is possible that 
the 4^-feet bed, with three rows in each, 
may be preferable. This is certainly the 
case in petty gardens, where a bed of the 
above breadth, and 10 yards in length, 
may be the extent to which the owner's 
means permit him to extend. This is, 
however, scarcely a crop for manse gar- 
dens; the small return only sets the mouth 
watering, and may lead to a breach of what 
is forbidden by the tenth commandment. 

Whether the seed is sown broadcast or 
in driUs, with a view to be transplanted 
afterwards, it will be requisite the spring 
following sowing to prepare the ground 
and beds for transplantation ; and in this 
it matters little whether the roots are to 
be set in single lines, or two or three rows, 
in beds of the above breadth. The whole 
ground should be prepared alike, and the 
plants carefully removed to it. 

In preparing the ground, we need 
hardly say it cannot be too highly en- 
riched or too deeply trenched, the roots 
often extending 3 feet under the surface. 
It should be trenched to that depth, and 
a supply of manure placed in the bottom 
of each trench after it has been broken 
up with a pick — a foot more in depth, if 
the soil admits of it. As the process of 
trenching goes on, other layers of manures 
should be laid on each respectively, as it 
is from a foot to 3 feet in depth that the 
roots will be in search of food. The more 
lasting and permanent the manure applied 
the better, so that its decomposition may go 
on slowly as the roots require it. Some, and 



with great advantage, retrench the ground 
again in an opposite direction, to insure 
a more thorough amalgamation of the 
soil and manure together. The opera- 
tion should be, if possible, carried on 
during winter, but not when the ground 
is either wet, frozen, or covered with 
snow, having it ready for planting in 
March or April for Scotland. The Lon- 
don market-garden practice is as follows : 
— " The beds are prepared by putting on 
an immense quantity of manure, and 
trenching the ground 3 or 4 feet deep, 
mixing the manure as the work proceeds. 
In March the ground is measured out 
after the following manner: Suppose a 
fence runs north and south, or otherwise, 
3 feet is allowed between it and the first 
row ; a drill is drawn about 2 inches deep, 
and the seed is sown thinly, say 6 inches 
or a foot apart, which gives choice of 
drawing out the weakest, in order that 
the permanent crop may stand 1 foot 
apart. The next row is sown 18 inches 
from the one just mentioned; then for the 
alley and two sides of the bed 5 feet are 
allowed ; then another row of seeds, and 
so on, which gives two rows to each bed. 
The first year, onions are generally sown 
all over the ground ; the second season, 
lettuce, or any dwarf-growing vegetable 
that will not choke the asparagus; and so 
on, until the third year, when the beds 
are formed out, and a few inches of mould 
dug out of the alleys, and put on the 
crowns. Only a few, however, of the 
finest heads are cut this year." — Cuthill 
in Market-Gardening round London, p. 1 8. 
We adopt another plan : — The ground is 
first thoroughly enriched, by laying with 
the stableyard manure a considerable por- 
tion of ground bones, say 2 inches in 
thickness, not very small, and about half 
an inch in thickness of rock-salt in the 
bottoms of the trenches, adding alternate 
layers of dung, with which salt is incorpo- 
rated, and soil as the trench nears the top ; 
and when the whole piece is thus trenched, 
we proceed to plant in the following 
manner: For single lines, trenches are 
taken out 1 foot in depth and 3 feet apart; 
in these the roots are placed, having been 
carefully taken from the seed-bed, with 
their most minute rootlets preserved, and 
carried to the spot in a shallow basket or 
planting-tray, and covered over with a 
little soil — for few plants suifer more than 

this by having their roots exposed to the 
air. The plants are examined to see that 
their buds are perfect, and are placed in 
the trench 14 inches apart, and the roots 
carefully spread out and covered with the 
soil, keeping the crowns about half an inch 
under the finished surface of the bed. 
When the bed system is followed, the 
ground is measiired ofif in breadths of 5 
feet and 2i feet alternately: the former 
are the beds, the latter the alleys. Begin- 
ning at one end of a bed, a trench is taken 
out across the bed, 12 inches deep, or 
more if the roots exceed that length, for 
they should be laid in at their full length. 
One root is placed in the centre of the 
trench, and one on each side of it, 15 
inches from each other. When these are 
planted, another trench is taken out, of 
the same dimensions, and 18 inches from 
the first, and planted in like manner. If 
the ground is dry, the whole gets a good 
watering of liquid manure— either diluted 
cow-urine, or water in which guano has 
been dissolved at the rate of 6 lb. to 50 
gallons. The beds are left uncropped, 
and kept clear of weeds during their 
growth. Some have planted successfully 
in May, and even in Juue, after the plants 
have attained a considerable size. We 
mention this, more that advantage may 
be taken of it to make up any deficiencies 
that may arise from any of the plants 
having failed, than with a view of recom- 
mending it as a general principle. The 
seeds require about three weeks to germi- 
nate. The smallest asparagus bed that 
should be made should contain a rod (272 
square feet, a little more than 30 square 
yards) of ground, as upon less than this a 
dish cotdd scarcely be at any one time 
gathered. The extent of ground for an or- 
dinary private family should not be less 
than 5 poles, which should yield about 
125 heads daily for four weeks; but for 
large gardens, from one-eighth to a quar- 
ter of an acre will be required, exclusive 
of that which may be taken up yearly for 
forcing, which in many cases wiU require 
as much more. 

In preparing ground for this crop, we 
have remarked that it cannot be too 
highly enriched, and that the manurial 
application should be kept near the bot- 
tom. This is because the crop may have 
to remain on the same ground for from 
seven to ten years, and therefore it 



would be difficult to apply manure to it 
afterwards ; besides, it is at the bottom of 
the soil that the spongiolets of the roots 
are chiefly placed, few being near, to the 
surface. And although the asparagus is 
a native of poor drifting sand, still, as its 
chief merits rest on the size and tender- 
ness of its shoots, it follows that, to insure 
this condition, they should be stimulated 
to the greatest extent possible, both by 
manure, and by being placed in the 
warmest part the garden affords. In 
sowing for the formation of a permanent 
plantation, some excellent cultivators sow 
in rows 2 feet apart in April, thinning 
out the plants to the distance of 1 foot 
from each other. Every alternate row is 
taken up the second year for forcing, thus 
leaving those that are to form the crop 
at the distance of 4 feet row from row, 
cropping the ground between them with 
summer cauliflower, which enjoys a par- 
tial shade from the asparagus. They also 
recommend, if the transplanting system 
is to be followed, that the operation be 
performed iu April, when the young 
shoots are 3 or 4 inches long. The crowns 
are kept near the surface at planting ; and 
in October, 2 or 3 inches of rich maniire 
is laid over them, and is slightly forked in 
amongst the roots in the spring following ; 
but no soil is ever laid over them, and all 
the future care is an annual top-dress- 
ing as above, with liberal supplies of 
liquid manure, in which salt is mixed at 
the rate of 2 ounces to a gallon. 

The Vienna mode of planting asparagus 
is to trench the ground 5 feet in depth, 
and to place a layer of bone, horn, chips 
of wood, or branches of trees, a foot in 
thickness, at the bottom of each trench ; 
while the French practice is to excavate 
a trench 5 feet wide, and of the length 
the bed is intended to be. The best of 
the soil removed is reserved to be mixed 
in the following manner, viz. : — 6 inches 
of best dunghill manure is laid along the 
bottom j over that, 8 inches of turf, 6 
inches of dung, 6 inches of the best of 
the soil that had been removed and well 
sifted, 8 inches of turf, 6 inches of very 
rotten dung, and then 8 inches of the 
good earth removed at the excavation. 
The last two layers are then to be well 
incorporatedtogether,and the beds formed 
5 feet in breadth, with alleys 2 feet broad 
between them. The roots are then 

planted 18 inches asunder, placing a 
handful or two of mould under the centre 
of each, so that the roots may be spread 
out in regular order, and in form of an 
expanded umbrella, their crowns being 
kept I5 inches under the surface. A 
small peg is then placed at each plant, 
and a spadeful of fine sand is placed over 
the crown, which finishes the operation. 
The plants should not be transplanted too 
early in spring, as there might be a possi- 
bility of some of the roots being over- 
looked, which might be deficient in 
healthy buds. To guard against that, defer 
planting until they have sprung an inch 
or two inches in length. Some defer it 
longer, and thus reason : Early in spring 
is the period in general recommended for 
making new plantations of this plant. 
Custom only sanctions the practice, while 
experience says custom is in this case a 
fallacy, and recommends the operation to 
be performed late in May, or even early 
in June, and that when the plants have 
attained the height of 10 or 12 inches. 

In cold situations, this late planting is 
of the utmost consequence, and if attended 
to, would in a great degree remedy the 
defects, so often seen, of blanks in the 
beds, and not unfrequently the dwindling 
appearance of the whole crop during the 
first year. Many will no doubt object 
to this late spring planting, from a dread 
that the plants will suffer from removal 
while in a state of growth ; and others 
will argue that, by following the " good 
old rule " of planting in March, the plants 
will have a longer season to grow in, and 
also that the roots will sustain less injury, 
because they have not then become ex- 
cited into growth. All these fears are 
groundless : the young shoots, should 
they even perish, will be succeeded by 
much stronger ones from the latent buds, 
with which the crown of the plant is always 
furnished ; and others may be consoled 
by the fact, that, the ground being much 
warmer in May or June than in March, 
and the juices of the plant being in motion 
at the time, it is prepared to encourage 
immediate growth; whereas the roots 
transplanted in March lie, till excited by 
the natural warmth of the soil, in a dor- 
mant state — the elaborated sap in them 
escaping at the injured parts, weakens 
them amazingly, as well as brings on a 
disposition to rot and decay. Keeping 



the beds well elevated, in cold soils and 
situations, enables the solar rays to reach 
the -roots better than when planted on a 
level surface. 

Subsequent cultivation. — We need hardly 
say that the beds should be kept free 
of weeds, as well as the alleys between 
them. The plants on seed-sown beds 
should be allowed three years to establish 
themselves, before any buds are gathered. 
Those on transplanted beds, if the roots 
were strong at planting, and have made 
good progress since, may have a few of 
the strongest buds gathered the second- 
year ; the third, if all has gone on well, 
will admit of regular cutting. The prac- 
tice of cropping the transplanted beds is 
injudicious, and that of cropping the 
alleys between the beds, although con- 
stantly done, is of questionable utility, 
because whatever crop is planted has a 
tendency to rob the beds; and the roots, 
which often extend towards them, run 
great risk of being either cut off or very 
materially injured. Mr Judd, in the 
" Transactions of the London Horticul- 
tural Society," vol. ii., thus very properly 
speaks on this point. Having dug out 
the alleys the first season, instead of re- 
peating the operation the next, he lays 
on a coating of rich dung 3 inches 
thick, and carefully forks it into the beds 
and alleys — a process he continues in 
winter annually, " never digging out 
the alleys any more, as it is known the 
asparagus plant forms a fresh crown 
every season ; and sometimes it happens 
that in a few years the crown will increase 
almost into the alley, so that in digging out 
this you must inevitably spoil that plant. 
If this is not the case when the beds are 
in a good condition, the roots will be sure 
to work out at the sides into the alleys ; 
and by digging out the latter, these roots 
must be cut off, as you will often see them 
exposed all the winter, before dung can 
be got to fill the alleys up. Eather than be 
treated in this way, they had better be 
without anything all the winter, as aspa- 
ragus does not suffer generally by frost." 
The practice of covering the beds in 
autumn with leaves or litter is sufliciently 
absurd, yet top-dressing them with rich 
manure is of great advantage ; but this 
dressing, whatever it may be, should be 
covered with a couple of inches at least 
of soil, to prevent the escape of its gaseous 

matter into the air. The rains of winter 
will wash down to the roots much of its 
fertilising properties ; and in spring, part 
of it may be carefully raked oiF, and left 
to rot in the alleys. That which remains 
on the beds will prevent the crowns from 
rising above the surface, and tend to ex- 
clude the drought. It has been recom- 
mended to uncover the crowns during 
winter, and to cover them over again in 
spring— a very useless, if not an inju- 
dicious practice. The surface of the beds 
should be slightly stirred up with a fork in 
spring, and before the buds show above 
ground ; and three times during the 
growing season of the plants, a thin 
sprinkling of salt should be applied to 
the surface, and, if possible, before rain. 
Upon the whole, disturbing the ground 
in the alleys, further than loosening it to 
the depth of 4 or 5 inches with a three- 
pronged fork every spring, is reprehen- 
sible ; and still more so, digging them out 
in deep trenches, and piling the soil over 
the beds, as practised by many of the 
London market-gardeners, who do so to 
obtain stalks, or grass, as they term it, 
nearly a yard in length — all of which, 
excepting about 3 inches at the top, is 
perfectly useless, and well defined " drum- 
sticks " in " The Gardeners' Chronicle " — 
an immense expenditure of the energies 
of the plant, for no other purpose, that 
we could ever divine, than to encumber 
the dust-holes in London. The practice 
is still persisted in, notwithstanding the 
merited castigation the advocates of such 
an absurd practice received a year or two 
ago from Mr Cuthill and the editor of 
that journal. 

Top-dressings, however, can be of far 
less advantage to the plants than laying a 
good foundation for them at the first 
making of the beds, because the spongi- 
olets, or food-absorbing parts of the roots, 
are in all cases at their very extremities, 
however deep they may be ; and hence it 
would be excellent, had we the means of 
applying food to them by means of a sort 
of subterranean system of irrigation, so 
that the food might be presented to those 
parts of the roots which are designed 
expressly for its absorption. No doubt, 
much of the success of the noted asparagus 
grown along the banks of the Thames is 
owing to the food conveyed to the roots 
by the rise of the tide, supplying it at a 



depth of 3 or 4 feet at every flow — a 
depth that scarcely any manurial applica- 
tion, applied to the surface, could reach, 
or at least to the extent of being very 

The London market-garden practice 
is thus described by Mr Cuthill : " Au- 
tumn arrives, and when the haulm is 
cut, the whole of the ground is forked 
over, and planted with cabbages, 'cole- 
worts, or winter greens ; then in spring 
the beds are largely supplied with mould 
out of the alleys, covering the crowns 
from 8 to 10 inches deep. The finishing 
of the cutting must be left to the grower. 
A fair crop of heads must be left, after 
four or five weeks' cutting, in order to 
grow the buds for the next year's gi-owth, 
and to restore to the roots what has been 
taken from them intheshapeof acrop; but 
not one head must be allowed to grow until 
you leave off cutting entirely, at the end 
of the fourth year. When the haulm gets 
ripe, it is to be cut down, and the mould 
thrown into the alleys, and there enriched; 
and the whole of the beds and alleys are 
planted again with cabbages, greens, &c." 

The exact season for cutting down the 
haulm must ever be governed by circum- 
stances. In early soils and situations, 
the haulm will be ripe about the middle 
of October, and this is known by its 
becoming of a yellowish colour, and by 
other evident signs that vegetation has 
ceased for the season, at which time it 
may be safely cut down. In Scotland 
generally, in consequence of our late 
springs, and consequent late autumns, 
the plants drag out a weary existence to 
the middle of November, unless some 
early autumnal frost intervenes to put a 
stop to growth, which of itself is tanta- 
mount to cutting too early, because in 
both cases the supply of elaborated sap is 
cut off from the roots. Cut the haulm 
off in a dry day, and tie it up in bundles, 
to be kept dry till spring, when it will be 
found one of the best protections to 
dwarf standard and other fruit-trees, for 
which see Fruit-garden. 

In Holland, all the asparagus is 
blanched, which is effected by covering 
the beds early in spring with fine sand, 
which no doubt produces the shoots of a 
milky whiteness, and of a considerable size 
and tenderness, but totally devoid of its 
natural flavour. Not a single bud is to 

be seen above ground, the surface of which 
is kept as smooth as possible; and the 
state of the crop is ascertained by the 
buds pushing up little hillocks of the fine 
sand, when the owner, constantly on the 
watch, slips down his knife, and outs ofi" 
the shoot near its bottom, being guided 
as to its position by the upheaving of the 
sand. In defence of their practice, the 
Dutch say they have the whole shoot in 
a state fit for the table, while we have 
only a couple of inches. 

Asparagus roots may be removed, with 
very good success, if carefully done, even 
at the age of eight or ten years, but it 
would be unadvisable to cut any of the 
buds during the following year. 

Soil and Manure. — The asparagus is a 
native of sandy beaches often overflowed 
by the sea, having its roots watered by 
the spring-tides, yet not kept in a state 
of continual wetness, on account of the 
ready means the water has of escaping by 
filtration. This seems to point out certain 
principles in its cultivation — namely, a 
deep, pervious, light soil, perfectly dry 
at bottom, but capable of being subter- 
raneously irrigated at times — the depth 
and lightness of the soil being favourable 
for the long delicate roots penetrating it 
in search of food. Such are the natural 
conditions of its growth. The artificial 
ones should in some degree assimilate to 
them, with the addition of abundance of 
manure to increase its size and expedite 
its growth ; for on its large size and ra- 
pidity of growth much of its delicacy and 
flavour depend. A deep light soil can 
in many cases be formed for it, and sub- 
terranean irrigation would even be a more 
simple affair. On these conditions much 
of the extraordinary success of the growers 
along the banks of the Thames depends; 
and were there even doubts of that, other 
evidence could be adduced— as that of 
the well-known fact that the finest aspa- 
ragus grown in France is produced in a 
small sandy island in the Oise, where the 
surface of the beds is not more than 2 
feet above the level of the river, the soil 
being a coarse gravelly sand, saturated 
with water at the depth of 3 feet from the 
surface. The banks of the Danube and 
Euphrates, as we have already stated, are 
celebrated for the size and quahty of their 
asparagus. Many years ago we saw, for 
several consecutive seasons, very fine crops 



produced by Mr Foster, a market-gar- 
dener at Winchester, whose ground was 
liable to be overflowed by the river Itchen 
through the winter and spring ; and so 
much did this affect the crop, that he 
used to cut heads of good size four weeks 
before it was produced in the neighbour- 
hood of London, and five weeks earlier 
than we cut at Stratton Park, at a distance 
of only eight miles. The soil should not 
be less than 3 feet in depth ; and where 
it is not naturally so, it were better to 
elevate the beds to that extent by adding 
to their surface, even by leaving the alleys 
wider, and taking a portion of the soil 
out of them for the purpose. A deep 
alluvial soil is excellent ; a strong reten- 
tive clayey one the worst possible, and 
quite unsuitable if not rendered dry at 
bottom. As to manures, whatever they 
may be, salt should be incorporated 
with them, and they should be of the 
most lasting description, such as ground 
bones ; and the proper mode of employ- 
ing them so as to be of the most advan- 
tage, is by placing them as deep as the 
roots wiU penetrate ; and as refreshers, 
copious applications of the strongest 
manures, in a liquid form, should be 
applied during the whole growing season. 

When salt is applied as a top-dressing 
during the growing season, it may be laid 
on until the ground is perceptibly white 
with it; or if by rule, apply 16 lb. to 
60 square yards of surface, which wiU be 
quite sufficient for one dressing. 

Forcing. — By means of slight excite- 
ment, this excellent vegetable may be 
kept in successional fitness for the table 
from the middle of November until it 
comes in in the open ground The con- 
ditions necessary to secure success are, 
strong healthy roots, from three years 
growth and upwards — carefully preserving 
the roots on taking them up — and a tem- 
perature not exceeding 50° to 60°, with 
abundance of light and air, after the buds 
appear above ground. The means em- 
ployed to efiect these conditions are 
various. First, as to roots : these must 
be strong and healthy, and hence the sup- 
ply ought to be grown in the same gar- 
den ; and to secure them strong, they 
must be grown in highly-enriched soil. 
Some cultivators keep up a succession of 
roots by growing them for the express 
purpose, and in this case the buds are 

never cut, the plants being allowed to 
develop themselves fully for two, three, 
or more years, by which means the roots 
and buds become earlier ripened in 
autumn, and also have stored up a much 
greater amount of properly elaborated 
matter within themselves, upon which 
depends so much of the succeeding crop. 
Plants taken out of the ground in Octo- 
ber or November, and placed in a state 
even of very moderate excitement, have 
not time to furnish themselves with fresh 
fibres, whereby to supply the roots with a 
sufficiency of food. The crop, therefore, 
depends on the amount of properly elabo- 
rated organisable matter provided for 
them during the previous season. This 
is the reason why a rich-manured soil is 
dispensed with, and a light sandy one 
preferred, in which to imbed the roots 
during the process of forcing, and also 
why the roots are afterwards thrown 
away. From this it follows that the 
greatest possible care should be taken to 
preserve every portion of the roots at 
lifting, as each, however small it may be, 
contains a certain amount of the material 
so essential in the development of the 
buds ; and as they are prized according 
to their size, every curtailment of the 
roots is a certain loss to the crop. 

By far the most usual mode of forcing 
asparagus is to place the roots on a mode- 
rate heat, either produced by fermenting 
material, such as dung, leaves, tan, &c., 
or on beds heated by hot-water pipes, 
steam, smoke-flues, tanks, &o. Of these 
the latter is decidedly the best mode, as 
affording a steady yet sufficient heat, com- 
bined with a greater share of humidity at 
the roots, as steam will find its way more 
readily through the joints of a stone or 
slate-covered tank, than through the 
closer joints of a hot- water or steam 
apparatus. It is true, any quantity of 
water can be supplied to the roots in the 
other cases, as described p, 447, vol. i., in 
the case of the roots of cucumbers ; still 
there is something so genial in the heat 
of a tank, when the roots are in proximity 
to it, that it seems to approach nearer to 
that of heat produced by fermenting 
material than any other. 

Whichever of these ways may be 
adopted for securing heat, the surface on 
which 'the roots are to be placed should 
be prepared of light sandy soil, and on 



this the roots, as they are taken up, should 
be placed close together, and regularly 
spread out in a perpendicular direction, 
but not so crowded as that they shall 
touch each other ; and as the process 
goes on, the soil should be carefully 
wrought in amongst them while dry; and 
■when the bed is finished, it should be well 
watered with tepid water, to wash the soil 
more closely about them. 

When the roots are old and very large, 
it may be found more expedient to place 
them in a horizontal direction; but, when 
yoimg, there will be no difficulty in set- 
ting them upright, by which a greater 
number of crowns will be got into the 
same space. In regard to produce, it 
may be stated in a general way, that a 
three-light frame, or the same extent of 
pit, will produce, under good manage- 
ment, a dish of heads every other day for 
nearly three weeks. To maintain such a 
supply from the middle of November till 
the grass is fit to cut in the open ground, 
it will be requisite that a three-light 
frame or pit be planted every ten or 
twelve days from the last week in Octo- 
ber till the second week in April, calcu- 
lating for the climate of Scotland, and 
tiU the beginning of March for that of 
England. In large establishments, where 
this vegetable is required daily and in 
large quantities, double that extent at 
least should be planted. All that is 
required in the way of culture is frequent 
supplies of tepid water and abundance of 
light and ventilation, even to the extent 
of removing the glasses for an hour or two 
on all favourable occasions, and guarding 
against an excess of bottom-heat. On 
the Continent, the buds are often blanched 
with a view to render them more deli- 
cate; with us, a fine healthy green colour 
is a chief recommendation, and to secure 
this, as well as flavour, light and air are 
absolutely necessary. As a general rule 
as to temperature, the atmosphere of the 
bed or pit should range from 50° to 60°, 
the former during night and the latter 
during the day, while the bottom-heat 
should approximate nearly, nor should it 
at any time fall below 48°. In severe 
weather it will be more expedient to re- 
tain the heat within by external cover- 
ings (for which vide fig. 789, vol. i.), than 
to increase it by an extra consumption 
of fuel. 

The Dutch and German mode of forcing 
asparagus. — About the end of October 
deep trenches are dug between the beds 
in the open ground, which, for this pur- 
pose, seldom exceed 2| feet in breadth, 
having one row of plants in the centre of 
each. These trenches are filled with 
leaves, rank stable-manure, or any other 
fermenting material capable of producing 
a strong heat. The surface of the beds is 
forked up and slightly covered with litter. 
The heat in the trenches stimulates the 
roots, and considerable success attends 
the operation, so far as quantity of heads 
goes, but they are without either colour or 
flavour. Some, however, have narrow 
frames covered with glass which they 
place over the beds, which is, no doubt, 
an improvement on the former practice. 
Both are modes attended with much la- 
bour and uncertainty as to time, and 
occasion an enormous waste of manure. 
Many Continental gardeners, however, 
adopt the taking-up system described 
above, and some also follow the methods 
to be noticed below. 

Forcing in permanent beds. — " Forcing 
in permanent beds has not been much 
practised in this country till of late years. 
There are now, however, many instances 
of this mode," under different modifica- 
tions, " in many of our first-rate gardens. 
Beds to be so treated are built with 
pigeon-hole walls all round ; they are of 
the breadth of an ordinary-sized garden 
frame, and of any required length ; the 
depth of the linings or spaces between 
the beds is 3 feet, and their breadth 2i 
feet. In these spaces dung, leaves, tan, 
or any other fermentable matter is placed, 
which heats moderately the body of the 
beds. Frames are placed over the beds, 
covered with glass-lights;" all other 
coverings now should be looked upon as 
obsolete things. In such beds asparagus 
is forced year after year without renewal. 
" For later crops there is no objection to 
this plan, because, by the time the crop 
is gathered, the weather will be mild 
enough to allow the last set of stalks 
shooting up to their full size and develop- 
ment, and hence the roots will be supplied 
with proper nourishment to enable them 
to produce a crop of shoots the following 
season. But such roots as are forced 
early by this method, not having the 
same opportunity of acquiring their natu- 



ral supply of food, must reasonably be 
oousidered as placed in a very different 
position as regards their capability of 
production." — Practical Gardener. 

Forcing in permanent pits, as practised in 
the Royal Gardens at Frogmore. — The plants 
while young are planted in brick pits 
4 feet in depth, and in a rich loamy soil 
peculiar to the locality, and highly en- 
riched with rotten stable-yard manure. 
These pits are 7 feet in breadth, and 
separated by trenches walled up on the 
sides in the pigeon-hole manner, and 20 
inches across. In these spaces hot- water 
pipes are made to traverse (vide fig. 639, 
vol. i.), the bottom parts of the spaces 
being fiUed up with soil similar to the 
beds; and the upper part, also 2 feet in 
depth, is left open that the heat from the 
pipes may radiate freely and find its way 
into the pits, which are span-roofed and 
covered with boarding. The spaces be- 
tween the pits in which the pipes are 
laid are covered with Yorkshire pavement 
to prevent the escape of the heat, as well as 
from its being comfortable to walk upon. 
The plants are excited early in Decem- 
ber, that a supply may be obtained by 
the end of that month, the temperature 
ranging between 50° and 60°. During 
the forcing period, the plants are assisted 
by occasional supplies of rich manure in 
a liquid form. For early forcing this 
plan is liable, to a certain extent, to the 
objections stated above — modified to some 
degree, however, inasmuch as the heat 
can be maintained at the roots till a late 
period of the season ; and the latent or 
weak buds may thus be induced to spring 
and throw up stems, by which sufficient 
excitement is thrown into the roots to 
cause them to form a fresh series of buds 
for succeeding crop. The advantages of 
the system of permanent beds are held by 
many as important. It prevents, as they 
say, the great sacrifice of ground in the 
production of roots, which require at least 
two or more years' expensive culture to 
prepare them for a single return. We 
should, however, take into consideration 
the importance of what is called rotation 
in cropping; and for this the destruction 
of a few beds of asparagus yearly offers an 
excellent opportunity. In our own case, 
we have about an acre of ground under 
this crop for the purpose of forcing alone. 
This space we have in three sections, one 
vol;. II. 

of which is taken up every winter, and a 
corresponding quantity planted every 
spring from the seed-beds of the previous 

The great supplies sent to the London 
markets are produced during winter by 
the taking-up mode, and are for the most 
part forced upon beds of fermenting ma- 
terial. Our own opinion is in favour of 
this plan, and next to it that of growing 
in pits heated upon the principle shown 
in our improved asparagus-pit, described 
p. 455, vol. i., and covered with a glass 
roofing, to be kept on until the reserved 
stems become fully matured and the buds 
ripened, when it may be removed until 
required again the ensuing season. 

The London market-gardeners' mode of 
forcing asparagus is by placing the fuUy 
matured roots on beds of fermenting dung, 
placed in trenches 2 feet deep, having 6 
inches of mould to plant in. These are 
then hooped over, and covered with mats 
or otherwise to blanch them, and make 
them look fine and white, to suit the 
taste of the market. lu private families, 
however, this white colour is no recom- 
mendation, a fine healthy green being pre- 
ferred, and this can only be attained by 
growing it in the light; therefore the pri- 
vate gardener's practice is the best, and 
to attain it so, he has to employ glass 
sashes for protection, and to admit abun- 
dance of air during its growth. Mr Cuth- 
ill was the first, we believe, who attacked 
the old and absurd practice of blanching, 
and his views were aided by several sen- 
sible writers in " The Gardeners' Chron- 
icle," and amongst them the talented 
editor of that paper. 

Amateur forcing. — Forced asparagus is 
not, as is supposed, confined to the tables 
of the rich, and those only who have 
extensive forcing accommodation. Any 
amateur who has the command of a cart- 
load or two of tree-leaves or stable- litter, 
or who is in the neighbourhood of a tan- 
yard, where he may often get tan for 
taking away, may have as good asparagus 
in March, or even earlier, as his richer 
neighbour ; and with the aid of a one or 
two light frame, he may have it at his 
Christmas dinner. The way to proceed 
is, First get your roots, which can often, 
for so small a supply, be obtained from a 
neighbour, or bought from a nursery or 
market-garden. Many amateurs, how- 



ever, have their own asparagus-bed in 
their garden. To those, therefore, we 
say. Make up a bed in some warm shel- 
tered corner of either of the above mate- 
rials, and to the thickness of 3 feet or 3^, 
if leaves only be used ; set the roots on 
the surface after the strong heat has de- 
clined, imbedded in the soil as stated 
above, or in leaf-mould or rotten tan ; 
cover them at first only as high as the 
tops of the crowns, and after ten days lay 
on 3 or 4 inches more, keeping the sur- 
face within 9 or 10 inches of the glass : 
for, to secure a crop by Christmas, glass 
will be required for its protection. If for 
March use, the bed may be hooped over, 
and covered, first with semi-transparent 
canvass, which will admit light enough, 
and therefore may be kept on perma- 
nently ; while during night and in cold 
wet days, and during frosts, a waterproof 
tarpaulin should be put over all, to throw 
off the wet and retain the internal heat. 
A very slight heat is all that is necessary. 
In regard to taking up the roots, ama- 
teurs will do well to commence on one 
side of the outer rows of the bed by 
digging out a trench, forking the earth 
as much as possible from underneath the 
plants, so that they may easily, and with- 
out straining or injuring their roots, move 
them out entirely by thrusting down the 
fork behind them. Be very careful, at 
the same time, that the buds about the 
crowns of the plants are not injured by 
the fork, or bruised in any way during 
their removal. Asparagus roots may be 
planted in boxes, and placed in a warm 
stable or cow-house, and when the buds 
have attained the height of 3 or 4 inches, 
they may be brought out daily into the 
open air when the weather is at all mild : 
this is with a view to give a greenish 
colour to the buds; but where coloijr is 
not a consideration, this removal will be 

Asparagus is sometimes forced in the 
beds where it grows by covering the sur- 
face early in November with hot stable- 
manure to the depth of a foot, which starts 
the buds in about twelve or fourteen 
days ; the beds are divided by 3-feet alleys, 
which are dug out, at the time of cover- 
ing, to the depth of 2 feet, and filled with 
heated dung at the same time. In breadth 
the beds correspond with that of an ordi- 
nary garden-frame, which is placed over 

them as soon as the shoots have attained 
the height of from 2 to 3 inches, at which 
time the covering over the beds is care- 
fully removed and added to the linings 
placed in the alleys, which raises them as 
high as the top of the frames aU round. 
This heat, with a sufficient covering of 
mats or straw over the glass during the 
night, is found sufficient for the purpose ; 
and as the glasses are uncovered every 
day, the shoots become of a fine green 
colour, and are in a fit state for use by 
the latter end of the month, or beginning 
of December. The beds are covered in 
this way in succession, a three-light frame 
being placed to the end of the first, and 
so on every ten days during the season of 
forcing. When the crop in the first frame 
is cut, the frame is carried forward, and 
the surface of the bed covered with dry 
litter or leaves to keep out the frost, but 
not to the extent to keep the roots in a 
state of excitement, as it is desirable they 
should remain at rest until spring, when 
the covering is removed, and they are 
allowed to grow in the open air. The 
portions of the beds earliest forced in this 
way are allowed a year to recover their 
strength, when they are again forced. 
Those that come in later in the season are 
forced the following year, and there are 
instances of this mode where the beds 
have been so treated for thirty years. 

Asparagus may also be forwarded a 
fortnight or three weeks earlier than it 
will come into use in the open air, by 
merely covering the beds, about the end 
of February, with, a frame and sashes, 
without any other artificial heat what- 
ever; or the cloches, or small bell-glasses so 
much used by the French, may be advan- 
tageously employed : they are now being 
made at most of the large glass-works, and 
may be purchased at Is. a piece, if taken 
in quantities of not less than 200. 

Taking the crop. — The buds are fit for 
cutting when from 3 or 4 inches above 
the surface, when of a fine green colour, 
and while they are firm and compact, 
terminating in a close obtuse point. They 
should never be blanched, although this 
has been strongly recommended by one 
who ought to have known better. The 
French, Dutch, and Germans a,lmost in- 
variably did so, and even put themselves 
to the trouble of placing an opaque tube 
over each bud, for the evident purpose of 



spoiling it. Were glass tubes used, the crop 
would be hastened forward, and probably 
increased in size, without doing injury to 
the colour or lessening its flavour. No 
shoots ought to be allowed to exceed 6 
inches in length. In proceeding to cut 
the buds, remove with the side of the aspar- 
agus knife a little of the soil from around 
their base, push the knife gently down- 
wards, keeping it quite parallel and close 
to the shoot to be cut, taking great care 
in doing so that none of the buds yet 
under ground are cut or injured : when 
the knife is as deep as the base of the 
shoot, give it a slight twist, pressing it at 
the same time close to the shoot, and draw 
it gently upwards, by which process the 
bud will be separated from the crown. 
The wound, being ragged, in consequence 
of being cut with a serrated edge rather 
than a smooth one like a knife, wiU not 
bleed so much, and hence be less weaken- 
ing to the plant. Fig. 49 shows such an 
instrument : there are other forms in use, 
Fig. 49. 


but in no way superior to this. The 
blade should be thin, about 9 inches in 
length, with a wooden handle : by being 
slightly hooked at the point, it is less 
liable to cut the underground buds, while 
the serratures on the concave side more 
readily catch the dioot intended to be 
cut. Many use only a common pruning- 
knife, especially when the shoots are to 
be cut about an inch under the surface ; 
but the cleanness of the wound leaves the 
sap-vessels open, and a considerable waste 
of sap is the consequence. A shallow 
basket should be carried in the one hand 
to receive the shoots as they are severed 
by the other, and they should be laid 
with their buds pointing in one direction, 
and afterwards carried to the vegetable- 
house to be washed, dressed, and tied up 
in bundles of about 3 inches in diameter 
each, the ends of the shoots cut all to an 
equal length and neatly placed together, 
so that no one bud projects beyond an- 
other. In this way they are ready for the 
cook, who, depending on the man who 
serves the kitchen having properly cleaned 
them, commits them at once to the sauce- 
pan of boihng water in bundles as they 

are. In cutting from established beds, 
every bud, large and small, is cut, and 
they are afterwards sorted into sizes, one, 
two, and three, the first being the largest 
and finest formed, the second of a less size, 
while all the smaU, or any that may have 
the points of the buds damaged or broken 
oiF, are placed in the third, to be used for 
soups, imitation green pease, or the like. 
This general gathering will often continue 
for from four to five weeks, after which 
only a few of the larger should be taken, 
the rest being allowed to grow for the 
support of the roots and encouragement 
of buds for another season. The reason 
why the whole buds are cut away is, that 
if a portion of them were left and allowed 
to grow, they would draw too much upon 
the roots, and render them unable to 
continue sending up more ; or if they do 
so, such shoots would be small and worth- 
less. With young buds the case is differ- 
ent ; they must not be so closely cut ; 
only a few of the stronger buds shovdd be 
taken, and even that not continued longer 
than about a fortnight. By the middle 
of June in England, and the latter end of 
it in Scotland, cutting should entirely 
cease if the future crop is to be regarded ; 
or a bed or two may be gone on with ten 
days longer, and such beds have a respite 
the following season. Beds intended to 
be forced should have very few of the 
buds cut, if any at all. It often happens, 
in cold seasons, or in late situations, that 
the buds come slowly through the ground, 
and in such cases there is often a number 
of hard, dry, scaly appendages found at- 
tached to the shoots near their base. 
These should be carefully scraped off with 
a sharp knife in the vegetable-house before 
tying up, but on no account should the 
skin be peeled off. Some, however, pre- 
fer allowing the shoots to attain the height 
of 6 or 8 inches above ground, and then 
to cut over close to the surface. This is 
no doubt a very good way when it is 
growing rapidly, and in that way its full 
flavour will be attained. 

Asparagus may be kept several days 
after cutting, if their ends be set into 
a shallow vessel of water, and placed in a 
dark cool cellar to prevent the buds 

Approved sorts and their qualities. — There is 
only one kind of asparagus, although seed-lists 
present us with a goodly number of names. 



such as Qravesend, Battereea, giant or Gray- 
son's, true Reading giant, &o. No doubt much 
depends on saving seed from the best plants, as 
is the case with everything else, instead of 
gathering it promiscuously, as is too frequently 
done ; and while the prices of seeds are so low 
as they now are, there is Uttle inducement for 
the seed-grower to do otherwise. 

Insects and diseases. — SnaUs and slugs are often 
troublesome in mild springs, attacking the buds 
as they push through the soil : they often attack 
the stems of the plants when well grown, near to 
the ground ; but they can be readily got rid of by 
dusting lime over the ground in the evenings. 
From its caustic property, on touching their 
bodies it speedily kills them. The wireworm 
is a much more to be dreaded enemy ; it per- 
forates the centre of the buds under ground, 
and totally destroys them. Piercing the ground 
amongst the roots with an obtuse-pointed dib- 
ber, and pouring about a table-spoonful of spirits 
of tar into each hole, will kill numbers of them; 
setting traps of slices of carrots, potatoes, or 
turnips, attached to a skewer, and burying them 
close to the tops of the crown, will attract them 
by thousands, and on drawing them up every 
other day they will be found attached to them, 
and may easily be destroyed. This may be con- 
sidered a tedious process ; it is nevertheless a 
most effectual one. 

The asparagus beetle, Onoceris aspa/ragi, fig. 
SO, is often found during the early part of sum- 
mer depositing its eggs on the stalks. It ap- 
pears to abound much more in some seasons 
than in others ; and while it is a grievous pest 

Fig. 50. 


in one locality, it is next to unknown in others. 
In the year 1836 it abounded in the gardeiis 
round Loudon, the larvae, beetles, and eggs 
being often detected on the same plant and at 
the same time. The larvae feed on the leaves 
and stems, and are much more destructive to 
young plants than to older ones. The larvaa 
are folly grown about the end of June, and may 
readily be detected, appearing of a dirty olive- 
green colour, fleshy and shining; in form some- 
what cylindrical, narrower towards the head ; 

tail recurved, holding fast to the plant by a 
fleshy foot ; head small, black and shining; pec- 
toral feet small, and six in number, and set at a 
considerable distance apart; sides plaited ; belly 
covered with fleshy protuberances. Their larva 
state is of short duration, continuing only about 
ten days : as it is only in this state they seem 
to feed, their numbers and activity must be 
great to commit much mischief, and hence, per- 
haps, so Uttle is known of this insect or its 
habits. It then descends into the earth to un- 
dergo its changes. In its pupa state it assumes a 
curved position, and in the course of three weeks 
the perfect beetle is formed, when it ascends 
the plants to deposit its eggs. No very reason- 
able means has been as yet discovered for its 

Asparagus eopper-vieb, or fungus. — This de- 
structive fungus has recently been detected in 
Cambridgeshire, where vast quantities of aspa- 
ragus are grown for the London market. It at 
first appears as a mould, spreading vridely and 
rapidly amongst the plants, killing every one it 
attacks. It is also found to be destructive to 
carrots and potatoes. As yet this fungus is only 
known as a mycelium. It has not as yet been 
found in a perfect state of fructification, to en- 
able botanists to determine its species. Saffron 
and lucerne crops have been long ago attacked 
by a similar, if not the same disease. The origin 
of this fungus is not known ; its effects show 
themselves as a pale madder-coloured web, and 
although not visibly penetrating into the sub- 
stance of the roots of the plants, yet it so com- 
pletely impedes all communication of the tissues 
with the external air as completely to impair 
their vital powers. The only remedy hitherto 
found effective is to out a trench round the in- 
fected plants, so as to stop the progress of its 
spreading, as, like most other fimgi, it radiates 
from a centre ; and it might be quicklime, if 
repeatedly applied, would arrest its progress, if 
not destroy it altogether — few of the fungi re- 
sisting its caustic effects. 

General remarks. — The only certain way of 
improving this useful plant, is by carefully se- 
lecting seed from the finest specimens, growing 
them from their first stage to their last in highly 
enriched soil, preserving the roots from injury, 
and, above ajl, not cutting too severely. Sup- 
port the seed-bearing stems during summer, 
and when the seed is ripe in autumn, cut over 
the stems and hang them up in a dry airy place 
till spring, when they may be rubbed or thrashed 
out of the berries and immediately sown. If for 
sale, pick off the berries and wash out the seed, 
allowing them to steep an hour or two in a tub 
of water, to soften the outer covering. When 
the seed is extracted, dry them thoroughly m 
the sun, and bag them till wanted. It is proper 
to remove the seed-bearing branches before any 
of the seeds fall to the ground, to prevent them 
taking possession of the beds and forming young 
plants amongst the old ones, which causes con- 
fusion and overcrowding. Asparagus seed will, 
if kept properly, retain its vegetative properties 
for fifteen or twenty years : it has been known 
to have been kept longer, but as no advantage 
can arise from this, seed of the precedmg year's 



growth is greatly to be preferred. Under fa- 
vourable circumstances, the seeds vegetate in ten 
or fourteen days. 

Its European names are — Asperge in French; 
Aspergie in Dutch ; Sparagio in Italian ; Spargel 
in German ; Esparrago in Spanish. 


Natural history. — Alisander, or Alexanders 
(Smymium olusatrum L.), belongs to the natural 
order UmbeUiferse, and ranks in the class Pent- 
andria, and order Digynia, in the Linnsean ar- 
rangement. The name of the genus is derived 
from Smyrna — myrrh ; being of similar qualities 
to that plant. It is a native of Britain, growing 
near the sea; and from its being often found 
near the sites of old buildings, it has been sup- 
posed that it was more generally cultivated 
formerly than at present. Smymium perfolia- 
tum, a native of Spain and Italy, is thought by 
many superior to this sort. 

Uses. — The leaf-stalks, when blanched, like 
celery or cardoons, are the parts used, and were, 
before the cultivation of the former, used for 
similar purposes. It is now rarely met with 
in British gardens, and has been introduced 
to those of the Continent only to a limited 

Propagation. — Annually from seed, and 
its wliole treatment is so similar to that 
of the cardoon as not to demand any- 
general notice. 

General renuwJcs. — Its European names are — 
Macerpn in French ; Macerone in Italian ; Smyr- 
ner-kraut in German ; and Cardo do coalho in 

§ 3. — THE CAEDOON. 

Natural history. — The cardoon, or chardoon 
{Cynara cardimculus L.), belongs to the natural 
order Compositse, sub-order Carduacese, and to 
the class Syngenesia, and order ^qualis, in the 
Linnsean arrangement. The generic name is 
derived from Jcyon, dog ; the spines of the involu- 
crum resembling dogs' teeth. It is a native of 
Candia and the south of Europe, and was intro- 
duced into England in 1656. It does not ap- 
pear to have been early or extensively culti- 
vated, many of our older authors taking no 
notice of it. It is even still only in our best 
gardens that it is found to have a place. On the 
Continent it is different ; and there not only 
are the midribs of the foliage used in culinary 
matters, but the corollas of several parts of the 
same natural order are employed in various de- 
partments of domestic economy. 

Uses. — The foot-stalks as well as the midribs 
of the leaves are used for stewing, soups, and 
even salads in autumn and winter ; but to pre- 
pare them for these purposes they require to be 
blanched, and the longer these parts are, and 
the more rapidly they are grown, the more are 
they esteemed on account of their greater crisp- 

ness, tenderness, and colour. The process of 
dressing them is thus given in " The Gardeners' 
Chronicle," vol. i. p. 143: — "When a cardoon 
is to be cooked, the solid " not piped or 
hollow " stalks of the leaves are to be cut in 
pieces, about 6 inches long, and boUed like 
any other vegetable in pure water (not salt and 
water) till they are tender. They are then to 
be carefully deprived of the slime and strings 
which will be found to cover them ; and having 
been thus thoroughly cleansed, are to be plunged 
in cold water, where they must remain until 
they are wanted for the table : they are then 
taken out and heated with white sauce, marrow, 
or any other of the adjuncts recommended in 
cookery-books. The process just described is 
for the pui'pose of rendering them white, and 
depriving them of a bitterness which is peculiar 
to them : if neglected, the cardoons will be 
black, not white, as well as disagreeable." They 
form, in the hands of a skilful cook, an excellent 
and wholesome dish, deserving far more general 
notice. One good plant will be sufficient for 
two or three dishes. 

Sowing and planting. — Although a pe- 
rennial in its native country, it is little 
better than an annual in Britain, and is 
therefore raised from seed annually, the 
first sowing being made about the begin- 
ning of March, on a very slight hotbed. 
The principal crop is sown about the 
middle of April. This is for an English 
climate ; for a Scotch one they should be 
for both crops reared on a slight hotbed; 
and, to render their transplantation more 
certain and convenient, the seeds should 
be sown in 48-sized pots, one seed in each, 
and when 6 inches high transplanted at 
once to where they are to arrive at ma- 
turity. This rule is always necessary in 
Scotland, so as to get them ready for 
transplanting as soon as the danger of 
spring frost is over. The seed is pretty 
large, much after the form of that of sun- 
flower or artichokes. In England it is 
expedient to sow again towards the end 
of June, for a late crop to come in during 
the following spring. Two ounces of seed 
will sow a seed-bed of 32 square feet. In 
Scotland it is best to sow always on a 
slight hotbed; in England, except for 
the first crop, they may be sown in the 
trenches where they are to come to per- 
fection, making the ridges 5 feet apart, a 
foot deep, and the plants 14 inches apart 
in the line. 

Method of sowing.— 'Yrenc^iea are dug as 
for celery ; a moderate manuring only is 
necessary, and that manure should be in a 
decomposed state, as during the heat of 
summer copious supplies of water should 



be given, to prevent them running into 
flower, in which case the crop would be 
rendered useless. As we have before re- 
marked, when water is to be used for such 
crops, it is no additional labour, and very- 
little more expense, to have it enriched by 
a little guano. If the seeds are sown, two 
may be placed together, at the distance 
of 14 inches apart, one of the plants from 
which, should both vegetate, is to be re- 
moved when about 6 inches high. If 
transplanted from pots, or from a seed- 
bed, set each plant at the above distance. 

Subsequent cultivation. — Water during 
dry weather. When the plants have 
attained the height of 18 inches, place a 
stake 3 feet high to each, and tie the 
leaves loosely to them, the intention be- 
ing to prevent their being broken by high 
winds. Earthing-up the stems should 
take place at the same time, putting a 
little often to them. Some do not 
earth up until the plants have nearly 
attained their full height, and earth up 
all at once ; others do so progressively, 
believing that the stalks are, by this 
means, rendered more crisp, firm, and 
delicate ; whereas, by the other method, 
they say the stalks are liable to become 
hard and stringy from exposure to the 
air; and there is, no doubt, some reason 
for thinking so. 

Talcing the crop, and subsequent preserva- 
tion. — By September in England, October 
in Scotland, the early crop will be fit for 
use, and the successional crops will con- 
tinue on till the end of March. The 
earth is carefully removed, the plant 
taken up by the roots, and carried to the 
vegetable-room. The roots are then cut 
off clean, as well as the points of the 
leaves as far down as to where they are 
found solid and well blanched. They are 
carefully washed, and the parts of the 
leaf-stalks left are carefully tied to the 
stem with a broad piece of clean fresh 
matting, in which state it is ready for 
the cook. When severe frosts are appre- 
hended, a portion of the crop should be 
taken up, roots and leaves entire, and 
carried to the root-cellar and packed 
amongst sand, laying the plants down in 
rows and packing the sand around them, 
one course over another till the bin 
is full. In this way they keep well, 
and become more perfectly blanched. 
The remainder of the crops should also 

be taken up and placed on ridges, as 
will be found recommended for celery. 
The intention of taking up the plants 
and laying them on their sides with the 
points of their leaves inclining down- 
wards, is to prevent the wet and snow 
getting into their hearts, which would 
soon rot them ; for although naturally 
pretty hardy, from the luxuriant state in 
which they have been grown they are 
very susceptible of injury from frost, and 
equally so from wet. 

Approved sorts and their qualities. — 1. The 
common or plain cardoon without spines — the 
Cardon pleiu inerme of the French — is that 
most generally grown. 

2. Cardon de Tows. — Cardon piquant; C. 
spinocissima of Prest. 

3. Spanish cardoon. — Of large size, the mid- 
ribs being very succulent and solid. The C. 
integrifolia of Vahl. 

4. Bed cardoon. — Cardon h, ootgs rouges of the 

General remarles. — A plant saved over winter, 
and left unblanched, will afford a sufficient sup- 
ply of seed for a moderate-sized garden. They 
ripen their seed in August ; and seed well ripened 
and kept will retain its vegetative properties 
six or seven years. The cardoon of Tours is so 
formidable on account of its strong and nume- 
rous spines, that the workmen, in earthing it up, 
&c.,are said to beprotected by wearing a leathern 
frock over their clothes. Some people, instead 
of earthing up the plants, envelop them by 
twisting hay -bands round them, and cover 
them up with earth only on the approach of 

Its European names are — Cardon in French 
and Italian; Kardonen in German. 


Natural history.— The artichoke (Cynara sco- 
lymus Wild.) belongs to the natural order Com- 
positae, sub-order Carduacese, and the class Synge- 
nesia, and order Squalls, in the Linnsean arrange- 
ment. The origin of the generic name is given 
in last section. The English name, artichoke, is 
derived from the Celtic art, a spine, and cliavlx, 
a cabbage. Loudon thought it more likely to come 
from carcioffo or Icharchiof, its name in Arabic. 
The generic name is also supposed to be derived 
from Oinis, because Columella asserts the land 
in which it should be grown ought to be ma- 
nured with ashes. Parkinson says it is so 
called from the ash colour of its leaves, a far 
more probable surmise. It is somewhat singu- 
lar that this vegetable should bear the same 
name in English, French, German, and Dutch, 
with very little variation. — Vide General re- 
marhs. It was held in high estimation by the 
ancient Eoraans. — Vide Introduction. The 
Greeks and Romans appear to have procured 
it from the coast of Africa, as also from 



Sicily. It was brought to England in 1S48 
from Italy, as Phillips remarks, not Gerard, 
as erroneously stated in the " Encyclopaedia of 
Plants;" for although he has left us correct 
representations of both the French and the 
globe varieties, he makes no mention of their 
country or their introduction : we may there- 
fore conclude that they were become common 
in 1696. The same excellent authority re- 
marks, " By reason of the great moisture of our 
climate " compared with that of Italy, " and the 
attention which was paid to its cultivation, it 
soon became so much improved in size and fla- 
vour that the Italians sent for plants to Eng- 
land, deeming them to be of another kind, but 
they soon returned to their natural size when 
restored to that country." It grows wdld in the 
open fields in Italy, and attains the height of 
S or 6 feet. On account of the great size of the 
roots, and their penetrating the soil so deep, 
they withstand the dry hot summers about 
Paris, where they are most extensively culti- 
vated and most abundantly used. 

Uses. — ^The parts used are the lower parts of 
the leaves or scales of the calyx, the fleshy re- 
ceptacles of the flower freed from the bristles and 
seed-down, commonly called the choke, as they 
are very disagreeable when swallowed. Some- 
times, particularly in France, the tender central 
leaf-stalk is blanched and eaten like oardoons. 
The bottom, which is the top of the receptacles, 
is fried in paste, and enters largely into fricas- 
sees and ragouts ; they are sometimes pickled, 
and often used in a raw state as a salad. The 
French also cut them into thin slices, leaving 
one of the scales or calyx leaves attached, by 
which the slice is lifted and dipped in oil and 
vinegar before using. The English present the 
head whole, or cut into quarters upon a dry 
plate, the guest picking off the scales one by 
one, which have a fleshy substance at their 
base ; these are dipped in oil and vinegar and 
eaten first, the bottom part afterwards with a 
knife and fork. What is called artichoke chard 
is the tender leaf-stalks blanched and cooked 
like cardoons. The Italians and French often 
eat the heads raw with vinegar, salt, oil, and 
pepper ; but they are generally preferred when 
boiled, and in this state are sold in the streets of 
Paris as commonly as baked potatoes are in 
those of London. They are a favourite dish 
at a French breakfast, while in Britain we use 
them at supper. The young heads are pickled 
whole when about 2 inches in diameter. Medi- 
cinally, the stalks are considered aperient and 
diuretic; the leaves, in their natural state, boiled 
in white wine whey, are thought beneficial in 
cases of jaimdiee, and, when cut into pieces 
and steeped in sherry wine, an excellent anti- 
bilious medicine. The roots were eaten by the 
ancient Romans sodden in water to enable 
them to drink to excess, as it excited a desire 
for liquor; and Athenian mothers desirous of 
having male children were recommended to eat 
of artichokes freely. 

Propagation. — The plant may be pro- 
pagated by seed, which in France ripens 

freely in September and October. It sel- 
dom comes to maturity in Britain. But 
this mode is seldom had recourse to ; it is, 
therefore, multiplied by suckers, slips, or 
by division of the roots. It is probably on 
account of our mode of propagation being 
on the extension principle, and the seed 
not ripening freely with us, that we have 
few or no new improved varieties of the 

Planting. — The suckers or slips are 
taken from the old roots in March or 
April, this depending on the season and 
situation ; for it is better to delay a week 
or two, so that the young roots may be 
formed on the suckers before they are 
detached. In taking them off, a little of 
the earth is removed from the side of the 
plant, so that the position of the sucker 
may be seen ; it is then cut from the old 
root with a knife, preserving as many of 
its young roots as possible. The slips or 
suckers should, however, not be taken off 
till they have attained the height of a foot 
or 15 inches, and be planted as soon after 
removal as possible. No curtailment of 
the leaves should be allowed, although a 
very general practice. They should be 
planted in rows 4 feet apart, and the 
plants set 2 feet distant in the line. 
It is usual to put them in patches of 
three plants each, but it is better to have 
one plant only. When the old roots are 
to be divided, the operation may take 
place earlier in the season, and when the 
young plant is only 5 or 6 inches sprung. 
This is, however, not so good a way as 
using the suckers without any portion of 
the old root being retained. Give water 
at planting, and continue it until they 
have taken root. The heads will be pro- 
duced the first season, but later than 
those from established plants ; which cir- 
cumstance justifies the practice of making 
a new plantation every year, as it extends 
the season of the crop. Although arti- 
chokes will continue producing abun- 
dance of heads for a number of years, if 
in a good soil, and well attended to with 
manure, we think it better to plant an- 
nually, and so destroy half of the previous 
stock yearly, thus having strong young 
plants, and offering an opportunity for 
changing the soil. 

Suhseqiient cultivation. — Keep the ground 
well stirred up between the plants, thin 
out all the suckers that arise in spring, 



except from three to four of the strongest 
and best placed. Cut the crop as it is 
fit for use, whether wanted or not, as 
allowing them to flower greatly weakens 
the plants, as does also allowing the 
stems that produced the heads to remain 
after the heads are cut off. No planta- 
tion should be allowed to continue on the 
same ground more than four or five 
years, and the biennial system is the best. 
When the crop is finished, which will 
sometimes occur about the end of Octo- 
ber or beginning of November, the ground 
should be heavily manured, and the 
plants protected from frost by covering 
the ground around the roots with stable 
litter, leaves, fern, rotten tan, or finely- 
sifted coal-ashes. The latter we prefer, 
as it excludes both the wet and frost 
better than either. Many dig out the 
soil from between the rows and bank it 
up over the roots, which is both a labori- 
ous and useless practice. Whichever of 
these modes is followed, it is essential 
that the leaves of the plants be not buried. 
In spring the covering is removed when 
all danger of frost is past, and before the 
plants begin to shoot. 

Some recommend potting some of the 
small suckers in autumn, preserving them 
during winter in a pit, and planting them 
out in May. This is quite uncalled for, 
as abundance of small suckers may be 
obtained from the old plants in May na- 
turally, if they have not been destroyed 
as they arise from the stools; or a few 
plants may be left only, moderately thin- 
ned for the purpose. Our May-planted 
crop, by such means, continues to bear 
till the middle of November. Protection 
is necessary, as, although it does not 
often happen in moderate climates that 
they are killed during winter, yet such 
accidents have occurred. It is recorded 
that once, during the seventeenth century, 
and again in 1739, almost all the arti- 
chokes in England were destroyed by the 
frost, and that they were again intro- 
duced from France. In 1814, in Scot- 
land, they were much injured; and again 
in 1837-8, both in England and Scotland, 
unless where very carefully covered, they 
suffered very much. In all cold exposed 
situations covering is positively necessary, 
and in most others expedient. 

Soil and manure. — The roots penetrate 
to a great depth, therefore the soil should 

be deep, well drained, and of a light 
loamy texture, highly enriched with good 
manure, and that deposited at the bottom 
of the trenches, as well as incorporated 
through the soil during the process of 
trenching. Few culinary plants, if we 
except the asparagus and sea-kale, like 
salt more than this; it should be supplied 
liberally, and repeated as a top-dressing 
twice during each growing season. Heads 
of very large size are produced in the 
Orkney islands, resulting, it is said, from 
the quantity of sea-weed employed in the 
culture. We incline to more than mere 
supposition, that the cause really is the 
saline matter carried up from the sea 
into the atmosphere, and in this way ren- 
dered beneficial to the plants. The larger 
the heads are, the more eatable matter 
will be formed ; and not only that, but it 
will be more delicate and high-flavoured; 
therefore, to obtain large heads, strong 
plants must be produced, and this is only 
to be attained by allowing them plenty 
of room for their large foliage to develop 
itself fully, presenting the largest possible 
extent of their surface to the atmosphere, 
from which so very much of their actual 
food is derived. Young plants of two 
years' growth, and as rich a soil as can 
be afforded them for the roots to play 
their part in, are the conditions necessary 
to attain this end ; and also, when the 
stalks show many heads, these should be 
reduced in number to two or three ; and 
when the largest size of all is desired, 
only one head should be allowed to a 
stem, and all the small ones forming, on 
lateral branches, should be removed. A 
very dangerous recommendation has been 
given in " The Edinburgh Encyclopsedia " 
— namely, to insure large heads, "the 
ends of the leaves should be shortened." 
Than this no worse counsel could be 
given, inasmuch as the leaves perform so 
important a part in the collecting and 
elaborating the food of the plant. Aber- 
crombie, the very best of our old garden- 
ing authors, but evidently no physiologist, 
errs much when he recommends cutting 
off all the large leaves previous to cover- 
ing the plants in autumn. We say, let the 
leaves, large and small, remain and die 
off of their own accord ; for as long as a 
leaf remains green, or continues to be a 
living thing, it goes on supplying the 
plant with food until it becomes para- 



lysed by the frost, or dies off when its 
natural functions are completed. When 
we look back to the practice of the olden 
times, it is quite enough to make one 
shudder to think of the mutilations to 
which most plants were subjected. Celery 
and leeks were deprived of the half, and 
that half the best, of their leaves at plant- 
ing : artichokes, cardoons, &c., shared 
a similar fate. Ask the physiologist 
what is the use of leaves, and whether 
they should be wantonly destroyed ? In 
deep peaty soils, when well limed and 
manured, artichokes have been grown to 
a very large size ; and even the recom- 
mendation of Columella has, of late years, 
been revived — namely, to manure them 
with wood-ashes and salt. 

Taking the crop, and subsequent preserva- 
tion. — For pickling whole, and some other 
purposes, the heads should be cut when 
about 2 inches in diameter ; for the other 
purposes, when they have attained nearly 
their full size, but before the scales of the 
calyx begin to open ; for what is called 
bottoms, when they are at their largest 
size, and just as the scales begin to show 
symptoms of opening, which is an indica- 
tion that the flowers are about to be 
formed, after which the heads are useless, 
unless it be for those who use the flowers 
to coagulate milk, which they have the 
property of doing; but very few, we be- 
lieve, make use of them for this purpose. 
The heads should be cut close from the 
stalk, in which state they are fit for use. 
Three to five heads make a dish. If to 
be preserved for any time after cutting, 
they should be cut with 6 or 8 inches of 
the stalks attached to each head, carried 
to the dark root-cellar, and stuck into a 
bed of damp sand. They should be taken 
up from thence every third or fourth day, 
and a section about as thick as a penny- 
piece cut ofi' the ends of each, and again 
replaced. This is to allow a free ascent 
of the moisture from the sand being 
carried up through the stalk for the nou- 
rishment of the head. 

Approved sorts, and their qualities. — The 
EngUsh only recognise three sorts, viz., the 
oval, conical, or French, the large globe, and the 
dwarf globe. The French, however, possess 
other varieties; but these are not of sufEcient 
merit to lay great claim on our attention. M. 
Jacques, formerly one of the royal gardeners at 
Neuilly, produced plants from seed a year or 
two ago, the heads of which weighed 2 lb., and 

Fig. 51. 

measured 2 feet in circumference, while the 
whole plant' did not exceed 2 feet in height. 
We believe these varieties have not been re- 
ceived into this country. If this variety remains 
permanent, it would be a vast acquisition for 
certain purposes, but evidently too large for the 
way in which they are usually served up to our 
tables. The first has its heads oval and green, 
with the scales open ; the second is somewhat 
larger, globular, and tinged with a purplish 
colour — the scales are also turned in, or inflexed, 
at the top ; the third is in all respects smaller, 
but very prolific. 

Insects and diseases. — The artichoke appears 
to have no diseases and few insect enemies; and 
in consequence of this, is considered, in rotation, 
to be an excellent crop preparatory for onions, 
carrots, &c., which are so liable to their attacks. 
Sometimes, however, the 
leaves are attacked by the 
larvse of a very curious small 
beetle, Cassida viridis, fig. 
51, which, on account of its 
being found on this plant, is 
called the artichoke tortoise 
beetle. It is found in May 
and June — is not more than 
jV of an inch in length ; the 
" antennas are black, the 
ARTICHOKE TORTOISE ^^^^^^ wiug-cascs aud other 

grub, pupa, and beetle, outer covenngs green; the 
body is black beneath, and 
the legs pale, with black thighs. The larva 
has a very flat body, with spines upon its edges; 
and it has the singular habit of covering itself 
with its own excrement, which it unites together 
in a mass, and carries on a, kind of fork, at- 
tached to its tail. The pupa is also very flat, 
having thin toothed appendages at the sides of 
the body, with a broad thorax, prolonged for- 
ward into a rounded expansion, which covers its 
head." — Cottage Gardener, vol. iii. p. 317. 

General remarks. — The European names are, 
Artisjok in Dutch, Artischoke in German, Arti- 
chaut in French, Cinauco in Spanish and Por- 
tuguese, and Caroiofo in Italian. The flower of 
the artichoke, when its florets, which form a 
noble purple crown, are expanded, have a fine 
appearance ; at which time, if seed be desired, 
they should be partially broken over, and 
allowed to hang ten or twelve days with their 
crowns undermost, to prevent rain from enter- 
ing, which, in such a mass, is liable to cause 
rottenness. After that period they may be cut 
ofi' entirely, and hung upon a dry place, till the 
seed begins to drop out. It is rarely they ripen 
seed with us. 

When artichokes are to be cultivated for 
chard, all the leaves are to be out over in June 
to within 6 inches of the ground, and the stalks 
close to it — indeed, if broken over quite low 
down, the better. Young leaves will be produced 
in September and October; and when of the 
height of 2 feet, they should be tied together, 
but not very closely, and wound round vrith 
hay-bands to blanch them ; and still farther to 
encourage etiolation, a little littering matter may 
be packed round them, secured from blowing 
away. Some, however, earth them up like 




celery or cardoons ; and in wet seasons this is 
the better way, as the crop is less liable to suffer 
from damp. In six weeks the leaves and their 
stalks will become completely blanched: they 
are then fit for use, and should be gathered, and 
treated as has been recommended for cardoons. 
This is a process seldom attended to, because in 
its production the artichoke plants are destroyed, 
and therefore it should only be practised upon an 
old plantation, which may be intended to be de- 
stroyed at all events. It is, however, a good 
substitute, should any accident befall the car- 
doon crop, or in the event of their being 
neglected to be sown in time. 

§ 5. — THE HOP, ETC. 

As substitutes for the asparaginous 
plants already noticed, we may enume- 
rate tlie following, which, although now 
not in general demand, have occasionally 
been used in times past, and may, under 
certain circumstances, be so again. 

The Hop (Humulus lupulus Wild.) belongs 
to the natural order Urticeae, and to the class 
Dicecia, and order Pentandria, in the Linnseau 
arrangement. The introduction of this va- 
luable plant as an article of culture into Bri- 
tain took place during the reign of Henry 
VIII.; it was brought from Flanders, where, 
and also in many parts of Europe, it has been 
cultivated from time immemorial. It is never- 
theless indigenous to Britain : we have found it 
in the heart of the Grampians. The generic 
name is derived from humus, fresh earth, it 
preferring such soils. According to the " En- 
cyclopedia of Plants," p. 835, "Lupulus is a 
contraction of Lupus salictarius, the name by 
which, according to Pliny, it was known because 
it grew among the vnllows, to which, by twining 
round them, and choking them up, it proved as 
destructive as the wolf to the flock." It 
seems to have been unknown to the ancient 
Greeks, as it is unnoticed by their authors ; and 
Pliny is the first of the Roman authors who 
makes mention of this plant. A very interest- 
ing account of the introduction and early cul- 
ture of the hop into England is given in PhilKps' 
" History of Cultivated Vegetables," vol. ii. 
p. 233. 

As an article in the manufacture of malt 
liquors, it is well known. It is with its rela- 
tion to culinary purposes we have at present 
to do. D. Rembert Dodoens is the first who 
has alluded to this plant as a kitchen herb. He 
says, " Before its tender shoots produce leaves 
they are eaten in salads, and are a good and 
wholesome meat." The young shoots, gathered 
in spring when about 3 or 4 inches above 
ground, were formerly used by country people 
as a substitute for asparagus, which in flavour at 
least they very much resemble. These sprouts 
are still to be found in Covent Garden Market, 
and in the green markets on the Continent are 
by no means unfrequent. 

It is propagated by division of the root early 

in spring. It succeeds best in a deep soil, well 
enriched. The plants are set in what is called 
hills, or prepared mounds, at 7 or 8 feet apart, 
and three or four plants are set in each ; but for 
garden culture, to procure the tops whUe young, 
the plants are set in lines 3 feet apart, and the 
plants 1 foot asunder in the row. They are very 
liable to the attacks of various species of aphis ; 
hot lime, and, more recently, flowers of sulphur, 
are apphed for their destruction. 

T!ie Milk Thistle (Oarduus Marianus L., Sily- 
bwm Marianus Gal. — the Virgin Mary's milk or 
blessed thistle) belongs to the natural order 
Compositse, sub-order Carduacese, and the class 
Syngenesia sequalis in the Linnsean arrange- 
ment. The generic name is derived from 
the name of a plant used by the old Greek 
writers, not now known ; that of milk thistle, 
&c., from an old dogma that the leaves of the 
plant, which are sprinkled with white blotches, 
were so marked by the milk of the Virgin 
Mary having accidentally fallen upon it. A 
native of Britain. 

Uses. — It is not now cultivated, but rises up 
in most old gardens spontaneously, where no 
doubt it had formerly been grown, as the young 
leaves were once used in spring salads, or boiled 
as a substitute for spring greens. The young 
stalks, when peeled and soaked in water to ex- 
tract the bitter taste from them, were cooked 
and eaten much in the way of sea-kale. The 
roots, when two years old, are used much in the 
way of salsify, which they very much resemble, 
and the receptacle of the flower is cooked and 
eaten like artichokes. There is little culture 
required beyond a good soil, in which it luxuri- 
ates very much. 

The Cotton Thistle (Onopordum Acanthium) 
ranks in the same natural order as the last, 
and also in the same class and order in the 
Linnsean arrangement. The name is derived 
from ones, an ass, and perdo, to consume — be- 
cause this plant is eaten by that animal: the 
specific name from its leaves, resembling those 
of the acanthus. It is erroneously called the 
Scottish thistle. It attains the height of from 
6 to 10 feet, and is densely covered with a 
white cottony down. Indigenous to chalk pits 
and fertile lanes. 

The receptacle was formerly used as a substi- 
tute for the artichoke, and its leaves and their 
foot-stalks as one for cardoons. It may be cul- 
tivated in the same way as cardoons. 

The other substitutes for the plants in this 
chapter are — Silene inflate H. K., the bladder 
campion, indigenous to Britain ; Phytolacea de- 
candria L., the Virginian poke, a native of Vir- 
ginia, the tops of whose shoots are eaten as a 
substitute for asparagus ; Ornithogalum pyrenai- 
cum, or Bath asparagus — the flower-stems used 
for a like purpose ; Tamus communis, or black 
bryony — also a substitute for the same; Arctium 
lappa, or the burdock — the young shoots also 
used for the same. The two last may be found 
abounding in moist rich soils, by the edges of 
woods, lanes, &o. 



The principal of this class of plants 
are the varieties of the common spinach, 
and those of the sorrel. There are, how- 
ever, several others of considerable im- 
portance in domestic economy, and to be 
found in gardens of the highest order, 
although rarely cultivated in' those of 
minor note. They are less flatulent 
than many other vegetables, and there- 
fore may, like the common spinach, bo 
indulged in by those "who are deterred 
from using brassicaceous plants, which 
are exceedingly so. As the chief merits 
of the tribe consist in the tenderness and 
succulency of the leaves, the richer the 
ground is, and the quicker the growth is 
promoted, the more hkely are we to attain 
this in perfection. 

§ 1. — SPINACH. 

Natural history. — The spinacli {Spinacea olera- 
cea L.) belongs to the natural order Chenopodeje, 
and ranks in the class Diceoia, and order Hexand- 
ria, in the Linnsean arrangement. The generic 
name is derived from spina, a prickle, from the 
prickly integument of the fruit, or seed, in some 
varieties. Spinach does not appear to have been 
known to the ancients, nor is its cultivation 
traced in Britain beyond 1568, when it is men- 
tioned for the first time by Turner, in his 
" Herbal," who says, " Spinage, or spinech, is 
an herb lately found, and not long in use." Its 
native country is not known ; many, however, 
consider it a irative of northern Asia. In spinach 
we have almost the only instance, among oiilti- 
vated esculents, in which the male flowers are 
produced on one plant, and the female flowers 
on a distinct one. 

Uses. — The leaves, which are the only part of 
the plant employed as food, are either boiled by 
themselves and served alone, or garnished with 
hard-boiled eggs : in either case it is mashed 
quite small. It is often used in soups. It is 
eaten with all sorts of meat ; and is, when 
mashed with butter or rich gravy, much im- 

proved by the addition of a few sorrel leaves 
mashed with it. The expressed juice is often 
employed by cooks and confectioners for giving 
a green colour to some of their made dishes. 
When eaten freely it is mildly laxative, diuretic, 
and cooling. It of itself affords little nourish- 
ment. It should be boiled without the addition 
of water beyond what hangs to the leaves in 
rinsing them ; and when cooked, the moisture 
which naturally comes from the leaves should 
be squeezed out before being sent to the table. 
The young leaves were used as a salad not only 
in the time of Queen Elizabeth, but even so late 
as the days of Charles I. 

Propagation. — The varieties of spinach, 
being annuals, must be grown from seed. 

Sowing. — The leaves are required dur- 
ing the whole year, therefore sucoessional 
sowings become necessary. In England, 
a small sowing may be made in January 
if the weather is mild, a larger sowing in 
February, and a still larger one about 
the middle of March. In Scotland it is 
seldom necessary to sow sooner than the 
latter date, as the winter crop lasts longer 
with us before running to seed in spring 
than it does in the south. March may 
therefore be considered the best time for 
our earliest crop. Sow afterwards once 
in three weeks, tiU the beginning of May, 
then every week till the end of July. 
Three sowings should be made in August 
for winter and spring use, say during the 
first, second, and third week, each of which 
should cover a large space, as few winter 
vegetables are more useful. We always 
sow two crops during September, as at 
that period there is ground to spare ; and 
if the crops be not required for other use, 
they will constitute an excellent green 
vegetable manure, if dug into the ground 
in spring. It will be found useful for 
pigs. The London market-gardeners sow 



from the 12th of August to the Ist of 
September, for ■winter and spring use. 

The seed vegetates in from 10 to 15 
days, according to the season ; therefore 
it may be advantageously sown between 
rows of newly planted pease, beans, cab- 
bage, or the like, as it will be fit to cut 
off for use before they either injure it, or 
it prove an impediment to their growth. 
And when so sown, the drills should be 
made nine inches wide and the seed thinly 
sprinkled in them, to give the plants 
greater room than if sown in the ordinary 
manner. The germination of the seed 
may be hastened by its being steeped in 
water three or four hours previous to sow- 
ing; and in sowing during the heat of 
summer, when the ground is dry, the 
drills should be soaked with water before 
the seed is sown. 

It should always be sown in drills, 2 
inches deep and 18 inches or 2 feet apart 
for principal winter crops, the plants 
being, after they come up, thinned to a 
foot apart in the line. As the object is 
to have large succulent leaves, the grotmd 
cannot be too highly manured. The full- 
sized leaves should be 8 inches long and 
4 broad. For summer crops it may ad- 
vantageously be sown between rows of 
pease or similar crops, the slight shade 
afforded them preventing their running 
so soon to seed ; but during summer the 
leaves wiU not attain the size stated above. 
If sown broadcast, 2 ounces of seed will 
sow a bed of 120 square feet. If sown in 
continuous rows, a foot between the sum- 
mer crops will be suificient. One ounce 
will sow 150 feet of a single drill. 

Subsequent cultivation. — The summer 
crops should be abundantly supplied with 
water during dry weather, the plants 
only moderately thinned, as their dura- 
tion is short. In November it will be 
well to thin the plants intended for a 
winter and spring crop to the above dis- 
tance in the lines, to clear the ground 
completely of weeds, and to cover the 
spaces between the rows with finely-sifted 
coal-ashes, to counteract damp and to 
render the ground more comfortable to 
tread upon during the process of gather- 
ing the crop. This also saves the large 
lower leaves from being splashed with 
mud during heavy rains. 

It is seldom the spinach crop is injured 
by frosts in Britain, particularly in mo- 

derately good situations. There are many 
places, however, in upland and cold dis- 
tricts, where it suffers much. In such 
the soil should be less enriched, as the 
less succulent the leaves are the better 
they will resist the frost. A more shel- 
tered and warmer place should also be 
chosen for the winter crop. In some 
parts protection is necessary, and this, 
if even of a very temporary nature, will 
be found sufficient. Sticking the plan- 
tation pretty thickly with branches of 
broom, old pea-sticks, or indeed branches 
of any kind, so as to break the force of 
the wind and arrest perpendicular frosts, 
will, in most situations, be found suffi- 
cient; and in such situations, covering 
the ground between the rows with coal- 
ashes should be carefully attended to. 
Still such coverings should not be had 
recourse to unless in extreme cases, neither 
should they be applied too early or con- 
tinued too late in the season. The ground 
should also be kept clear of weeds, and in 
gathering the crop the leaves should be 
pinched or cut off by the foot-stalk, and 
not plucked or lacerated as is so frequently 
done, as every leaf so torn and mutilated 
will almost certainly rot off. 

Soil and manure. — In light sandy soils 
spring crops come into use soonest, but 
they equally soon shoot up to seed and 
become useless. In strong retentive soils 
they are later, and continue longer. In 
medium good garden soils, abundantly 
manured, the crops succeed best ; and it 
is of importance, particularly for crops to 
come in during winter and to continue 
on till spring, that the situation chosen 
be open and well exposed. The ground 
cannot be too highly enriched for this 
crop, and much benefit has arisen from 
watering the plants with ammoniacal 
liquor from the gas-works. Pigeons' dung 
has been used with much advantage, and 
so also has guano in a liquid form. 

Taking the crop. — The larger and lower 
leaves should be gathered first, and these 
should either be cut off with a knife or 
pinched off between the finger and thumb 
close to the bottom of their foot-stalks. 
It is wasteful and untidy to pluck the 
leaves off by the middle, and it is equally 
so to take the heart ones out. The sum- 
mer crops, as they grow so rapidly, may 
be cut close to the ground with a knife. 
When the former is carried to the vege- 



table-house the foot-stalks of the leaves 
should be cut off and the leaves sorted, 
removing all the flower-stalks should any 
exist, and rinsing the whole in clean 
water, placing them afterwards in a clean 
basket to allow the water to drain from 

Approved sorts and their gualities. — Not- 
withstanding the length of time spinach has 
been a very generally cultivated plant, but few 
varieties have appeared. Indeed, for long only 
two, the prickly and the round-seeded, were 
known, and it is only lately that a third has 
been added. Like the lettuce and endive, this 
vegetable is divided into two natural divisions 
— namely, the prickly and the round-seeded 

Prichly spinach. — ^The leaves are much smaller, 
more round, and less succulent than any of the 
round-seeded varieties. It stands the winter 
rather better than they do, and is less liable 
to run to seed. Readily distinguished by the 
seeds being prickly, known as winter spinach, 
being chiefly sown in autumn to stand over 
winter. Bordeaux, the Epinard commun, of the 

Lettuce-leaved spinach. — Of this variety Mr 
Thompson says : " This is an excellent new 
variety ; the leaves are somewhat rounder than 
those of the Flanders spinach, of thick sub- 
stance, and dark green colour. It is, perhaps, 
not quite so hardy as the Flanders, but it 
usually stands the winter well, and, from its 
superior quality, it deserves to occupy at least 
half the ground allotted to the winter crop of 
spinach. A variety called Epinard Gaudry, if 
not identical, is very similar to it." It is the 
Epinard d'Esquermes, ou ^ feuiUe de laitue, of 
the French. Seeds round. 

Flanders spinach. — This is an improved va- 
riety of the next, with much larger and more 
succulent leaves often 8 inches in breadth. It 
is the Epinard de Flandre, Epinard de Flandre 
a tres larges feuilles, of the French. It is also 
the principal sort grown in the Netherlands. 
Seeds round. 

Bound spinach. — This and the prickly-seeded 
were long the only two sorts grown. Leaves 
large, roundish, and thick. It is known also as 
summer spinach, thick-leaved round spinach, 
spring spinach, round spinach. It is the Epinard 
d'HoUande ou Epinard rond, of the French. 
Seeds round. 

General remarlcs. — The European names are 
Epiuard in French ; Espinaoa in Spanish ; Spi- 
nagie in Dutch; Spinaci in Italian; Spinat in 
German. In Arabia it is called Hispane. From 
this latter name, and as it was formerly often 
called Olus hispanicum, it has been thought to 
be a native of Spain. Spinach contains a consider- 
able amount of nitre — so much so that the water 
which is drained from it, after being boiled, 
makes as good match-paper as that made by a 
solution of nitre. In saving seed, as soon as 
the flowering is past, the male plants, which 
will have then performed their office, should be 
all removed to admit air and light to the female 

plants to enable them to perfect their seeds. 
The seed ripens in August and September, 
and, after being dried for a week or so in the 
straw, should be thrashed out. Birds are ex- 
tremely fond of spinach seed, so much so as to 
render it expedient to cover the seed crop, if 
upon a limited scale, with netting, from the 
time the plants come into flower until the seed 
is ripened. Upon a large scale, boys should be 
stationed to scare them away. The seed retains 
its vegetative properties about four years. 

§ 2. — "WILD SPINACH. 

Natural history. — Wild or perennial spinach, 
(Chenopodium bonus Senricus L.) or, as it is 
called by country people, good king Henry, 
tota bona, and fat hen, names seemingly preva- 
lent over a great part of Europe^the French 
peasantry, who use it much, calling it bon 
Henri, the Germans, guter Heinrich — belongs to 
the natural order Chenopodeae, and to the 
class Pentandria and order Digynia in the Lin- 
nsean arrangement. It is indigenous to many 
parts of Britain, particularly in loamy soils in 
waste places. It was formerly grown in gardens 
for its leaves, which make an excellent substi- 
tute for spinach, and is so still in several parts 
of Lincolnshire. It would make an excellent 
spinaceous plant for cottagers, and is easily 
cultivated. The generic name is derived from 
Chen a goose, and Pous a foot, the leaves re- 
sembling the foot of that animal. 

Uses. — The same as spinach. 

Propac/ation. — Being a hardy perennial, 
it is increased by dividing the plant into 
pieces, each having a portion of the root, 
and a small bit of the crown which is 
thickly set with buds, which spring freely 
on being replanted. It may also be pro- 
pagated by seed sown in March, and 
transplanted, when the plants are fit to 
handle, into a nursery-bed. In Septem- 
ber following, they should be transplanted 
into lines a foot apart, and 10 inches in 
the line, in ground of a loamy nature, and 
trenched to the depth of 18 inches, as 
their roots penetrate to a considerable 
depth. The following spring the leaves 
are fit to gather for use, and should be 
picked as they advance, taking the largest 
first. In this way a bed will continue 
productive for several years. Most of the 
species of this genus, both indigenous and 
exotic, may be safely used as articles of 
food. It comes into use about the be- 
ginning of May, and continues all the 
summer. Its European names are, Gan- 
zevoet in Dutch, Anserine in French, 
Meldenatrige in German, Anserine in 




Natural history. — French spinach or Orache 
(Atriplex horiensis) belongs to the natural order 
Cheuopodese, and to the class Polygamia, and 
order Monoecia in the Linnsean arrangement. 
It is a native of Tartary, and was introduced 
into EngUsh gardens in 1S48, and long used, as 
it still is in many countries abroad. It is now 
seldom seen in our gardens or markets; yet 
there are some people who prefer it to spinach, 
and in France it is greatly esteemed. 

Use. — Daring the early part of summer, the 
stems are used ; but after that the leaves, which 
are gathered in succession, and continue produc- 
ing throughout the season. It is used as a sub- 
stitute for spinach, having a pleasant slightly 
acid taste. 

Propagation. — The seed is sown in drills 
in February or March, 2 feet apart, the 
plants being afterwards thinned out to 2 
feet in the lines. Sow again for a succes- 
sion for autumn use in June, choosing a 
rich, deep, and rather moist soil. There 
are several varieties, two of which only, 
the green and purple leaved, are usually 
cultivated. A plant or two left to pro- 
duce seed will be sufficient for a large 
garden. The seed ripens in August. 

The European names are, Arroohe in 
French, Melde in Dutch, Armuelles in 
Spanish, Meldekraut in German, Atrepice 
in Italian. 


Nahiral history. — New Zealand spinach (Te- 
tragonia expansa, Hort. Kew) belongs to the 
natural order Ficoidese, and to the class loosan- 
dria Di-Pentagynia in the Liunsean arrangement. 
The name is derived from Tetra, four, gonia, an 
angle — from the angular form of the fruit or 
seed-vessel. It is a native of New Zealand, from 
whence it was introduced by Sir Joseph Banks 
in 1772. It does not appear to be at all used by 
the natives. It was, for some years after its 
introduction, cultivated only as a greenhouse 
plant ; but afterwards, through the recommen- 
dation of Sir J. Banks and the Horticultural So- 
ciety, it began to be grown in private gar- 
dens as a substitute for spinach, and may 
be considered about as hardy as the kidney- 
bean. It yields a large produce, but by no means 
equal to spinach; yet during dry warm weather 
in summer, it will be found in warm localities a 
useful substitute, as one sowing will keep up a 
supply, while several of the common spinach 
have to be made. Indeed, the warmer the wea/- 
ther, the better it succeeds. 

Use, and its mode of cooking, are the same as 
the common spinach. 

Propagation. — Being an annual, it is 
grown from seed annually. 

Sowing. — Sow the seed thinly in a pot 
or pan early in March, which place in a 
moderate hot-bed till the plants are fit 
for pricking out ; or, to save the latter 
process, sow in 60-sized pots, three seeds in 
each, and thin out to one, which, when of 
sufficient size, and the weather sufficiently 
warm, plant out on a warm border, or, 
better, on a bed of soil placed over a slight 
hot-bed, where they may remain. About 
the 20th of May in England, or begin- 
ning of June in Scotland, will be a good 
time to plant out without shelter ; but if 
on a mild hot-bed, they may be set out 
sooner, and protected during night by 
having the bed hooped over, and covered 
with tarpauling or Russian mats. Set 
the plants about 3 feet apart. In iive or 
six weeks after planting, the leaves will 
be of sufficient size to admit of gathering. 
Protection will be required in autumn, 
should it be wished to continue the crop. 

Gathering the crop. — Pick the leaves off 
singly, taking care not to injure the points 
of the leading shoots; they branch out 
and continue extending till killed by the 
frost. Half an ounce of seed will be suf- 
ficient for the largest garden, and from 
six to twelve plants enough for an ordi- 
nary-sized one. The seed is readily pro- 
duced, and will retain its vegetative powers 
for two or three years, if retained in the 
capsule. It is usually known by its bo- 
tanic name, and is not more subject to 
insects or diseases than other plants of 
the same order. 


Natural history. — Garden patience, or herb 
patience (Rumex Patientia L.), belongs to the 
natural order Polygonese, and to the class Hex- 
andria, and order Trigyuia in the Linnsean ar- 
rangement. The generic name is derived from 
Rumex, a spear — from the shape of its leaves ; 
others say from Rumex, a name given by the 
Latins to a root of thorn ; the specific name 
Patientia, from its slow operation in medicine. 
It is a native of Italy, and was introduced to 
England in 1573. 

There are several species of the genus Rumex 
that have been or are still cultivated ; and as 
their uses and culture are so nearly alike, we 
shall include them under one head. 

The French round-leaved or Roman sorrel (Ru- 
mex scutatus L.), a native of France and Italy. 
Introduced to Britain in 1 596, and Bloody-veined 
dock {Rumex sanguineus), a native of England, 
were both formerly cultivated in our gardens 



as substitutes for spinach. The former stUl 
is, and on the Continent it is grown very exten- 

The common sorrel {Rumex acetosa) has been 
cultivated from time immemorial as a spinach 
plant, as well as used in salads. In Ireland the 
leaves are eaten with fish and other alkalescent 

The mild-leaved sorrel {Rumex montanus H.K., 
the Oxyria reniformis Smith). "The plant is 
one of those singular individuals which has 
the character of two distinct genera, and yet is 
referable to neither. Wahlenberg made it a 
Rheum, Linnaeus a Rumex, and Mr R. Brown 
what it now is." — Eney. of Plants, p. 295. It is 
much used in France as a salad, and the male 
plant of this species is recommended in the Bon 
Jardinier to be planted as edgings. There are 
several varieties of the common sorrel ; that 
called by the French I'oseille de Belletiille is the 
most esteemed, on account of the largeness and 
succulent state of its foliage. We cultivate it in 
preference to all the other sorts ; and in rich 
moist soil the leaves attain a large size and 
thickness. The sorrels are aU of great import- 
ance in French cookery, and are both agreeable 
to eat and exceedingly wholesome ; and could 
vulgar prejudice be got over, many an excellent 
dish might be gathered almost the whole year 
over from our roadsides. Phillips, in " Hist, of 
Cult. Vegetables," vol. ii. p. 214, very properly 
remarks : " Rarity being oftener coveted than 
excellence, it is not surprising that we should 
find this native vegetable discarded in an age 
in which novelty principally stimulates art to 
furnish our kitchens. The caprice of fashion 
extends even to our vegetable food; and zeal, 
which should emulate us to improve the vir- 
tues of our own plants, is often wasted in ob- 
taining those of distant countries whose quali- 
ties are uncertain. Sorrel is scarcely known as 
a pot-herb in this country, except at fashionable 
tables, the small demand having now nearly 
banished it from the metropoUtan markets." 

The use of the sorrel is of great antiquity ; 
Pliny observes that it renders meat more plea- 
sant, and lighter of digestion. It is a valuable 
anti-scorbutic, and is used as an ingredient in 
salads, and when boiled, as a sauce for roast 
meat, particularly veal and pork — it greatly assists 
their digestion. It is an excellent substitute 
for apple sauce for winter geese, and should, 
like spinach, be boiled without water. It makes 
a good substitute for spinach when beat up with 
butter, and is greatly improved by the addition 
of the yolk of eggs and cream. It enters into 
most of the soups and sauces for which French 
cookery is so famed, and they preserve it in 
quantities for winter use. It forms as promi- 
nent an article in the vegetable markets in Paris 
as green pease do in those of London. It was 
held in high repute in Britain about the time of 
Hemy VIII. and Elizabeth. Its use has, how- 
ever, greatly declined since that time ; and yet, 
amongst all our modern additions, we have not 
one so wholesome, and of such easy cultivation, 
or one that would add so much to the sanitary 
condition of our peasantry, particularly those 
who live much upon salt provisions. 

Propagation. — All the kinds may be 
propagated by seed, which should be 
sown in rows 18 inches apart, and the 
plants thinned to 12 inches distance in the 
line. Sow in March, in deeply-trenched 
soil, moderately enriched by manure, and 
rather inclining to damp. In autumn, 
the old plants may be divided and plant- 
ed in rows at the above distance. Even 
fragments of the roots will, if planted, 
make good strong plants during the fol- 
lowing spring and summer. As flower- 
stalks appear, cut them offi Keep the 
ground clear of weeds, and annually fork 
in some rich manure between the plants ; 
or, still better, apply liquid manure with- 
out disturbing the roots. 

Qeneral remarles. — The European names of 
the common sorrel are — OseiUe in French ; Ace- 
tosa in Italian ; Sauerampfer in German ; Ace- 
dera in Spanish ; and Veldzuuring in Dutch. 
Those of the garden patience are — Rhubarbe dea 
monies in French ; Romice in Italian; Englische 
or winter spinat in German. 


Natural history. — The white or Sicilian beet 
{Beta cicla L.) belongs to the natural order 
Chenopodese, and to the class Pentandria, and 
order Digynia, in the Linnaean arrangement. 
The generic name is derived from Bett, red, in 
Celtic ; the specific name, according to De Theis, 
is a corruption of sicvXa, under which name it is 
spoken of by Catullus. According to Phillips, 
beet is a name arising from the shape of its seed- 
vessel, " which, when it swells with seed, has 
the form of the letter so called in the Greek 
alphabet." The white beet was introduced to 
England from Portugal in 1570, where, and also 
in Spain, it is an inhabitant of the sea-coasts. 

Uses. — This species of beet — for it is con- 
sidered botanically as a distinct species from 
beta vulgaris, the common, or red beet — is cul- 
tivated entirely for its leaves, whereas the red 
beet is grown for its roots. These leaves are 
boiled like spinach, and put into soups ; and the 
midribs and stalks, which are separated from 
the lamina of the leaf, are stewed and eaten like 
asparagus, under the name of chard. As a 
spinaceous plant, the white beet might be grown 
to great advantage by cottagers and farmers, as 
it affords leaves fit for use during the whole 
summer; — but we require as great a dififasion 
of knowledge in the art of cooking amongst 
those classes as we do as regards the production 
of the article to be cooked. The great white 
or Swiss chard is a large variety of this species ; 
the foot-stalks and ribs of its leaves are dressed 
like asparagus, and thought equal to that popu- 
lar vegetable. There are other varieties, differ- 
ing mainly in the colour of their midribs and 
stalks, each of which is, however, adapted to 



the Game purposes. One ounce of seed is suf- 
ficient to sow a bed, for transplanting, of 50 
square feet. 

Propagation. — It is best to sow the seed 
annually, first, in the beginning of March, 
and again in September — the latter to 
supply leaves late in autumn and early 
in the following spring. 

Sowing and planting. — Always sow in 
drills, a foot apart for the smaller sorts, 
and from 15 to 18 inches for the larger. 
Should failures take place in the crop, 
the deficiences may be made good by 
thinning out where the plants have come 
up too thick, and transplanting them into 
the vacancies. The beet transplants well, 
and therefore, should ground be scarce at 
sowing time, the seed may be sown in 
beds, and the plants transplanted after- 
wards when ground is clear, taking care 
that in planting the roots be not doubled 

Subsequent cultivation. — Thin the plants 
when about 6 inches in height to the dis- 
tance of from 9 inches to a foot apart, ac- 
cording as the sort is large or small. 

" In cultivating the Swiss chard, the 
plants are frequently watered during 
summer, to promote the succulency of 
the stalks ; and in winter they are pro- 
tected with litter, and sometimes earthed 
up, partly for this purpose, and partly to 
blanch the stalks. Fresh chards are thus 
obtained from August tiU May. When 
the garden sorts of white beet are trans- 
planted, the proper time is during moist 
weather in lilay or June. The distance 
from plant to plant may be from 10 to 
14 inches — much of the advantage of 
transplanting depending on the room thus 
afforded the plants, together with the 
general disposition of transplanted an- 
nuals, with fusiform roots, as the turnip, 
carrot, &c. to throw out leaves and lateral 
radicles." — Enci/c. of Gard., 841. 

Soil and manure. — The soil requires to 
be deeply trenched, and of a fair staple 
quality ; and as the quality of the crop 
depends on the size and fleshiness of the 
midribs when chard is intended, and on 

the breadth and succulency of the foliage 
when it is grown as a substitute for 
spinach, it follows that the soil should be 
rich, or rendered so by copious manur- 

Taking the crop. — The largest and full- 
est grown leaves should be gathered first; 
others will follow. If grown for spinach, 
the leaves should be rinsed in clean water, 
placed in a basket to drain dry, and so 
sent to the kitchen. If for chard, the 
foot-stalks should be carefully preserved, 
and their leaves tied up in bundles of 6 
or 8 in each. Twelve stalks, with the 
leaves entire, will be sufficient for a dish. 

Sorts and ihevr giialities. — The common white 
has small roots; the ribs, foot- stalks, and leaves 
of a delicate greenish-white colour. 

The large white, or Swiss chard, has its leaves 
much larger and thicker; the foot-stalks and 
ribs are much larger and much whiter. In 
those parts of the Continent where this plant is 
much gr'own for chard, there are several sub-varie- 
ties in cultivation. The green beet, and yellow- 
rooted varieties of Beta rndgaris, are also often 
grown for a similar purpose. The large Swiss 
chard is, however, the best. Another variety 
grown is Beta maritima (sea^beet), a plant indi- 
genous to our sea-coast. In seed catalogues we 
find the following names — Golden-veined, small 
rooted, green-leaved, red-veined, silver or white 
veined, commonly called silver beet. Brazilian 
beet {Beta Braziliensis) has very large green 
leaves, and makes an excellent substitute for 
spinach, but is rather more tender than the 
green sort. 

Insects and diseases. — The beets are not very 
subject to either the one or the other. The 
Haltica nemorum (the turnip flea-beetle), how- 
ever, often attacks them, for which see section 


General remarTcs. — The European names are — 
Bette or poirSe in French ; Biet in Dutch ; Acel- 
ga in Spanish ; Mangold - kraut in German ; 
Biettola in Italian. To save seed, a few of the 
best formed roots should be selected and kept 
out of the frost during winter, and planted in a 
warm well-exposed spot in spring. When the 
flower-stalks have attained the height of 2 or 3 
feet, support them with stakes. The seeds 
will ripen in September. When dry, thrash 
them out; and keep them, when thoroughly 
dried, in paper bags till wanted. The roots of 
the varieties of white beet are not adapted for 
the table. 



The use of salads is of the greatest an- 
tiquity, and, in a sanitary point of view, 
of great importance, particularly in warm 
countries. In no country, however, are 
salad plants more cultivated or used than 
in France, where they form a very consi- 
derable item in the food of the people. 
The rich eat them as a luxury, the poor 
from necessity. In Britain, if we except 
the lettuce, endive, and celery, all of which 
find a ready sale in our markets — the for- 
mer during the heat of summer, and the 
latter during winter — salads, in their 
greatest variety, are confined mainly to 
the gardens of the opulent. The artisans 
in our large manufacturing towns are 
yearly becoming greater consumers of 
lettuce, radishes, and celery, in particu- 
lar, and find benefit from their use. Man- 
chester has long been famed for its celery, 
and it has been grown to a larger size 
there than elsewhere. The varieties grown 
under the name of Manchester celery have 
long held a place in our seed-lists. The 
use of salads is only beginning to be ap- 
preciated amongst the middle classes in 
Scotland, and the natural prejudice against 
" eating green meat " is daily subsiding — 
a prejudice, by the way, not altogether 
unfounded, from the coldness of our cli- 
mate and habits of the people. Salads 
can only be grown in perfection where 
vegetation is of rapid growth ; and hence, 
even in England, we do not meet with 
the same excellent salads as are to be had 
at eveiy table d'hote in Holland, Belgium, 
and France. 

§ 1. — CELERY, 

Natural history. — Celery or smallage (Apium 
graviolens L.) belongs to the natural order Um- 

belliferse, and to the class Pentandria, and order 
Digynla, in the Linnseau arrangement. The 
generic name is derived from Apon, water (Cel- 
tic), from its growing in ditches and in watery- 
places. Cultivation has transformed it from a 
coarse, rank, and even more than suspicious 
plant, to one of the most agreeable and whole- 
some of all our cultivated esculents. It is a 
native of several parts of Britain, especially near 
the sea, and known in its wild state as smallage, 
but never used by man, and not much relished 
by other animals. It appears to have been first 
cultivated in Italy, for in our oldest seed-lists 
it is called " Upright Italian Celery," and of this 
there was a red and white variety. Ray, a writer 
of older date than any seed-lists, observes " that, 
if neglected, it degenerates into its first unpalat- 
able state." Phillips says, "Ache is the true 
English name for this vegetable." 

Use. — The whole plant is used either in a 
green or blanched state, as well as its seeds. In 
the former, and also in the latter form, it is used 
to fiavour soups. The seeds, at that season when 
the plant is scarce, are bruised, and put into a 
small bag to prevent their mixing with the soup ; 
and old seed, that has lost its vegetating proper- 
ties, is employed for the purpose. In its blanched 
form it is eaten raw, as a salad ; generally served 
whole, sometimes cut into small pieces, but 
usually, particularly if large, cut into four quar- 
ters longitudinally, for greater convenience in 
serving it. It is also stewed in white sauce, and 
is sometimes made into an agreeable conserve. 
In Italy and the Levant it is seldom blanched, 
the green leaves and stalks being used either 
stewed by themselves or as an ingredient in 
soups. Medically, it is considered diuretic, and 
a decoction of it has been found good in cases 
of gravel. 

Propagation. — Although a hardy bien- 
nial in its wild state, it must be considered 
as little other than an annual in cultiva- 
tion, unless when grown for its seeds, in 
which case it is treated as a biennial. It 
is invariably propagated from seed. 

Sowing and Planting. — For the earliest 
crop the seed should be sown by the be- 
ginning or middle of February, in pans, 




placed on a moderate hot-bed. The seed 
will often be three weeks before it ger- 
minates. When the young plants of this 
sowing are about 2 inches high, they 
should be transplanted singly into small 
60-sized pots (in decomposed manure 
only), and plunged in a very slight heat, 
say 45° to 50°. By the beginning of April 
they will require to be shifted into large 
48-sized pots, and kept growing slowly 
till the end of that month or beginning of 
May, and then planted out in shallow 
trenches in the warmest part of the gar- 
den. Indeed, for those who wish the crop 
very early, it is well to dig the trenches 
2 feet deep, and fill them to within 6 
inches of the top with warm dung to sti- 
mulate the plants, and cover with hartd- 
glasses, or, better, with longitudinal tri- 
angular frames, a foot in breadth at the 
base, which is open, and a foot in height, 
having one of the sides glazed. Others 
grow the plants in pits, shifting them from 
time to time into larger pots, and plant 
them out in trenches about the beginning 
of June, when from a foot to 18 inches in 
height, earthing them up at the same time, 
to prevent their leaves being broken. It 
is only in some families that this routine 
is necessary. The ordinary earliest sow- 
ing is made about the end of February, 
upon a slight hotbed, either covered with 
a regular frame and glass hghts, or with 
hand-glasses. Plants from this sowing 
are once or twice transplanted on a slight 
heat, in very rotten dung, placed over the 
heating material about 4 or 5 inches thick, 
made into a state resembling thick mor- 
tar, and beaten firmly down, the plants 
being at their last removal set 4 or 5 inches 
apart. These will be fit for final trans- 
planting into shallow trenches by the be- 
ginning of June, and will be fit for use in 
August. A second sowing should be 
made about the end of March, and if 
treated as above will be fit for transplant- 
ing into trenches by July, and come in for 
a general autumn crop. And a third 
sowing should be made about the middle 
of April, in the open border, or on an 
exhausted dung-bed, which, when twice 
transplanted, will be fit to plant out for 
good about the 10th of August ; and as 
this may be considered the principal win- 
ter and spring crop, a much larger sow- 
ing should be made. We generally sow a 
fourth crop in May, to obtain plants for 

planting towards the end of September 
for our latest spring supply. Transplant- 
ing is of much importance for securing 
celery from shooting up to seed, and pre- 
venting it growing hollow in the stalks, 
or pipy, as it is technically termed. The 
check which the tap root sustains at each 
removal has a tendency to cause the pro- 
duction of lateral roots, and, as a conse- 
quence, the production of greater vigom- 
and rapidity of growth in the plant, and 
hence a less disposition to run to flower. 
The object of transplanting on solid masses 
of rotten dung is to invigorate the plants, 
and render their future removal safe, as 
by cutting the dung into squares and lift- 
ing each piece entire, the roots are thereby 
secured from injury, and the plants from 
any sudden check to their growth. As to 
the quantity of seed, an ounce will be 
sufficient for most gardens; but as it is 
found to be expedient to grow several 
sorts, the quantities of each must be regu- 
lated by circumstances. The London 
market-gardeners sow for their first crop 
early in February, again in March, and 
last of all in April, for their latest crop ; 
the first only of these is sown on slight 
heat, and hooped over with mats. 

Celery-seed should always be sown 
thin, to secure stocky plants, which never 
can be the case if they are crowded in 
their earliest stages. Their first trans- 
planting is effected by using a small dib- 
ber or pricker, about half an inch in dia- 
meter. Their second removal should be 
with a dibber at least 1^ inch in diameter, 
and cut square across at the point, because 
at that time the roots will have ramified 
considerably, and if carefully removed 
will have small balls of earth or dung 
attached to them. Their final transplant- 
ing should be performed either with the 
transplanting trowels, figs. 27, 28, or the 
media they are growing in should be cut 
into square pieces with a sharp instrument, 
and, beginning at one end, a flat trowel or 
small spade should be introduced under 
the mass in such a way as to keep the ball 
perfectly entire about the roots. Water 
must be abundantly supplied during their 
whole preparatory growth. 

Celery is grown in trenches, for the 
obvious purpose of enabling the cultiva- 
tor to earth up the plants more conve- 
niently, and hence insuring its more 
complete blanching. These trenches are 



either narrow, intended for a single row 
of plants, or 4 or 5 feet in breadth, 
for the reception of several rows of plants. 
The first is no doubt the best for crops to 
stand over the winter, where protection is 
not to be given, and where there is ground 
to spare. It is the plan adopted to secure 
very large specimens, and hence the 
Manchester growers practise it to attain 
the latter object ; and the London mar- 
ket-gardeners grow it in the same way, 
because, as with asparagus, the larger it 
is the better it takes in the market. In 
private gardens, where large size is less a 
consideration than crisp, well-blanched, 
and high-flavoured stems, the broad 
trench, or Scotch mode, is greatly to be 
preferred, as well on account of its yield- 
ing a much greater number of mode- 
rately-sized heads upon the same extent 
of surface. 

The London market-gardeners' mode 
of planting " is to dig out a trench two 
spades deep, banking the mould up on 
either side ; then to fill in a foot of the 
strongest manure, such as cow-dung, and 
to cover this with 3 or 4 inches of mould 
for planting in. If the ground is very 
rich, half the quantity of manure is ap- 
plied. The rows are generally from 4 to 
6 feet apart. The plants are then taken 
from, the seed-bed, and planted root and 
head entire — not trimmed in, a plan 
which ought to be discontinued in every- 
thing." To this we heartily say, Amen. 
" The plants are placed about 8 inches 
apart, the intermediate ground being 
planted with coleworts, lettuce, or any 
other light crops, which are likely to be 
off before the celery wants moulding up ; 
but market-gardeners do not begin blanch- 
ing until the plants are about 18 inches 
high, as it prevents rain and air acting on 
the roots." — Cuthill, MarJcet - gardening 
around London, p. 23. 

The Edinburgh marJcet-gardeners' mode of 
planting. — Trenches 6 feet wide and 1 foot 
deep are dug out ; a copious dunging is 
laid on the bottom, sometimes dug in, at 
other times spread over the bottom of 
the trench, trodden or beaten down pretty 
firmly, and 3 inches of soil laid over, into 
which the plants are set in rows across 
the bed, 14 inches asunder, and the plants 
9 inches apart in the row. By this means 
space is economised, and the plants attain 
a fair average size and quality. The same 

plan is very often followed in private gar- 
dens ; and where the new and improved 
sorts, such as Cole's, are gTown, they arrive 
at the size most available for family use. 
This is decidedly the best way for amateurs 
to grow this crop. They should grow their 
plants in nursery-beds until they are 10 
inches or a foot in height before final 
planting, giving plenty of water, and 
afterwards earthing up once a fortnight. 

The Manchester growers dig their trenches 
18 inches wide and a foot in depth, and 
from 4 to 5 feet distant from each other, 
and lay in 9 inches in thickness of com- 
post composed of fresh strong soil and 
well-rotted hot-bed dung, in the propor- 
tion of three-fourths of the latter to one- 
fourth of the former. The plants are 
taken from the nursery-beds with all their 
roots entire, and as much ball as will 
adhere to them. The side shoots or 
suckers are removed from the stems, and 
they are set in with a planting-trowel, 10' 
inches apart, the row being in the centre 
of the trench. They are watered liber- 
ally until fit for earthing up, but not 

Many plant on the surface — that is, 
marking out the size of the bed on ground 
that has been previously trenched, dig- 
ging in at least 6 or 8 inches of rich half- 
decayed manure, and planting either in 
single lines 4 feet apart, or making beds 
6 feet broad, and planting across them, 
setting the rows 14 inches distant, and 
the plants in either' way 8 inches apart in 
the lines. They may be earthed up as 
they advance, or not until they have 
attained the height of a foot. A mode' 
of planting celery, which may be called 
the simultaneous manner, is practised in 
some parts, and with evident advantage 
where ground is scarce. The manner is 
as follows : Early potatoes are planted in 
spring (or we would recommend autumn), 
at about 2| feet row from row ; when 
they are earthed up, a hollow trench is 
thus of necessity formed, into which rotten 
dung is placed, and on that, covered to 
the depth of 2 inches with soil, celery 
plants are set. As the potatoes are taken 
up, a little earth is put to the celery, which 
goes on growing, so that when the potato 
crop is cleared, the celery one is well ad- 
vanced, and treated in the usual manner. 
If the supposition be correct, that tubers 
increase in size after the haulm has been 



cut, this migLt be a profitable method of 
growing celery, by cutting off the haulm 
of the potatoes when it began to interfere 
■with the celery plants, and thus giving 
them all the advantages of light and air, 
the potatoes to be taken up afterwards 
when ripe, to admit of the celery being 
earthed up. 

It has been suggested to grow celery 
in water-tight trenches, with a view of 
supplying them with abundance of mois- 
ture at their roots, for there is no doubt 
that celery cannot be grown rapidly or 
of large size if kept very dry at its ex- 
tremities ; on the other hand, there is the 
danger to be apprehended of restoring to 
the plant its deleterious, nay, poisonous pro- 
perties, which it, along with so many more 
of its near allies in the Umbelliferse, is 
so weU known to possess. It were better 
to adopt a system of subterranean irriga- 
tion with liquid manure, to be used only 
in very dry weather, and only when the 
plants are in their height of growth, and 
dispensing with it afterwards. We have 
adopted the following plan with advan- 
tage to the bulk of crop, and without 
any evident sign of lessening the whole- 
someness of the plants : Along the centre 
of each single trench, imbedded in the 
manure, and over which the plants were 
set, we placed a course of drain-tiles laid 
on soles, having at the upper end (for the 
ground was considerably on the incline) 
an upright drain - pipe communicating 
with the tile -drain below. Into this 
liquid manure was poured, and allowed 
to escape through the openings between 
the tiles, thus moistening the dung and 
soil in which the roots were growing 
without at all wetting the soil around 
the stalks, which should be at aU times 
kept as dry as possible. 

Subsequent cultivation. — This consists 
chiefly in carefully removing any side 
shoots that may arise from the collar of 
the plants before earthing up, which is of 
considerable advantage in securing well- 
grown heads. As to the time of earthing 
up, opinions of late years seem to difier 
widely; some advocate the old method 
of earthing up progressively, putting a 
little only at a time, taking care to keep 
the hearts of the plants clear of soil; 
others say that no earthing up should take 
place until the plants have nearly attained 
their full size, when the earth should be 

put to all at once ; while others earth up 
when the plants are about 1 8 inches high, 
for the first time, adding a little after- 
wards so long as the growing season con- 

Some, instead of using the natural soil 
of the garden, pack the plants around 
with fine sand, and others use finely-sifted 
coal-ashes for a like purpose. Mr Roberts, 
a year or two ago, recommended what he 
called his " celery-blanching tiles," which 
in principle were nothing other, except 
in price, than common drain-tiles, one of 
which he placed on each plant, with a 
view to blanch it, and at the same time to 
keep it from coming into contact with 
the damp soil. The idea struck us as 
sufiiciently feasible, believing that etiola- 
tion would be eifected, and that the pro- 
tection afforded by the tiles would tend 
to preserve the plants during winter. 
We contented ourselves, however^ with 
employing two common horse-shoe drain- 
tiles, placing one on each side of a plant, 
and thus forming as good a blanching- 
tile as the other. These were put on 
when the plants were about 18 inches 
high, and kept in their places by working 
earth in amongst them to keep them 
steady. Contrary, however, to expecta- 
tion, we found the beds so treated the 
first to suffer from rot, and have since 
discontinued their use for this purpose, 
although we use them for another, which 
will be noticed below. 

The grand secret, if we may make use 
of a word which is too often made use of 
as a cloak to imposture, is to earth up 
only when the plants and the soil are as 
dry as possible. To do so when either is 
damp, is entailing destruction on the 

The London market-garden practice is 
thus described by Mr Cuthill : " The 
operation of earthing up is all performed 
by the spade; no hand earthing is employ- 
ed. Parallel lines are stretched on each 
side of the row 18 inches from the plants, 
and the mould is cut out of the alleys to 
form the blanching ridge. Late earthing 
up is effected in about three difierent 

In earthing up the broad or Scotch 
form of beds, the plants being disencum- 
bered of all side shoots or suckers, two 
pieces of board about 9 inches in width 
are placed one on one side of a row, and the 



other on the other side of the adjoining 
row, or, as " the knights of the whip " 
would say, one on the near side and the 
other on the off side of the space between 
two rows. These boards are placed in- 
clining rather outwards at top j they are 
kept in their place by a triangular piece 
of board placed between them like a 
■wedge at each end of the boards, while a 
man on each side of the bed breaks up 
the soil finely, which has been left be- 
tween the beds on purpose, and throws it 
in between the boards as high as the pre- 
sent earthing up is intended to be carried, 
which, upon an average, is 6 inches. The 
boards are then lifted gently upwards, 
and the pulverised soil falls in between 
the plants. They are removed to the 
next space, and so on. This is an expedi- 
tious mode, and with very ordinary care 
none of the soil falls into the hearts of 
the plants. Others take the leaves of a 
plant in one hand, holding them together, 
while with the other they press the soil 
around their stems ; but this is a time- 
killing process. Whichever process is 
followed, the soil should be kept open 
and loose around the plants, to prevent 
unnecessary pressure as well as exclusion 
of air. 

The following mode of earthing up is 
detailed by Mr Duncan of Basing Park, 
in the " Journal of the Horticultural So- 
ciety," vol. vi. p. 214 : — "The process is 
effected by three different operations. The 
first takes place when the plants have 
grown 9 or 10 inches in height. The 
small leaves immediately above the roots, 
and all embryo suckers, are carefully re- 
moved. After that the bed is completely 
saturated with liquid manure;" but sub- 
sequently to this period Mr Duncan " does 
not consider it requisite that any artificial 
■watering should take place. The beds are 
then covered with about 4 inches of mould 
from the ridges, which helps to keep the 
plants in an erect position, and acts like 
a mulching on the roots, thereby prevent- 
ing, in some measure, the evaporation of 
moisture from the bed. Some three weeks 
before the early crop is required for use, 
the second earthing takes place, ■which is 
performed in the following manner by 
two operators : Two boards, some 8 or 9 
inches in depth, and eq ual in length to the 
■width of the bed" (for Mr D. adopts the 
broad trench, or Scotch form), "are placed 

edgeways between the rows, each board 
resting against the plants in either row, 
so as to form at once space for the recep- 
tion of the mould, and aprotection to the 
leaves whilst the operation of earthing is 
being performed. When the required 
quantity of soil has been deposited, the 
boards are carefully withdrawn, and placed 
betwixt the next two rows ; and so the 
work proceeds, until all has been com- 
pleted. When the soil is of a very wet, 
tenacious character, dry ashes, fine mould, 
or other material, can readily be intro- 
duced next the plants, for which purpose 
double boards, properly adjusted and fixed 
to each other, form a ready medium by 
■which to introduce the material. When 
sufficient blanching material has been de- 
posited, the boards are carefully with- 
drawn, and placed in the opposite row; 
and it will be readily understood that the 
fine mould which has passed through the 
vacuum formed between the boards wiU 
be in immediate connection with the 
leaves of the plants, the common earth 
placed in the centre of the row enabling 
it to maintain that position. These boards 
can of course be set to any required dis- 
tance apart, that distance being deter- 
mined by the quantity of blanching ma- 
terial at command. This mode, whether 
applied to single rows or the more econo- 
mical system of bed-culture, I consider to 
be at least equal in its effects to any ad- 
vantage that can be derived from the use 
of tiles." 

The third and final earthing of the early 
crops is accomplished at intervals of ten 
or twelve days before the celery is required 
for use, placing the mould high and close 
about the leaves. " I have, however," Mr 
Duncan observes, "found a different sys- 
tem to be advantageous with celery in- 
tended for winter use. Some time towards 
the latter part of October, when the weather 
is dry and favourable, the plants are fully 
earthed up ; but the soil is neither put so 
high, nor is it so closely packed to the 
leaves, as is recommended for the earlier 
crops, as I have found it to keep better 
under such conditions. After the winter 
has fairly set in, I have a sufficient quan- 
tity for a fortnight's consumption covered 
over with leaves which had previously 
been heated, from which cause they will 
readily remain in flakes of some 6 inches 
in thickness, and resist alike the action of 



frost and moisture. The covering over of a 
day's consumption is merely removed with 
a fork so much farther on to the bed, and 
this takes place from day to day. When, 
however, severe frost sets in, the whole of 
the ridges are covered over in the same 
manner ; but the protection is removed 
on the recurrence of favourable weather, 
in order that the plants should not suffer 
from being too closely excluded from the 

Soil and manure. — From the nature of 
this plant, the soil is of little consequence to 
it, except just that into which the roots are 
running ; and this is in general prepared 
for them, as will be seen from what has 
been said above regarding the formation 
of the trenches, which, we repeat, cannot 
be made too rich with well-decayed ma- 
nure. "We avoid, however, rank dung, 
such as is used by the market-gardeners 
around London, which has a tendency, 
while it enables the plants to attain a large^ 
size, to render them, as they mostly are; 
tough and woolly. We use very decayed 
manure, and, until earthing up takes 
place, supply the roots with liquid ma- 
nure poured in amongst them, and after- 
wards by the subterranean irrigation also 
noticed above ; and the best manure we 
have found for this purpose is guano, 
with a little salt added, or water richly 
impregnated with soot or pigeons' dung. 

Taking the crop and subsequent preserva- 
tion. — Always begin at one end of a row 
or bed, taking the plants up by the roots, 
and carefully avoiding bruising the stems 
or breaking the leaves. Cut the roots off, 
and bury them in the trench, but remove 
the plant otherwise entire to the vegetable- 
house. Remove the loose outer leaves, 
and lay them by themselves, to be washed 
clean, should they be required for soups. 
The best parts of them, being cut out and 
cleanly washed, are sufficiently good for 
the stock-pot, or for flavouring soup 
given in large quantities to the poor — 
a mode of disposing of the fragments 
of kitchen stuff we would like to see, 
more generally practised. The centre 
and solid part of the head should be 
carefully examined, and every portion 
that appears to be discoloured removed ; 
and when washed quite clean, they shoidd 
be dipped in clean salt-water, to dislodge 
any small worms which, in mild winters, 
are apt to find their way into the very 

heart of the plant. Almost all vegetables^ 
should have a dip in the salt-water vat, if 
only for precaution's sake. The young 
gardener should recollect that in the self- 
same state in which he carries the celery 
from the vegetable-house it is laid upon 
his employer's table, and therefore he 
should make himself acquainted with the 
form used by the family, for there are va- 
rious ways of dressing it. 

As frost sets in, a quantity of the crop 
for immediate use should be taken up 
carefully, retaining the roots and what 
soil may be attached to them, and tying 
the leaves together, carrying them on 
hand-barrows (which is the best way to 
prevent their leaves from getting broken) 
to the root-cellar, and laying them in 
amongst sand — not, however, too dry, else 
it would absorb the moisture too rapidly 
out of the leaves and stalks, and render 
them tough and ultimately useless for 
salads. From time to time during 
winter this should be attended to; and 
in the event of not having the con- 
venience of a root-cellar, or, far better, 
of a vegetable - house (such as fig. 677, 
vol. i.), which we consider the best of aU 
structures for the preservation of such 
crops during winter, supplies should be^ 
brought in; for, irrespective of preserving 
the crop from frost and wet, and being 
more comfortable for the man who serves 
the kitchen, it prevents the ground from 
being poached, and leaves it in a tidy 
state, which, according to the usual prac- 
tice, it is not. 

We have adopted two methods to in- 
sure its preservation during winter, either 
of which we have found to answer our 
utmost expectation. We grow most of 
our celery in what is called the Scotch 
fashion — that is, in trenches from 4 to 5 
feet in breadth, setting the plants in rows 
across, and at such distances apart as ac- 
cord with the size we wish the plants to 
attain. Following the London market- 
gardeners' practice, we do not earth up 
until they have attained nearly their full 
size, at which period we earth them up 
as high as can be done without burying 
their hearts. Should the weather con- 
tinue mild, we give them a little more 
towards the middle of November, at which 
time, and when the leaves are perfectly 
dry, we tie them up loosely, and place a 
common drain-tile on each side of every 



plant, to protect the leaves above where 
they are covered with the soil, putting in 
only as much soil between the tiles as will 
keep them steady in an upright position. 
We then bank up the sides of the trench, 
as shown in the annexed cut, fig. 52, along 
thesides of which we drive in upright posts, 
3 inches square, and of such a height as 
will carry a roofing of boards laid in an 

Kg. 52. 


imbricated manner, a few inches over the 
top of the plants. These posts are set 10 
feet asunder, and exactly opposite each 
other ; and their tops are connected with 
coupling of lighter scantling. The roof 
boarding is then laid on, and nailed to 
the couples, which ties the whole roofing 
together. By this means the rain is 
thrown off, and falls into the deep trenches 
between the beds. Should the weather 
set in severe, we introduce a little light 
dry littering matter amongst the tiles, 
and nail a couple or three courses of 
boards along the sides ; but this is seldom 
found necessary with us, although in 
many colder localities it will be of ad- 
vantage. This side-boarding should only 
be used in very severe weather, as its 
absence permits a free circulation of air 
to blow through. The boarding which 
covers the roof is the portable wooden 
copings we use for our wall -trees, and 
which, during winter, would otherwise 
be laid past in the store -sheds. The 
posts and coupling are used for a variety 
of purposes during summer, such as 
supporting netting over single rows of 
gooseberries and currants, to preserve 
them from birds, temporary roofing over 
out-of-door summer mushroom-beds, ifec. 
Neither the posts, couples, nor board- 
ing are ever cut, as we construct such 

temporary erections always of the same 

The other mode of preserving celery to 
which we have alluded is even much 
simpler, and within the reach of every 
one. We first form a triangular embank- 
ment of soil, the sides sloping to some- 
thing like an angle of 45°. These sides 
are made smooth, and are each in length 
somewhat more than 
the depth the celery 
plants have been al- 
ready earthed up to. 
In November, when the 
growth has ceased, the 
plants are carefully 
taken up with balls 
about their roots, a few 
of the and coarser 
leaves are removed — • 
they are now of no fur- 
theruse — andthe plants 
are laid side by side 
along each of these slop- 
ing banks, their roots 
being placed at top, and their leaves 
pointing downwards, with the view of pre- 
venting rain or snow getting into their 
centres. When one course is laid along 
each side, soil is laid over and be- 
tween them, to the extent of preventing 
any part of the one plant touching the 
other. The surface is again rendered 
even, and a second row laid on in like 
manner, taking care, however, to place 
the roots of this second course 6 or 7 
inches higher than the last, or to select 
shorter plants ; the intention being, in 
either case, to prevent the leaves of the 
top course resting on those of the lower. 
Indeed, it is a good plan to introduce a 
few branches between the two courses of 
leaves, should they appear too crowded, 
to admit a circulation of air to pass 
through amongst them. These are co- 
vered the same as the first, only to a 
greater depth, and the whole finished off 
much in the form of a potato pit. Should 
severe frost or much wet set in, we thatch 
the whole over with coarse littering straw, 
as far down only as where the leaves of 
the top course protrude through the 
soil. To thatch the leaves over would 
only tend to cause them to rot, for we 
have found in mild winters that they 
have continued to grow as well as if they 
had been allowed to remain in their ori- 



ginal position, if not better. The prin- 
ciple in either case is the same — keeping 
the plants dry, and preventing snow and 
rain from falling into their hearts. In 
cold wet soils, we think it would be an 
improvement to pack the plants, after 
being laid on the inclined banks, in finely- 
sifted coal-ashes, or in sharp river-sand. 
The operation in both cases should be 
carried on when the plants and the soil 
are moderately dry. 

Approved sorts and their qualities. — Of this 
vegetable there are two pretty distinct classes, 
namely, the red solid and the white solid. 

Cole's superb red. — This is comparatively a 
new variety of great excellence, surpassing, we 
think, all others in solidity and flavour. Not 
that it is like the immense celery grown for the 
market or for exhibition purposes, which is too 
often more fit to look at than to eat ; but it is 
of a size such as is required for a gentleman's 
table, averaging, if well grown, about 6 lb. per 
stick (for stock, head, and stem may be consi- 
dered synonymous terms in speaking of the 
blanched part of this plant). It has also the 
remarkable property of not piping, or becom- 
ing hollow or stringy, and has been known to 
stand twelve months without running to seed. 
It is also extremely hardy. Mr Thompson, how- 
ever, in estimating the comparative merits of 
this famUy, says that red solid, alias new large 
red, new large purple, new Russian, Cole's red. 
Cole's superb solid red, stripped solid, Violete 
de Tours, are the same thing, and so also is the 
Celeri violete, the seed of which has been for 
several years distributed by the London Horti- 
cultural Society as the very best red celery. 
The Manchester red is believed by him to be 
scarcely different, and may be considered the 
same variety, excepting that it has acquired a 
stronger habit and rounder stalks. Shepperd's 
red is now preferred to the Manchester red by 
the prize-growers, because of its flatter stems, 
and its consequently blanching better. In fact, 
he reduces all our red varieties to one, the type 
of which is the red solid. 

Cole's superb white. — Differing only in colour 
from the last. 

Manchester giant red. — One of the largest sorts 
grown, and excellent for soups and stewing, but 
far inferior to the last in point of flavour as a 
salad. It is grown largely for the market. 

Old solid red. — An excellent old sort, if it can 
be procured true. It used to be much grown by 
the market-gardeners about London ; but they 
have since substituted another of far inferior 
quality, merely because it comes earlier into 

Sutton's solid white. — A very large yet solid- 
growing sort, exceedingly white and crisp. We 
believe it originated a few years ago with the 
Messrs Suttons of Reading. 

Lion's paw. — A short broad flat-stalked var 

riety, of excellent quality, very crisp, and white. 

Nutt's champion. — Originated with Mr Nutt 

of Sheffield within these few years. It attains, 

under good management, a very large size, and 
is, for its size, of excellent quality, very white, 
and not apt to run to seed. 

Seymour's white champion. — This is an im- 
provement of other white celeiies raised by 
Mr Seymour. The number of years they have 
sustained their popularity is the best proof of 
their excellence. The stalks are broad, flat at 
the base, closely overlapping, and forming a com- 
pact, well-blanched crisp heart. 

To the above sorts Mr R. Thompson adds — 

" White solid, alias fine white solid, Celeri 

Turo, Celeri plein blanc. — Of strong and rather 

tall growth, blanches readily, and comea into use 

earlier than the rod solid varieties. 

" Italian, alias upright Italian, upright, large 
upright, giant, Patagonian. — Tall, strong, erect, 
deeply furrowed; not so crisp as Seymour's. 

" Wall's white. — Is an improved variety of the 
Italian, which is esteemed by the growers for 

" Curled white, alias Nain frize. — Leaves much 
curled, resembling parsley, and, like those of 
the latter, might be employed for garnishing ; 
it is dwarf, hardy, and crisp, but not fine fla- 

" Early dwarf solid white, alias Court hatif, 
Celeri Turc of some. — Dwarf, but very solid, 
and forms a compact heart ; excellent for early 

In estimating the difference between the eat- 
ing qualities of red and white celery, it may be 
stated that the latter is preferred by most people 
of taste, on the plea that red celery is ranker in 
flavour, especially when cooked, than the white 
varieties ; and, when served as a salad, the same 
opinion is entertained by many. Again, as to 
the difference between large and moderately- 
grown celery, the case stands pretty much the 
same, large celery never being so crisp and ten- 
der, or so well-flavoured, as that of medium size, 
provided both have been equally speedily 

Diseases and insects. — In some soUs, those 
abounding in iron in particular, celery is apt to 
canker, for which there seems no remedy ex- 
cept changing the constituents of the soil. A 
parasitic fungus has long been observed to at- 
tack the leaves when about half-grown, which 
is considered by botanists to be Puccinia He- 
raclei Grev. Another has made its appearance 
within these three or four years, of which we 
have been unable to gain any information. So 
serious was it with us in 1851, that we had many 
hundred plants to throw away to prevent its 
spreading farther. 

The celeiy or parsnip fly (Tephritis onopordinis 
Fab.), fig. 53, seems its chief enemy amongst in- 
sects. They breed in the leaves, and from the 
blotched appearance they cause, the leaves af- 
fected may readily be cut off and burned before 
the maggot is formed, for it is in that state that 
it is most to be dreaded. It is thus described in 
the " Cottage Gardener," vol. i. p. 73 : " If the 
withered parts (of the leaves) are examined, and 
the cuticle or skin of the blisters is raised, there 
will be found beneath it some small green grubs, 
which have eaten away all the green pulp or 
parenchyma of the parts so withered. These 



grubs are the larvse of Tephritis onopordinis. 
The grubs may be foimd in the leaves of the 

Fig. 53. 

the substance of the stem ; so that we have no 
doubt portions of the stalks, although contaiu- 

Fig. 54. 


celery in June, July, Augu3t,September, October, 
and November, for there are two or more broods 
of them in the course of the year. The grubs, 
although less frequently, are found doing similar 
damage to the leaves of Alexanders and parsnips. 
When full grown, the grubs descend into the 
earth, and remain in the chrysalis state till the 
spring following, when they give birth to the 
fly. Then the celery-fly may usually be found 
upon the leaves of the laurel, hovering over 
flowers, and resting upon palings in the sun- 
shine, from the middle of May to the end of 
July." MrWestwoodthus describes it: "The 
general colour of the body, which is five-jointed, 
varies from rusty brown to shining black ; head 
buff, with black hairs; legs yellow; thorax 
(throat) sprinkled with long black hairs ; wings 
black, with various pale spots ; eyes green. The 
whole length of the insect is not more than one- 
sixth of an inch, and its wings, when outspread, 
barely half an inch across." Mr Westwood sug- 
gests that a string smeared with bird-hme, and 
stretched over the celery plants, might catch 
many of the parents. This is a good idea, and, 
if carried out, would no doubt entrap many 
moths and butterflies also, which would be a 
wholesale mode of lessening the numbers of 
grubs afterwards. 

Piophila apii (the celery stem-fly), fig. 54. — 
The discovery of this hitherto undescribed in- 
sect is due to the author of the article " Ento- 
mology," in the " Gardeners' Chronicle," 1848, p. 
332, who thus describes it, and its mode of 
operation : " The larva burrows into the solid 
stem and fleshy stalks, working its way up the 
latter, its tract, as well as itself, being at first 
almost invisible, from its similarity in colour to 



ing the grub, are often eaten, owing to its pre- 
sence not being suspected. The eye of the en- 
tomologist, however, especially if assisted by a 
moderate lens, easily detects the unwelcome 
visitor, which may indeed be expected when 
the solid part of the stem shows traces of being 
worm-eaten. It would seem, in fact, that it is 
in the solid part that the injury is commenced, 
the grubs eating upwards into the more succu- 
lent stalks of the leaves, leaving their traces in 
the former visible in their tracts, which become 
rusty red, owing to the action of the moisture 
and air upon the grooved surface which they 
have quitted. By careful examination and re- 
moval of the leaves, the authors of the mischief 
may be found in their burrows, in the shape of 
glossy white cylindrical grubs, with a slight yel- 
low tinge, having the anterior part of the body 
pointed, and the hind part obtusely rounded, 
and marked with two black points, from whence 
proceed two delicate air-vessels, appearing like 
threads of gold beneath the transparent skin, 
and which run along the whole length of the 
body as far as the segment immediately behind 
the head, where they form two minute excreted 
appendages. The hind joints of the body are 
indistinct, but the fore ones are more distinctly 
to be traced. The mouth consists of a black 
horny apparatus, capable, as well as the head 
itself, of being withdrawn within the subsequent 
segment, as far as the two excreted lobes of the 
air-Tessels above mentioned. 

" The fly very closely resembles that reared 
from the cheese maggot. The thorax and abdo- 
men are entirely jet black, and very glossy, with 
a very sUght brassy tinge, and with fine golden 
grey hairs scattered over the body. The head 
is chestnut-coloured, paler near the mouth, and 
black in the middle above. The eyes and club 
of the antenna; are pitchy; the bristle of the 
latter luteous, or yellowish. The legs, in- 
cluding all the coxjB or joints by which they are 
attached to the body, are very pale straw yel- 
low ; the tarsi, especially in the hind feet, some- 




what more dusky. The wings are entirely 
hyaline and colourless, with the veins very pale 

General rema/rks. — The European names of 
celery are — Appio in Italian ; Sellerie in Ger- 
man ; Apio hortensis in Spanish ; Sellery in 
Dutch ; and Celeri in French. The seed will 
keep for ten or twelve years. In saving seed, it 
is better to select some of the plants from the 
seed-bed, and to grow them without blanching, 
transplanting them again in spring, and placing 
them in a warm well-exposed part of the gar- 
den, growing if possible only one sort in a sea- 
son. The side suckers should be removed, and 
seed saved only from the best umbels. The 
seed ripens in September, and, when thoroughly 
dried in the heads, should be thrashed or rubbed 
out, and bagged for use. A considerable preju- 
dice exists with some people as to the colour of 
the heads — some preferring the red variety, 
while others will only have the white. The 
preponderance is, we think, in favour of the 

The management of Mr Cole, who raised the 
variety that heads our list, is to the following 
effect, and will be better understood in a sepa- 
rate paragraph, than had we divided his in- 
structions into our different heads. His princi- 
pal crop is thus produced : The trenches are 
dug out in the usual manner, 4 feet apart, and 
manured with the spent dung of an exhausted 
mushroom-bed. The seed is sown the second 
week of February upon a slight hot-bed. When 
the plants are strong enough, they are pricked 
out in rich soil under hand-glasses, and are 
removed, with balls of earth, into the trenches, 
in the first week of June, and set 9 inches 
apart in the row. At planting, as is usual, 
they received a copious watering, to prevent the 
possibility of a check. In earthing up, a medium 
course is adopted, neither too frequently nor 
too much at one time. About a month after 
planting, a slight earthing up is given them, 
they having been previously well watered with 
liquid manure or soot- water the day before this 
earthing takes place. Soot-water is given as a 
manure, and dry soot is sprinkled along the 
rows, to prevent the operations of worms. In 
regard to Mr Cole's success in growing celery, it 
should be stated that the garden is of a boggy 
subsoil, and below the level of an adjacent 
river, which accounts for the absence of water- 
ing, upon which most cultivators depend so 
much — he watering only once or twice after 
planting. He admits, however, that in dry or 
elevated situations it is almost impossible to give 
too much water, and would prefer giving a good 
soaking once every fortnight to watering more 
frequently and in smaller quantities. Very rich 
dung, he remarks, is not good for celery, and 
strong manure-water should be avoided. It has 
been imagined, pretty generally, that bad man- 
agement made bad celery, and especially plant- 
ing it in too rich soil, to induce extra luxuriance. 
This opinion Mr Cole dissents from so far ; and 
we believe that he is right when he says — " The 
bad quality of celery is attributable to the bad 
kinds grown," and asserts that no person could 
grow this kind of celery, which has been named 

" Cole's superb red," so as to make it either pipy 
or stringy, or inferior in flavour. In regard to the 
effect of culture, he says that " late earthing has 
more to do with making celery stringy than 
anything else, as it is quite certain that, if the 
leaves of celery are exposed to full light and 
dry air for a length of time, the tissue will be- 
come harder than if the leaves were grown in 
comparative darkness. We need no stronger 
proof of this than the acrid flavour of the outer 
as compared with the inner leaves of the same 
celery — a fact demonstrating that, if the leaves 
are exposed for a long time, they acquire an 
acrid flavour, which no blanching can wholly 
remove. For an early crop he sows in heat 
early in January, and pricks the plants out upon 
a slight hot-bed ; for a second crop, in February, 
in heat, as before directed ; and for a late crop, 
in March, in the open ground." — Jour. Hort. 

Mr Cole believes that this celery could be 
grown to the weight of say twelve pounds, were 
it desirable to have it so ; and for this purpose he 
would plant in trenches 1 8 inches deep, and the 
same in breadth, and use a compost of tvirfy 
loam, peat, and leaf mould, or thoroughly rotted 
cow-dung, in about equal quantities. He would 
also place the plants 18 inches apart in the row, 
and keep the soil well stirred between them 
during their early growth. 



Natural History. — Celeriac, a sub-variety of 
the last, is used for most purposes like the com- 
mon celery, but is much hardier, and differs 
from it in having a considerable-sized swelling 
on the stem close to the surface of the ground, 
which is the part chiefly used, although the 
leaves, which are much smaller than those of 
celery, are also used in soups, &o. It is much 
cultivated in the north of Europe, on account 
of its root, which may be kept in good condi- 
tion for use throughout the winter : this the 
common celery cannot be with them, on account 
of the inclemency of the clijnate. 

Use. — The bulbous-looking form which the 
root presents above ground is cut into shoes, 
and used in German salads. This, as well as the 
leaves, is cooked like other celery, only they are 
less delicate to eat. It is not in vei-y high esti- 
mation in Britain, although a few years ago the 
London markets were supplied with it to a con- 
siderable extent from the Continent. 

Mode of propagation and season of sowing. 
— The same as for celery. 

Planting. — The transplanted seedlings 
are removed from the nursery-beds, and 
planted on the surface (not in trenches) 
in moderately enriched soil. They should 
be set in rows 18 inches apart, and a foot 
from each other in the line. At planting, 
all the embryo suckers or side shoots 
should be rubbed off — a precaution to be 



kept in view throughout its growth, as 
the energies of the whole plant ought to 
be directed to the formation of the bulb- 
like root. 

Subsequent cultivation. — Keep the ground 
thoroughly stirred up between the rows ; 
and when the bulbs have nearly attained 
their full size, they should be covered 
lightly with soil, to blanch them white, 
and to render the outer coating of their 
skin more tender. In warm dry weather 
give abundance of water, to encourage 
the swelling of the bulbs, for on their 
size and tenderness their merits depend. 

Taking the crop, and subsequent preserva- 
tion. — The crop will be fit for use in Oc- 
tober ; and in November, upon the ap- 
pearance of severe frosts, they should be 
pulled up, with their leaves attached, and 
planted, in sand somewhat moist, in a 
cold pit covered with wooden shutters, 
where they wiU continue a sort of exist- 
ence through the winter, and become 
somewhat intenerated by absence from 
light and moderate humidity. The usual 
practice is to cut off the leaves and bury 
the bulbs in pits under ground. 

Oeneral remarks. — Seed is saved in the same 
way as celery, and may be employed for the 
same uses. It retains its vegetative property 
ten or twelve years. It is the Celeri-rave of the 
French, and the Ejiott-cellerie of the Germans. 
It is also called Knob-celery, Knoll-celery, 
Geleri navet. There is also a sub-variety veined 
with red, and another with curled leaves, or 
Celeri-rave a femlles frisees. 

Insects amd diseases. — Celeriae is liable to be 
attacked by the celery-fly, Tephritis onopordinis, 
(which see.) We are not aware that the roots 
have hitherto been attacked by the PiophUa apii, 
which has of late years been detected in the 
stems of celery. 

§ 3. — THE LETTUCE. 

Natural history. — Lettuce {Lactuca satiea L.) 
belongs to the natural order Compositse, and 
sub-order CiohoraceBB, tribe Lactucese, and to 
the class Syngenesia, and order Squalls, in the 
Linnsean arrangement. The generic name is 
derived from the Latin Lac, milk, from the 
milky juice which abounds in most of the genus, 
and has been of much importance in medicine. 
That of Lactuca iierosa, for example, is highly 
narcotic, and has been even employed with 
great advantage as a substitute for opium. The 
production of the opium qualities, which exist 
in all this genus, is much lessened by cultiva- 
tion, and especially by blanching; hence blanched 
endive is less poisonous than it would be if 
eaten in its natural state. It would be curious 

to know if this had anything to do with the 
process as a branch of culture. The lactucarium 
brought into notice some years ago by Dr Dun- 
can of Edinburgh, who found it could be ad- 
ministered where poppy opium could not with 
safety, was prepared from the juice of lettuce. 

The native comitry of the lettuce is unknown; 
it, however, appears to have been cultivated in 
Britain since 1662. According to Herodotus, it 
was in use 550 yeare before Christ ; yet Pliny 
says the ancient Romans knew but one sort. In 
his time they were cultivated so as to be had 
at all seasons of the jtear, and even blanched to 
render them more tender. Gerard is the eai'- 
liest English author who writes of them. He 
gives an account of eight sorts cultivated in his 
day. It is quite evident, from the names of 
many of our still cultivated sorts, that they 
must have reached us from the Greek islands 
— Cos, for example — and from various places in 
the Levant. Italy, Egypt, and the south of 
France have contributed their share. 

Uses. — As one of our best salad herbs, the 
lettuce is well known — eaten raw in French 
salads, with cream, oil, vinegai-, salt, hard-boiled 
eggs, &c. It is also eaten by many with moist 
sugar and vinegar, and some prefer it with vine- 
gar alone. 

It is excellent when stewed, either alone or 
eaten with partridge ; and in most vegetable 
soups it forms an ingredient, and is an excellent 
addition to Scotch broth and hodge-podge, as a 
substitute for cabbage. It is eaten at almost 
all meals by the French ; by the English after 
dinner, if not served as adjuncts to dishes dur- 
ing the repast; and by many after supper, the 
time when the Romans first ate them — but in the 
time of Domitian they changed this order, and 
served them with their first entries at their 
feasts, much as is done in many parts of the 
Continent at this day. In a raw state lettuce is 
emollient, cooling, and in some degree laxative 
and aperient, easy of digestion, but containing 
little nourishment. 

Propagation. — The only mode of propa- 
gation is by seed. 

Sowing and planting. — As lettuce is re- 
quired throughout the whole year, sow- 
ings must be made from the beginning 
of February to the end of September — say 
twice in February and March, and three 
times each other month. But where young 
lettuce is required when about 2 inches 
high, the seed will require to be sown 
once a-fortnight during winter, and once 
a- week during summer and autumn. The 
hardy kinds, to stand over winter for early 
spring use, should be sown in August 
and September. The first crop sown in 
February should be upon a slight hot-bed, 
and when about 2 inches high should be 
transferred to a colder bed covered with 
glass, and protected from frost. These 
may, in the beginning of April, be trans- 



planted to the bottom of a wall having a 
southern exposure, where they will be 
protected by the projecting coping, and 
by the awnings used to protect the blos- 
soms of the trees. In default of such, 
plant in the warmest border the place 
affords, and protect by branches or other 
means most at hand. These may be set 
at 6 or 8 inches apart, and the smaller 
taken up with balls, and planted in the 
open border about thef beginning of May, 
setting them 12 inches apart each 
way, as the smaller and hardier sorts 
should be chosen for this purpose. In 
February and March, seed should be 
sown on a warm border, and the plants 
protected until fit for planting in the 
more exposed borders or quarters of the 
garden. For a first general summer crop, 
sow about the end of March and begin- 
ning, middle, and end of April, in a well- 
exposed place, and continue sowing as 
above. During the heat of summer, sow 
on borders with a north aspect, and keep 
the ground moist by watering. Lettuce 
is much improved by careful transplant- 
ing; therefore every crop, as soon as 
the young plants will handle, should be 
set in nursery-beds sufficiently thin as 
not to touch each other. For this it is 
impossible to give exact dimensions, as so 
much depends on the varieties sown — 
the cos or upright-growing kinds requir- 
ing less space than the cabbage sorts ; 
and even in each of these there exists a 
considerable difference in size. In all 
cases of nursery-bed transplanting, there 
is no error in planting thin, as the thinner 
the plants are the stockier they get, and 
the better rooted — the purposes aimed at 
in this stage of their growth. The beds 
prepared for them should be in high cul- 
tivation — that is, thoroughly enriched 
and completely pulverised. If a little 
half-decayed turfy soil, or half-decayed 
leaves, were dug into such beds, the roots 
would work into them, and lift with bet- 
ter balls, and especially so by using the 
transplanting trowel, fig. 27. 

In removing them from the seed-bed to the 
nursery plantation, the ground should be well 
watered lif dry. Instead of pulling up the ten- 
der plants, as is usually done, the ground should 
be loosened by the transplanting fork, fig. S5, 
which is a useful implement, and may be em- 
ployed in taking up root-weeds too firmly fixed 
in the soil to be drawn up by the hand. Its 
principal use, however, is in loosening the soil 

about the roots of young seedling plants, such as 
cabbage, endive, lettuces, or the like, previous 
to their removal to the nursery-bed, and also in 

Fig. 55. 


facilitating their removal from it to the place of 
final planting, when the transplanters, figs. 29, 
&c. are not to be used, or the transplanting 
trowels, figs. 27 and 28. The use of all the 
latter implements is to remove with compact 
balls of earth around the roots; and they are of 
great service when plants of a large size are to 
be removed, particularly during dry weather, 
and when the least possible check is to be given 
to their growth. A saving of time and space is 
obtained by their use : for example, most of the 
BrassicsB, the lettuce, and endive, may be retained 
in nursery-beds, even should the former attain 
a height of 9 or 1 inches, and the two latter 
4 or 5, and until the ground intended for them 
shall be cleared of its present crop. The fork, 
fig. 55, is, on the other hand, to be employed for 
lifting young crops of onions, leeks, lettuce, 
endive, and similar long and tender-rooted 
plants, so that, by loosening the soil around 
them, they may with greater safety be taken up 
than if pulled by the hand. These forks are 
of various sizes — the smallest is Z\ inches broad 
at the points of the prongs, 6 inches in length of 
prongs, andlOJinches, including the handle. The 
prongs are flattened, and are half an inch broad 
at the broadest part, tapering to a sharp point. 
The fork is attached to the handle by a bent 
neck, the part of which that is attached to the 
prongs acts as a fulcrum, while the handle acts 
as a lever. 

Fig. S6 is a modification of the last, the prongs 
of which are 6 inches in length, and which. 

Fig. 56. 


with the bending at the neck and handle, mea- 
sures 13 inches in length. In this case the 
prongs are round, tapering to a point, are three 
in number, and form a fork 3 inches in breadth. 
It is used for similar purposes as the last, and 
also as a planting tool. 

When transferred from the nursery-beds 
to the open quarters after the beginning 
of May, shallow drills should be drawn 
according to their size, and the plants 
set in them : being somewhat below the 
general surface, they will derive shelter ; 
and should water be required, which will 
be the case in dry weather, it can be 
more advantageously applied. If in plan- 



tations by themselves, they should be ac- 
commodated aocordiug to their natural 
full size. Such sorts as the tennis-ball, 
or the Laitue grotte, two of the smaller 
sorts, will have plenty of room if 10 
inches apart ; while such as the drum- 
head will require nearly double. It is 
seldom, however, unless in large gardens, 
that plantations of lettuces are made to 
any extent by themselves ; they form a 
sort of element in mixed planting, and 
therefore are often interlined with other 
crops, such as cauliflower, cabbage, broc- 
coli, &c., in which case a lettuce plant is 
very properly placed between each two 
of the others in the same line, that no 
interruption may take place in stirring 
the ground between the rows. In such 
places they are usually cut for use before 
they injure the regular crop. 

The London market-garden practice is 
to sow the white cos variety from the 
10th to the middle of October in frames, 
which are filled with soil to within 6 inches 
of the top, giving a slope of 1 foot in 4 
the length of the lights, whict always face 
the north. As soon as the seeds are sown 
the sashes are removed, and a man is 
placed in this department to keep off the 
sparrows, give air, and shut up in case of 
rain, the great secret being to keep them 
as dry as possible, and to let them have all 
the air they can get. This will appear 
strange to a non-eating salad reader, but 
it should be remembered that millions of 
this variety are so grown within a few 
miles of London, and the price obtained 
pays the expense. They are planted out 
in February or early in March, in rich 
well-trenched ground (after celery), 1 foot 
apart each way. Mr Cuthill, on whose 
high authority the above statement is 
made, observes, that "gentlemen's gar- 
deners buy the same seed, but, owing 
to their mismanagement during winter, 
and the poor state of the ground, they 
cannot grow such fine lettuces as the 
market-gardener. Some of the latter," 
he continues, " are too greedy in regard 
to crops — for instance, they have often 
three crops on the ground, all coming 
forward one after another : but the best 
cultivators do not do this; it tramples 
the ground, and does not give any crop 
fair play. The rapid growth of a lettuce 
depends much upon hoeing or stirring 
the soil." 

About the beginning of October an 
abundant supply of the hardier varieties 
should be planted out at the bottoms of 
garden-walls, on dry warm borders, and 
on raised banks, sloping both towards the 
sun and also/rom it. On these, in open 
places, lettuces often stand the winter 
well ; and should those on the southern 
side be cut off by strong sunshine suc- 
ceeding severe frosts, those on the oppo- 
site side may escape, as the process of 
thawing will take place more gradually 
on them. In cold and elevated situa- 
tions, pits and frames will be required to 
insure their safety. In such circum- 
stances the plants should be kept mode- 
rately dry, and as much exposed to the 
light and air as possible : hence the 
lights shoidd be kept off during good 
weather ; and when on, should be tilted 
up both night and day, to admit full 
ventilation. If in frames, it will be of 
advantage in this respect if they be clear 
of the ground the thickness of a brick, so 
that air may pass freely through ; in 
very severe weather they may be let 
close down to the ground. Covering the 
spaces between the plants with coal-ashes 
will be found of advantage. 

In planting lettuce to stand over win- 
ter at the bottom of walls, every aspect 
should be made use of; for it is often 
found that those set behind a north wall 
will succeed better than those having the 
protection of a south one. 

Besides planting at the bottoms of 
walls for protection during winter, wher- 
ever there are pits or frames and glasses 
to spare for the purpose, these should in 
like manner be filled with young lettuce- 
plants, to afford a spring supply should 
the others fail. 

The seed of lettuces is small and light ; 
half an ounce will sow a bed of 80 square 
feet, and will, under ordinary circum- 
stances, produce eight hundred plants. 
The seed being small, it is necessary the 
ground should be well pulverised and made 
smooth before it is sown, and that it be 
not covered more than about the eighth 
of an inch. 

Some recommend sowing lettuce on 
the ground where it is to remain, either 
broadcast or in rows, and, when the plants 
come up, to thin them to the distance of 
from 6 to 14 inches apart, according to 
their size or sort. This is a waste of 



ground ; for while they are in the seed- 
bed or nursery plantation, they are pro- 
gressing in growth, while other crops may 
be ripening off to make way for them. 
Besides, the process of transplanting 
greatly lessens their disposition to run to 

Subsequent cultivation. — During spring 
the young crops must be protected from 
frost, and during summer from drought 
by copious waterings of manure-water, 
and frequent stirring of the ground be- 
tween the plants ; and snails and slugs 
should be kept under by watering with 
lime-water when the ground is dry, or 
dusting with lime in powder when it is 
already too moist. During winter the 
plants should be kept dry, clear of weeds, 
dead leaves, and all matter likely to en- 
courage damp amongst them. The ground 
should be frequently stirred amongst the 
plants, and abundance of air given to 
those under glass frames or hand-glasses. 
In the growing season every stimulant 
should be applied, for mnoh of the excel- 
lence of the crop depends on its quick- 
ness of growth. Blanching being often 
desirable, the cos varieties will be has- 
tened towards maturity by having their 
leaves loosely tied together with strands 
of matting : the cabbage sorts do not re- 
quire this attention. For means of pre- 
serving during winter, see Endive ; the 
means and method of proceeding are 
alike in both. 

Forcing. — The lettuce is seldom forced 
in Britain ; on the Continent there is a 
slight stimulus given to produce them 
fine during winter and early spring. In 
Holland and Belgium this is carried on 
with great care and success. The means 
adopted will be understood by what 

The Dutch and Belgian mode of obtaining 
fine lettuce throughout the winter is — About 
the beginning of October, not later, an ex- 
hausted hot-bed, on which melons or cucumbers 
have been grown, or, in default of this, a bed of 
fresh materials well fermented, and in which 
the excess of fermentation has ceased, is chosen, 
and formed into a bed for the purpose. These 
beds, we may observe, are for the most part 
either wholly or in part imder the ground sur- 
face, - pit being dug out for their reception : 
this is rendered necessary from the intensity of 
their winters. After the heat has considerably 
declined, the surface is earthed over to the 
depth of a foot or more with light soil, chiefly 

decomposed leaf-mould with an admixture of 
sand, and filled up to within 9 inches of the 
under surface of the glass. The surface is ren- 
dered smooth and level by slightly beating it 
down with the back of a spade, and is then 
most correctly marked out into squares corre- 
sponding exactly with the size of the square of 
glass, and immediately under them. The plants, 
being previously sown very thin three weeks or 
a month before, are not excited by any extra 
means; on the contrary, they are kept exposed, 
and so become sturdy, stocky plants, so that 
when they have formed their fourth leaf they 
are judged fit for being transplanted into the 
prepared bed. One plant only is placed in each 
square, and that in its very centre. A few 
plants are put along the back and ends of the 
bed to serve as substitutes should any of the 
principal ones be eaten by the wireworm, which 
is very troublesome ; if not required, these are 
thrown away. We do not recoUeet seeing any 
of the cos varieties so grown, but the cab- 
bage kinds only : the Klein groen, or small 
green with black seed, very similar to our 
tennis-ball, or the Laitue grotte of the French, 
is used where the squares of glass are small; 
and the Groote geel or large white, similar to 
our drumhead or Silesian, where the squares 
exceed a square foot each. After planting a 
slight watering is given, and the whole surfece 
of the bed is neatly covered with white sand, 
which is kept during the whole growth exceed- 
ingly clean and free of weeds and muscous mat- 
ter. The lights are then put on, and made to 
fit exceedingly close all round the sides and 
ends of the frames, these being rebated for their 
reception ; and no air is given for the first two 
or three days — that is, until the plants have 
taken root. Afterwards air is admitted, but 
with extreme caution, the lights being slightly 
elevated both at bottom and top, so that a com- 
plete change of air takes place almost instan- 
taneously : this is found better in practice than 
a less efficient and more protracted mode of 
ventilation, and perhaps on this a great deal of 
their rapid growth and delicate crispness de- 
pends. In the early part of winter this ventila- 
tion is often left on during the day and night 
also ; but the sashes are never completely re- 
moved, but kept on to keep the surface and 
the plants diy. When the lettuces have at- 
tained their full size, and have become com- 
pletely cabbaged, air is totally withdrawn ; 
should the leaves touch the glass, the frame is 
carefully elevated a few inches to prevent their 
coming in contact with it, and running the 
chance of being injured by frost. When the 
frosty nights come on, the utmost vigilance is 
exercised to prevent the frost passing through 
the glass, for if it did so, the whole crop would 
inevitably perish : covering must therefore be 
attended to, as the exclusion of cold and damp 
are the principles of their preservation. During 
the whole process, no artificial heat must be 
applied; and water must also be withheld, as it 
is probable that the roots, having passed through, 
or nearly through, the bed of soil, abstract suffi- 
cient moisture from the dung-bed below, thus 
rendering surface-watering unnecessary. To do 



justice to the Belgian, German, and Dutch gai-- 
deners, we must say that their lettuce so grown 
is equal at Christmas to what we usually see 
in our own gardens in July and August. It 
should, however, be observed that with them a 
frame or two of such lettuce is considered as 
great a triumph of skill as a house full of four- 
pound queen pine-apples is with their brethren 
in Britain. To keep up a winter supply, two or 
three sowings are made, and consequently the 
same number of plantings. At this season 
frames are not required, as with us, for winter- 
ing planting-out plants, and other requirements 
in EugUsh practice, therefore every frame and 
glass sash at the command of the Continental 
gardener is employed in the production of his 
lettuce crops. The same practice has been re- 
peatedly tried in England — as at Longleat, Bul- 
strode Park — but with very varied success. The 
late Mr Niumau, a celebrated Dutch gardener, 
brought over by the late Mr Labouchere, often 
acknowledged to us the great difficulty he had 
to contend with in the cloudy atmosphere at 
Hylauds in Essex, even when compared with 
that of Holland. It is probable, however, that 
the more variable state of our climate had its 
share in his difficulties. A remark of this ex- 
cellent cultivator is worth recording in this 
place — namely, that the difference even of two 
days in plantations made in October not uufre- 
quently caused a difference of from a month to 
six weeks of their attaining maturity towards 
spring. The plants are kept as close to the 
glass as is possible without their touching it, 
and the reason for placing each plant exactly 
under the centre of a pane of glass is to prevent 
the chance of drip falling into its heart, which 
would utterly destroy it. For this purpose, also, 
the glass should be kept in the best possible 
repair, and the laps should be leaded or other- 
wise secured. 

Taking the crop. — As lettuce is gathered 
for use, the whole plant should be pulled 
up by the roots j but as there would be a 
great chance of the earth, particularly 
from amongst the fibres, getting in 
amongst the leaves in their transit to the 
vegetable-house, it is better to cut the 
roots off and bury them in the ground 
in which they grew. The outer leaves 
should be cut off, and the root part of 
the stem cut clear over with a sharp 
knife, the whole plant carefully washed 
and rinsed in clean water, after having 
been steeped a few minutes in the salt- 
water tan ; any of the tips of the leaves 
injured by frost in winter, or by insects 
or drought in summer, should be care- 
fully cut off, and the utmost vigilance 
exercised that aphides and other insects 
are not allowed to remain attached to 
the leaves, and that all sandy and earthy 
particles be carefully washed out; the 
lettuce should then be set on end, the 

top uudei'most, in a clean salad-basket, 
to allow the water to drain completely 
out; and it should be understood that 
it, as well as all other salads, receive no 
further cleansing after they are sent from 
the garden. 

Approved sorts, and their qualities. — Lettuce 
is divided into two very distinct tribes or sub- 
famdies — namely, the Cos and the Cabbage 
kinds. The former are of upright growth, 
hardy, and in general firm and crisp ; the latter 
less hardy, and more soft and flaccid, and even 
on that account preferred by some. The same 
difference exists in regard to their merits for 
cooking, some preferring the one and some the 
other. French cooks usually choose the cab- 
bage kinds. 

Green Paris cos. — This is the best variety of 
cos lettuce at present grown, and although less 
hardy than the brown cos, it withstands our 
ordinary winters when planted at the bottom of 
walls. As a spring, summer, and autumnal 
lettuce, we think it unrivalled, growing to a 
large size, of a fine green colour, and, from the 
manner in which the outer leaves cove over the 
interior ones, becoming nicely blanched without 
having to be tied together. It is known as Sut- 
ton's superb green cos, Ady's fine large cos, and 
Kensington cos. It is the Eomaine verte Marai- 
cherc, and Chicon, ou Komaine verte Maraichere, 
of the " Bon Jardinier." 

Paris white cos. — This is the sort most gene- 
rally grown by the London marketgardeners, 
millions of it being produced annually within a 
few miles of London alone. Next to the green 
Paris cos this is the largest, tlie best, and the 
longest in iiiuning to seed of all the summer let- 
tuces we have grown. It is less hardy than either 
the last or the following, and with them may 
be considered all of this class requii cd in any 
ordinary garden. This opinion is, we observe, 
confirmed by Mr Thompson in the sixth volume 
of " The Journal of the Horticultural Society," 
p. 26, who remarks, " It was sown April 1 0th, 
and had not commenced to run July 27th, 
while all the other cos lettuces sown en the 
same day were showing flower." Known also 
as London white cos, Sutton's superb white cos. 
It is the Romaine blonde Maraichere of the 
" Bon Jardinier," and is much cultivated, as well 
as the last, around Paris. Seeds white. The 
common white cos runs to seed sooner than 
this variety. 

Brown cos. — This old and excellent sort stOl 
maintains its position as being the hardiest of 
all the class. It grows to a, large size, blimclies 
well, and is exceedingly crisp and tender. It is 
known as Bath cos, brown Bath cos, white- 
seeded brown cos, Wood's improved Bath cos, 
hardy brown cos, and Sutton's Berkshire brown 
cos. This excellent variety is not much culti- 
vated on the Continent ; the outside leaves 
being of a brownish colour renders it with them 
objectionable. Seeds white. 

Waite's white cos.— An excellent variety, appa- 
rently intermediate between the Paris green cos 
and Paris white cos ; not quite so dark or green 
as the former, yet somewhat greener than the 



latter. The three varieties are so excellent that 
either or all may be grown advantageously. 

Bath green cos. — Has great merit as a hardy 
winter green sort, and nearly related to the old 
Bath cos, only less brown on the outer leaves, 
and while it has white seed this has black seed. 
Hence we have, in seed catalogues, black-seeded 
Bath cos and white-seeded Bath cos : the latter 
appears to be the hardiest, while the former 
seems to be the best. 

Artichoke-leaved lettuce. — Comparatively a new 
variety of singular habit, having the leaves long, 
upright, and very much cut at the edges ; it is 
a hardy variety, blanches well, and does not 
speedily run to seed. It is the Romaine a 
feuilles d'artichaufc of the " Bon Jardinier." 
The seeds are black, and should be sown in 
June and July for autumn and winter use. 

The above may be considered the very best, 
and the following rank next to them in this 
respect : new crystal cos ; early green cos, 
which is identical with the Brighton green cos ; 
Brighton cos ; Egyptian cos, and Egyptian green 
cos ; golden cos, the same as the Florence cos ; 
Alphange cos (of this variety the French cultivate 
two sub-varieties, the one having black and 
the other white seed) ; red-spotted cos, the 
same as Aleppo, bloody, and the Sanguine ou 
panachee, Eomaine panachee a grain blanche, 
of the French. Seeds white. Seed-lists contain 
such names as Bearfield cos, Victoria cos, white 
Brunoy (the latter said to be very large), and a 
variety of other names, which are either un- 
known to us, or which are identical with some 
of the above. 

Of cabbage lettuce we have for summer culti- 
vation — 

The Neapolitan. — A large, white, crisp, and 
firm variety of great excellence — we think the 
best of all others for summer use, as it comes 
in early, and is long in running to seed, blanch- 
ing itself naturally ; leaves somewhat curled, 
toothed at the edges. Seeds white. 

Large white. — Heads large, flat, compact, with 
smooth leaves and white seeds. Of medium 
earliness, and not inclined to run to seed during 
hot weather. A profitable sort. Known as the 
late cabbage, large mogul, Swedish or sugar, 
Saxony, and princess, and is the Royal t graine 
blanche. Blonde Paresseuse, Blonde d'6tS ou 
Jaune d'etg of the French. 

Malta. — Heads compact and flattish ; leaves 
palish green ; blanching naturally ; of a fine 
pure white colour and tender consistency. An 
old tried variety. It is the Laitue de Malte of 
the " Bon Jardinier." 

Versailles. — Not much removed from the 
Neapolitan ; the leaves are, however, of a paler 
green, of excellent quality, and cabbaging white 
and crisp. It is the Laitue de Versailles, Laitue 
de Versailles blonde, of the " Bon Jardinier." 

Imperial. — An excellent large sort, but infe- 
rior to either of the above. It is known as the 
vmiou, and is the Imperiale ou grosse Alemande 
of the French, and differs only from their Laitue 
Turque, or Turque 4 graine noire, in having 
white instead of black seed. 

Black-seeded yellow. — Very similar to the 
large white cabbage lettuce, differing chiefly in 

the seeds of the present one being black. It is 
the Blonde de Berlin, Blonde i, graine noire, 
Royal ^ graine noire, of the French. 

White Siksian. — One of the largest size. 
Leaves crumpled or wavy at their edges ; pal- 
ish green, slightly tinged with reddish brown on 
their outer surfaces. It is known as the drum- 
head, large drumhead, or cabbage, Spanish, 
imperial. A long-cultivated sort. It is the Ba- 
tavia blonde ou SUesie of the " Bon Jardinier." 

Of other summer cabbage lettuces the fol- 
lowing rank next to the above : Asiatic, Belle 
bonne. Ice, Grand admirable, Victoria, Mogul, 
(which is identical with superfine new French), 
Laitue de HoUande, Grosse brune paresseuse, 
and Grosse grise. The Nonpareil of the English 
is synonymous with the Metrelle of the French. 

Of cabbage lettuce we have, for winter and 
early spring use — 

Temiis-ball. — A long-cultivated sort. Heads 
small, firm, white, and crisp ; very hardy, and 
not apt to run to seed in spring. Very much 
prized with French cooks, who dress it whole 
in a variety of w^ays. This is one of the sorts 
which should be sown about the 12th or 15th 
of August. The seed is black. It is known 
also as green ball or button, and capuchin. 
It requires little room in frames during winter, 
and yields a great return in spring, as almost 
the whole plant is eatable. 

Black-seeded grotte. — An excellent winter let- 
tuce, somewhat similar to the last. There is a 
black and white seeded variety, and also various 
other grotte lettuces, much more cultivated 
in France than with us, all of great merit. 
Where small, hard, compact, and dehcate sorts 
are required, this class should be extensively 
grown; not that they differ much in appear- 
ance or quality, but by procuring several sorts 
by name, the chance of disappointment in pro- 
curing some that are good is lessened. 

Brown Butch. — An excellent hardy free-grow- 
ing sort, attaining a pretty large size, cabbaging 
freely, and of good quality. The outside leaves 
are reddish brown, the centre ones white and 
delicate. It is less hardy than the others iu 
this class ; but as it is of much larger size, its 
cultivation is of consequence. 

Hardy-green Hammersmith. — An excellent 
small hardy green variety, which has long been 
iu cultivation. Leaves much wrinkled and con- 
cave ; dark green in colour, and thicker than 
most of this class ; seeds white ; the hardiest 
sort in cultivation. It is known also as the 
early frame, early dwarf Dutch, Roman cab- 
i)age, hardy green, green Dutch, and Prussian 
cabbage. It is the Laitue verde of Continental 

While Dutch. — Leaves yellowish green, some- 
times tinged with reddish purple at their tips ; 
seeds white ; cabbages freely, and of excellent 
quality; somewhat larger than the tennis-ball. 
Known also as the early yellow, early green 
forcing, and early cabbage. It is the Laitue 4 
bord rouge, ou Cordon rouge, of the French. 

There are four species of Lactuca cultivated 
besides L. saliva, the presumed type of the cul- 
tivated varieties described above. These are 
Lactuca crispa, palmata, intyhacea, and quercina. 



Their merits liave, however, attracted little at- 
tention in Britain. The French profess to have 
several kinds in the seed-shops, which they 
consider adapted to the purpose of growing to 
be out young, as we do mustard and cress. 
These they call Laitue chicoree, Laitue h oou- 
per, Laitue epinard. Any sort of the upright 
or cos varieties will do equally well. 

Diseases and insects. — Among the latter are the 
lettuce-fly {Anthomyia laetucm Bouch.), the larvte 
of which, according to Euricola, in " Gardeners' 
Chronicle," make their appearance in August, 
but more abundantly in September. They are 
not very readily distinguished from those of the 
cabbage and turnip, being of a yellowish-white 
colour, tapering towards the head, which is 
pointed, and armed with two short black claws 
at the nose. These maggots live in the involucra 
of different varieties of lettuce, feeding upon the 
seed and receptacle ; and when they have de- 
voured these, they push themselves out back- 
wards, either to enter another seed-vessel, or 
fall to the ground to become pupae. When the 
seed stems are gathered and dying, the larvK 
change to pupae, being bright chestnut coloured ; 
oval cases, which are rough when examined 
under a lens, with two minute tubercles at the 
head, and two hooks and a few other tubercles 
at the tail. In May a few of the pupse hatch, 
although they are sometimes found as early as 
April and as late as July. The male fly is intense 
black, clothed with short hairs and bristles ; the 
eyes reddish brown, and meeting above ; face 
inclining to chestnut colour, with a bright spot 
of the same on the crown ; the fore part of the 
trunk bears four varying whitish stripes; the 
body is ashy grey ; the segments blackish, at 
the base a deep black ; wings, two, stained with 
black and beautifully irridescent ; the base and 
poisers ochreous ; the nervures of the vrings 
pitchy. The female is entirely ashy grey, and 
less bristly ; the eyes not meeting on the crown, 
with a bright chestnut-coloured stripe between 
them ; body oval ; the apex cone-shaped ; horns 
and legs blackish ; wings and nervures lighter 
than in the male, which it equals in size. 

The A rctia caja — Euprepia cjja of others — 
fig. 57 (the garden tiger-moth), appears in July, 
and often commits sad havoc upon lettuce 
crops, and also on strawberries. The caterpillar 
is one of the most voracious of all its class, eat- 
ing double its own weight per day. They do not 
eat the solid part of the leaf, but suck out the 
juice, and thereby destroy the plant as com- 
pletely as others do who devour the leaves and 
stems. It has been ascertained that one of these 
caterpillars, weighing 36 grains, voided daily 
more than 15 grains' weight of excrement; yet 
its ovm weight only increased 2 grains daily. The 
caterpillar of this moth is to be found in June, 
and the perfect insect in July, so that its period 
of voracity is providentially not of long dura- 
tion. It is well known in gardens in its perfect 
state, and may be readily captured while on wing 
by using an entomologist's net. Hind wings 
bright red, with blue-black spots ; fore legs of a 
reddish brown, marked with creamy white; 
thorax brown, with a red neck-band ; abdomen 
red, with blue-black bars. The caterpillars ai'e 

dark brown, thickly covered with reddish-brown 
hairs. They cast their skin quite entire, and 

Fig. 57. 


these may be frequently picked up in mistake 
for the living insect. 

Another enemy to the lettuce, as well as many 
of the products of the garden, is the Tipula ma- 
culosa of Hoffmausegg (the spotted garden-gnat), 
fig. 68. Thegrubs 
Fig. 58. of the genus Ti- 

pula are amongst 
the worst ene- 
mies to gardens. 
It would appear 
that, until lately, 
we had no cor- 
rect idea of the 
number of speci&s 
by which we are 
infested — Tipula 
oleracea apparent- 
ly bearing the 
whole blame of 
the injury done 
us by his family. 
Ruricola,in " Gar- 
deners' Chro- 
nicle," 1846, p. 
317, appears to 
have drawn at- 
tention to this 
species, and de- 
scribes them as 
follows; "These 
larvae are of the 
same dirty earth 
colour as those of 
T. oleracea; but 
they are only 
three-fourths of 
an inch long, and as thick as a large crow-quill. 
They are wrinkled, and when at rest contract 
themselves, drawing in the head and thoracic 
segments, so that this portion looks more like 
the anal extremity : the animal, however, is 
able to thrust out its head and crawl along very 





well, although it is destitute of feet. The head 
is small, brown, and furnished with two black 
jaws, short antennae, and, I believe, minute palpi. 
Two vessels of a pale colour are visible down 
each side of the back, and one in the centre ; 
the tail is furnished with two divaricating hooks, 
and two short teeth between them ; the stern 
being truncated, which will readily distinguish 
the larva from that of T. oleracea ; it has two 
large spiracles, with two tubercles below, and 
two fleshy masses, which are capable of great 
dilatation, and assist it exceedingly in walking. 
In the spring these larvae change to pupse in the 
earth. They are about the same length as the 
larvae, but scarcely so stout, and of the like 
dirty colour ; the head and thorax are defined, 
the latter having a short slender horn project- 
ing on each side ; the wings are small, but dis- 
tinctly visible, as well as the legs, which are 
placed between them. There is a spiny ele- 
vated line on each side of the abdomen ; each 
segment having a transverse row of minute 
spines above, and five larger ones beneath ; the 
penultimate joint is surrounded by six longer 
spines and two smaller ones ; and the apex pro- 
duces a large conical process above, and a shorter 
one beneath. The flies are abundant in May 
and June in meadows, gardens, fields, hedges, 
and especially on the sea-coast. There must be 
either two or three broods in the year, or a 
constant succession of the flies, although the 
spring may be the season when the greatest 
number are hatched; but that will vary with the 
temperature." The gnat is " not quite half an 
inch long, but the wings expand one inch. 
The male is of a fine yellow colour ; the black 
horns are longer than the thorax, and taper ; 
they are 13-jointed ; the first joint is elongated, 
the second small and cup-shaped ; all the others 
are elliptical, with a few bristles at the base of 
each, excepting the apical one, which is very 
minute ; head with a large black patch on the 
crown; forehead conical, with a little black 
dot on each side ; the face forming a cylindri- 
cal rostrum, with a hairy beak, bearing a black 
spot on the top. Palpi are longish and black ; 
the eyes are hemispherical and black, but there 
are no ocelli ; the thorax is marked with three 
black stripes down the back, the centre one the 
shortest, and the sides are spotted with black ; 
the scutel has a black dorsal stripe ; the abdo- 
men is linear and obtuse, with a row of black 
spots down the back, and smaller brown ones 
on the sides ; the wings divaricate or rest hori- 
zontally on the body ; they are of a smoky, 
yellow tint ; the costa is yellow ; there are an 
areolet, two little stigmatio cells, and seven 
apical ones ; six long black legs, very slender 
and tapering ; base of thigh pale yellow, and of 
shanks yellowish brown. The female is rather 
larger; the horns shorter; the abdomen is fusi- 
form; the apex accuminated, and furnished 
with two fine sharp lateral valves, and a smaller 
centrical one. The eggs, which are scattered by 
the female, are intensely black, but dull, oval, 
and spoon-shaped. This, however, might arise 
in my specimens from their not being fertile. 

" Some idea may be formed, from the following 
data, of the mischief committed by this insect. 

On the 23d of April T found the grubs at the 
root of my pease ; on the 29th some had eaten 
off trusses of flowers in the strawberry beds, close 
to the crown, retiring afterwards just benea^ the 
surface of the earth ; the first week in May they 
were not uncommon among the roots of lilacs 
andundertufts of grass ; on the 28th of the same 
month I observed some recently transplanted let- 
tuce drooping, and, on examination, found the 
roots separated from the crown, a little below the 
surface, and close to where these grubs are diffi- 
cult to detect, owing to their colour, and their re- 
maining quite motionless when disturbed. The 
end of July they were eating the roots of dahlias, 
carnations, and various flowers ; and the 7th of 
August they infested some potato ground along 
with the T. oleracea ; after which I lost sight of 

" Lime-water will not kill them ; and the 
only mode I have been able to adopt with any 
success has been to search round sickly plants, 
and dig up all that have been killed by them, 
and destroy the culprits ; but this must be done 
speedily, otherwise they will soon decamp to 
feed upon other plants. I should think water- 
ing with brine, nitrate of soda, or perhaps strong 
liquid manure, would keep them from our crops." 

Brine applied sufficiently strong to kiU or drive 
away these grubs would kill the plants them- 
selves. Sulphur, tobacco or quassia water, or 
spirits of tar incorporated with the soil, we think, 
would be found more effectual. Besides these, 
a species of aphis has recently been discovered 
which commits great depredations on lettuce 
crops, by attacking the roots of the plants. This 
species does not appear to have been observed 
by entomologists prior to 184,9, and hence re- 
mains unnamed. 

Birds are fond of the seeds of lettuce, there- 
fore newly-sown crops should be protected by 
netting the beds over; and the seed, while 
ripening, requires a similar protection. 

General remarks. — Select some of the best- 
formed plants that have stood over winter ; thin 
them out where they stand, if the place is eli- 
gible; if not, transplant them in spring to a 
warm and sunny spot, setting them from 2 to 
3 feet apart, according to the size of the kinds. 
Keep no two sorts near to each other ; or, better, 
as the seed retains its vegetative properties for 
many years, grow in small gardens, only one 
sort for seed in one season. The seed will be ripe 
in August. Cut the plants when the flowers have 
faded, and leave them on a dry border for a day 
or two; the seeds will mature themselves in the 
seed-vessels, deriving nourishment from the sap 
in the plants; when dry, remove them under 
cover of a dry airy shed, and thrash out the 
seed when it begins to fall out. The seed 
ripens very irregularly if left standing, the top 
parts ripening and shedding before the lower 
parts and the side shoots are equally matured. 

§ 4. — ENDIVE. 

Natural history. — Endive (fiichormm endivia 
L.) belongs to the natural order Compositae, 
suborder Cichoraceac, and tribe Ciuchorai, and 



to the class Syngenesia and order iEqualis in 
the Linnsean arrangement. For derivation, vide 
SucooBY. It is said to be a native of the East 
Indies, China, and Japan, and to have been in- 
troduced in 1548. This Phillips disputes, and 
we think with good reason, for Ovid mentions 
it in his tale of " Philemon and Baucis." Colu- 
mella also notices this vegetable as sufficiently 
common in his day ; and Pliny tells us clearly 
that it was " eaten both as a pot-herb and salad 
by the Romans in his time ; " and in book xx. 
chap. 8, he speaks of the endive or garden suc- 
cory as being medicinal. Gerard gives an ac- 
count " of the manner by which the garden 
endive was preserved for winter use in the time 
of Queen Elizabeth." His method may not be un- 
interesting to the horticulturist of the present 
day. He says — " Endive being sown in July, it 
remaineth till winter, at which time it is taken 
up by the roots, and laid in the sun or air for 
the space of two hours ; then will the leaves be 
tough, and easily endure to be wrapped up in 
a heap, and buried in the ground with the 
roots uppermost, where no earth can get within 
it, which, if it did, would cause rottenness ; and 
which, so covered, may be taken up at any time 
convenient, and used as salads all winter, as in 
London and all other places is to be seen ; and 
then it is called white endive." Taking a hint 
from this quotation, we have often, in taking up 
endive in November, planted it in an inverted 
position, by burying the leaves in dry peat 
earth (which is an excellent antiseptic), the 
roots uppermost, and exposed to the air, and 
have kept it in good condition from two to three 
months. From all we can learn, we are dis- 
posed to believe endive a native of Egypt, 
and that it was carried from thence to Italy, 
and from thence to Britain, along with many 
other of our horticultural productions. 

Uses. — The leaves are the only parts used, 
and these only when blanched, to diminish the 
natural bitterness of taste. It is one of our 
best autumn, winter, and spring salads, and is 
also stewed much in the same way as lettuce. 

Propagation. — In a cultivated state it 
can only be regarded as an annual, and 
is therefore propagated by seed, -which is 
light, and vegetates freely : half an ounce of 
seed will sow a seed-bed of 40 square feet. 

Soloing and planting. — The earliest crop 
should be sown in May, on a warm border, 
in rich and weU-pulverised soil. In sow- 
ing, scatter the seed thinly, and cover to 
the depth of a quarter of an inch. If 
sown earlier, the plants are apt to run to 
seed in autumn ; and if sown too thick, 
they come up slender, and if not timeously 
thinned, are much retarded in their 
growth. For principal crops, sow twice in 
June and twice in July ; and for a late 
crop to stand over winter, if mild, and to 
come in early in spring, sow again towards 
the middle or end of August. 

The seeds may be sown broadcast in 
beds 3 feet in breadth. In dry warm 
weather water freely, both while in the 
seed-bed and nursery plantation. As bulk 
of vegetable and tenderness in texture, as 
in the case of the lettuce, are the great 
requisites, every stimulus should be given 
to increase the rapidity of growth, and 
this will be accelerated by the application 
of liquid manure, such as dissolved guano, 
soot, or pigeons' dung, applying it either 
early in the morning or late in the after- 
noon. When the plants are about 2^ 
inches high, remove them carefully, and 
transplant them into another bed of 
equally enriched soil. Set the plants from 
3 to 4 inches apart each way, water at 
planting, and afterwards, if the weather is 
dry. From this bed they may be trans- 
ferred, when about 4 to 5 inches in height, 
to where they are to come to their full 
size. The early crop should be sparingly 
planted, unless the demand is great, as 
they are very apt to shoot up to seed, 
more especially if the seed is of last year's 
growth. A part of this early crop may 
be planted on a warm well-exposed bor- 
der, and the remainder interlined with 
newly-planted-out broccoli or cabbage, or 
between rows of dwarf pease, the partial 
shade being of advantage to them, and in 
some degree preventing their running 
to seed prematurely. In taking up for final 
transplanting, great care should be taken 
that the roots are disturbed as little as 
possible, and that as much soil as will 
conveniently remain about them be also 
taken along with them — and for this 
purpose the planting trowel should be 
used, instead of the dibber. As the plants 
are taken up, set them closely together in 
the planting-tray, with their leaves up- 
right, and on no account follow the bar- 
barous practice of cutting the leaves off 
nearly by the middle. The planting-tray 
is a light shallow Isox, about 27 inches in 
length, 18 inches wide, and 3| inches in 
depth. In the sides should be cut two 
slits sufficient to introduce the fingers, 
for greater convenience in carrying it to 
the place of planting. Such trays are 
much better than baskets, as they prevent 
the loose earth falling on the walks, pro- 
tect the roots better from the air during 
their transport, and are more economical, 
on account of their greater durability. 
The ground for the principal crops should 



be open and well exposed to the sun, 
thoroughly manured, and dug or trenched 
to the depth of 2 feet. Draw drills from 
12 to 15 inches apart, according to the 
kind of endive to be planted, as some, 
like the Batavian or broad-leaved sorts, 
reqiiire more room than the green-curled, 
and those to be used early in autumn 
may also be set closer together than such 
as are to remain till a later period. The 
drills should be 3 inches deep, which, by 
the earth falling into them during the 
process of hoeing, &c., will assist in blanch- 
ing the crop ; they also render the pro- 
cess of watering more convenient, and 
economise the fluid, and afford, as in all 
cases of drilled crops, greater facility for 
cleaning the ground and stirring it up, 
upon which so much of the success of all 
crops depends. The plants, according to 
size, as stated above, should be planted 
with the trowel, at from 9 to 14 inches 
apart in the row : if the ground is in 
proper condition, this will not be found 
too great a distance ; if otherwise, a less 
distance will suffice. 

In all cold and late situations, the 
warmest spot in the garden should be set 
apart for this crop, as it is, with the ex- 
ception of the kidney-bean and potato, 
the most tender of all our ordinary escu- 
lents. The shade of trees should be 
avoided; and for the latest crops of all, a 
dry place, and if possible sloping to the 
south, should be chosen. 

Subsequent cultivation. — The summer 
crop will require nothing more than atten- 
tion to watering, and keeping the ground 
clear of weeds, until it has nearly attained 
its full size, when a portion of the crop 
should be blanched ; but this should not 
be done all at once, only in progression — 
say from 20 to 50 plants about every third 
day. The methods of blanching are va- 
rious. The Belgians, who are the best 
growers of this crop in the world, com- 
mence at the end of a row, and, taking 
the leaves carefully up with both hands 
first, hold them tight with the left hand, 
and with the right hand apply a small 
willow twig, and frequently a leaf of Ju- 
neus glaums, which they use largely for 
all temporary tying purposes, round the 
leaves at top, thus causing the large outer 
leaves to blanch the more tender ones 
towards the heart of the plant. They are 
methodical in all their gardening opera- 

tions ; and so, in this case, they thus tie 
up as many plants as will last for six 
days, at the end of which time they begin 
to gather the crop, which will be begin- 
ning to blanch, and will every day be 
improving. They take up as many as 
they require for the day's consumption, 
and with the twigs or rushes now dis- 
engaged, they proceed to where they left 
off tying at first, and tie up as many more 
as they have that day taken for use; and 
in this way they go on throughout the 
whole crop. They also sometimes draw 
a little earth about the plants as we do, 
but they prefer the former practice. 

The English practice, in market-gar- 
dens, is to tie up in the same way, using 
strands of matting instead of twigs or 
rushes, performing the operation once in 
eight or ten days. This operation should 
in all cases be attended to in dry days, or 
when the leaves are completely free of 
damp from rain or dew. In private gar- 
dens the same plan is followed, though, 
in some cases, they draw earth around 
the plants .when both are in a dry state, 
and thus effect the end, although not so 
completely. Indeed, when the earthing- 
up system is to be followed, it will be 
found expedient to tie up the leaves first, 
and therefore, if this is done properly, 
earthing up must be superfluous. By ty- 
ing up the plants while quite dry, drawing 
the leaves up in a conical form, and tying 
them tight about 3 inches under their 
tips, damp is prevented from getting to 
the hearts, and no deterioration can take 
place in the flavour ; and therefore, we 
would say, for summer crops, this is the 
better way. For autumnal supply, when 
the weather is less favourable, and every 
means should be employed to prevent 
decay taking place, 
Fig. 59. jjj consequence of 

damp, in privategar- 
dens at least, the en- 
dive blanching-pot, 
fig. 59, should be 
used. These are 
merely modifica- 
tions of the sea-kale 
blanching-pot, fig. 
39, diminished in 
size ; and as there 
is no occasion for a 
portable top or lid to enable the culti- 
vator to examine his crop, they are made 




all in one piece, ha-ving a knob at top to 
serve as a handle for lifting tliem off or 
on. They are from 9 to 12 inches in 
diameter, and the same in height; are 
placed over the plants when nearly full 
grown, the leaves being gathered up with 
one hand, while with the other the pot 
is placed over them, so as to enclose them 
completely, and thus insure their blanch- 
ing, while they are protected from frost, 
snow, or rain. The curled-leaved varie- 
ties are much more readily blanched than 
the broad-leaved or Batavian sorts, there- 
fore a corresponding degree of care is 
required in performing the process. As 
to the length of time required for blanch- 
ing, much depends on the season. Dur- 
ing summer, while the plants are growing 
vigorously, the process wiU be effected 
in a week; while towards autumn, and 
during winter, when vegetation is more 
sluggish, double or treble that time will 
be required. The other means employed 
are to invert empty flowerpots over the 
plants, taking care to stop up the holes 
in their bottoms, laying a slate or pan-tile 
over each plant, particularly the green 
curled sorts : the Batavian, from its 
difference in habit, does not admit of this 
process. Setting two long narrow boards 
along each side of the row, and bringing 
them together at top in form of a triangle, 
and afterwards drawing earth over them 
to keep them steady ; covering the dwarf- 
growing sorts with half-decayed leaves, 
dry tanners' bark, sand (a method in use 
in the days of Gerard), coal-ashes, or even 
sawdust, are all had recourse toj but all 
of these, as will readily be seen, are far 
inferior to using the blanching-pot, or 
even the tying-up process. 

For protection during winter, the Lon- 
don market-gardeners take up their latest 
crops, and set them thickly on sloping 
banks, by the sides of hedges, for the sake 
of shelter ; while others throw up long 
narrow ridges, in an east and west direc- 
tion, and plant both sides, which produces 
a succession — those on the southern side 
coming in first, while those on the opposite 
side, if later in arriving at perfection, have 
often the advantage over the others of 
withstanding the winter's cold better, be- 
ing less influenced by the freezing during 
night, and rapid thawing during the day. 

Partial shelter may be afforded the 
plants during winter, when planted in the 

open garden, by sticking the ground be- 
tween and around them with old pea- 
stakes, branches of trees, furze or broom 
branches. This wards off cutting winds, 
and catches the perpendicular frost as it 
falls; but, in using such means, they 
should be stuck firmly in the ground, to 
prevent their being blown about so as to 
injure the plants by friction ; neither 
should they be above 2 feet in height, as 
the lower they are the less effect the wind 
has upon them. 

The best way, however, to secure fine 
endive during winter, is to take the full- 
grown plants up in November, or before 
severe frosts set in, choosing a dry day, 
and when the leaves are also dry. Tie 
the leaves loosely together with matting, 
first removing a few of the largest and 
oldest outside leaves ; take them up with 
good balls of earth attached to them, and 
carry them to the conservative-pit (fig. 676, 
vol. i.), or the span-roofed vegetable-pit 
(fig. 677, vol. i.), and plant them in mo- 
derately dry sand, in half-decayed peat 
earth, if it can be procured, which, on 
account of its antiseptic properties, will 
resist decay longer. They should be placed 
closely together, but not so close as to 
touch each other. In the one case, they 
will be kept perfectly dry, in consequence 
of the permanency of the roof, while 
ample ventilation is secured by opening 
the sides, as shown in our figure. In such 
a structure they will enjoy almost as much 
air as if in the open ground, while they 
will be completely protected from damp 
and frost. The conservative-pit (fig. 676, 
vol. i.) offers also an excellent means of 
keeping endive, and all similar plants, if 
taken up with balls, and planted in it. 
The boarded roofing, which is in conve- 
nient pieces, keeps the interior dry, 
while light and air, when wanted, can be 
fully admitted, by propping it up as shown 
in our figure. All places for the purpose 
of keeping esculent vegetables during 
winter, should be placed in a dry airy 
situation, and with a northern aspect, so 
that the sim may rarely shine upon them : 
during their season of hibernal existence, 
every stimulus to growth should be guard- 
ed against. We have recently constructed 
a very useful pit for this purpose, 150 feet 
in length, and 7 feet wide. It is simply a 
brick wall, 15 inches in height, built pa- 
rallel with an existing north wall, covered 



with standard or Ridder Morello cherries, 
the branches of which are 3 feet from the 
ground. A batten of wood, with notches 
cut out opposite the stems of the trees, is 
fastened to the wall by holdfasts at that 
height ; to this, and to the wooden wall- 
plate on top of front wall, the rafters are 
fixed, at the distance of 3| feet, which is 
the breadth of a great portion of our 
glass lights and felt shutters, that either 
may be employed if necessary. For pro- 
tecting lettuce and endive the former are 
not required; and the latter, during win- 
ter, are mostly in use for covering over 
the glass lights of pits, &c. during the 
night. As a covering for this pit, we 
employ the boarding used as portable 
coping to the garden-walls (vide fig. 40, 
vol. i.), which during winter is not re- 
quired : these are laid upon the rafters in 
an imbricated manner, but not fixed to 
them, but they are secured to each other 
by cords every 6 feet, after the manner of 
Venetian blinds ; but instead of drawing 
up, like them, they are folded up the one 
over the other, when air is wished to be 
admitted, or when it is necessary to open 
them to take out the supply, remove dead 
leaves, &c. When the plants are fully 
grown they are removed from the quarter, 
tied up, and planted in rotten tan within 
the pit ; the boarding is put on, and the 
whole safely secm-ed. We have never had 
so fine a supply of endive before as we 
have this season, and we are still cutting, 
on the 10th of March, that which was put 
in the first week in November. 

Soil and manure. — The object being to 
produce the largest amount of vegetable 
matter, and in the shortest space of time, 
it follows that the soil cannot be too rich 
or in too high a state of cultivation for 
this crop. Beyond the application of 
stable-yard manure, as usually applied, we 
use no other manure, save that at every 
watering we enrich the liquid by the addi- 
tion of guano, soot, or pigeons' dung, and 
occasionally ammoniacal liquor, or the 
water through which gas passes during 
the process of purification, which appears 
to be an excellent manure for most garden 
crops, but cannot everywhere be procured. 
It should, however, be understood that this 
liquor is not gas-tar, which of itself would 
have very opposite effects. 

Taking the crop, and subsequent preserva- 
tion. — Endive is always used in a blanched 

state, both for appearance sake and to get 
rid of a certain natural bitterness con- 
tained in the green leaves. It is divested 
of its outer, coarser, and unblanched 
leaves and roots, with any points of the 
remaining leaves that may have been in- 
jured, or have begun to decay. It is then 
thoroughly washed, rinsed afterwards in 
clear water, or in salt and water, allowed 
to drip dry, and placed in a clean basket 
fit for use. The preservation of the crop 
being so connected with its subsequent 
culture, for that the reader is referred to 
the last paragraph. 

Forcing. — Endive is rarely forced in 
Britain, our chief dependence being placed 
on the preservation of the preceding year's 
growth over winter. The truth is, with 
all our affectation for French cookery and 
salad-eating, we are a vast stride behind 
our neighbours on the other side of the 
Channel in both. They force endive, and 
we do not. Their mode of proceeding is 
thus given in the " Bon Jardinier," which 
contains all that is new in French garden- 
ing : " For early-forced scarole (broad- 
leaved or Batavian endive) the seed is 
sown in January, under glass, in a strong 
heat. After the seeds have vegetated, and 
the plants are fit to handle, which will, in 
general, be from twelve to eighteen days 
after sowing, they are pricked out on 
another hot-bed, at a lower temperature 
than the last, ventilation is attended to, 
and in course of the end of February and 
during March the crop is ready for use. 
The plants, of course, are small compared 
to those grown by us in the open air, but 
they are produced in gi-eat number on 
account of the extent of framing every 
garden contains, and the abundance of 
stable-yard manure procurable, by which 
almost all the forcing in the market- 
gardens about Paris is carried on. When 
the scarole has attained the height of 6 
or 8 inches in the frames, it is tied up 
to blanch, which it does in a few days. 
Sometimes they sow the seed in October, 
in a bed vrith a mild bottom-heat, and 
afterwards prick out the plants into a 
similar bed, placing them at the distance 
of about 6 inches asunder, either under 
glazed sashes supported on frames, or 
under cloches or large bell-glasses, placed 
close together on the heated material. 
These they cover in severe weather with 
or straw mats, wliich they very 



properly prefer to Russian mats, the most 
indiiferent of all protections, warding off 
neither cold nor wet in so efficient a man- 
ner. We have a third mode, by sowing 
about the middle of September in a cold 
frame : in about three weeks the plants 
are of fit size to prick out tinder glass to 
gain strength, after which they are trans- 
ferred to a glass frame, set pretty thickly 
together, and protected from cold by 
ample coverings alone." It will be under- 
stood that these crops are not intended to 
attain the same size they do with us, but 
are cut for use while quite young and 
tender ; and by such means we might 
obtain a better supply of young lettuce 
for winter use than we do by growing 
them in boxes, pots, or pans, in the high 
temperature usually done. This mode, 
however, imposes a great amount of la- 
bour in covering and uncovering; and 
from the high price of labour with us 
compared with that of France, it would 
hardly pay the commercial grower. In 
some few private gardens, such supplies, 
both of lettuce and endive, are kept up ; 
but, in general, the demand for glass is so 
great with us for other purposes that few 
private families would afford the neces- 
sary means. Winter salad-growing is the 
beau ideal of the French gardener ; his 
mind is, as it were, concentrated on it, 
and indeed he has little else to think of 
Not so with those of Britain, whose win- 
ter operations are far more multifarious, 
besides the difference of climate. 

Approved sorts and their qualities. — The endive, 
like the lettuce, is divided into two very distinct 
classes — the Batavian or broad-leaved (the Soa- 
roles of the French, the Breitblattrige-endivie 
of the Germans), and the curled-leaved (the 
Chicoree of the French, the Endivien-cichorie 
of the Germans.) An excellent paper was pub- 
lished some years ago, in the 4th vol. of the 
" Transactions of the Horticultural Society of 
London," on the varieties of endives. The 
French seed-lists contain many names ; those of 
Britain contain few, and of those, three or four 
are all that is in general inquired for. 

The broad-leaved Batavian and small Bata- 
mail are the only two broad-leaved sorts worth 
the attention of the general cultivator. The 
former is known also as broad-leaved endive, 
common yellow, and double yellow ; the latter 
is the Scarole petite, Soarole courte, Scarole 
ronde of the French. The former is that most 
usually grown, but from careless seed-saving is 
not always to be procured genuine. The latter 
has the following merits, which are worth notice, 
and are thus given by Mr Thompson, from spe- 

cimens grown in the London Horticultural So- 
ciety's garden : " Leaves pale green, broad, of 
moderate length, slightly ragged at the edges ; 
inner leaves hooked at the top, naturally form- 
ing a good heart ; blanching with little trouble, 
and is mild and sweet compared with many 
others." Nearly allied to the broad-leaved, but 
inferior to it, is the curled Batavian, fine-curled 
and yellow-curled Batavian, which are all the 

The large Batavian is merely a large variety 
of the small Batavian, inferior to it in not heart- 
ing so well. It is the Scarole grande, Scarole de 
HoUande, of the French. 

Lettuce-leaved Batavian. — More tender than 
the other varieties, therefore not adapted for 
winter crops or cold localities, luiless for early 
summer use; the leaves are large, blunt, and cut 
at the edges : it does not blanch without tying 
up. It is known as the white Batavian and 
new Batavian, and is the Scarole 4 feuUle de 
laitue, Soariole blonde, of the French. The 
green and white Batavians are only seed-list 
names, referable to the common broad-leaved 

Large green curled. — An excellent sort, differ- 
ing from the following only in being somewhat 
larger in size, and in having its outer leaves 
more upright. It is known as the green ciirled, 
yellow winter endive. 

Small green curled. — With the last, the two 
best of their class, and most extensively grown. 
Leaves about 6 or 7 inches long, beautifully 
curled, the outer leaves lying close to the 
ground, the inner ones thickly set, forming a 
compact heart, easily blanched, very hardy, and, 
with the last, best adapted for winter use. It is 
the Chicoree frisee, Chicoree de Meaux, Chicoree 
endive, of the French. 

White curled. — This sort is much used by the 
French for cutting young, as described in para- 
graph Forcing. The full-grown leaves are nearly 
8 inches long, and when grown in the open air 
they seldom or ever form a heart, and are be- 
sides tough and bitter. It is the Chicoree 
blanche, Chicoree toujours blanche, of the 
French. Certainly not worth cultivating for a 
general crop. 

Small French green curled. — This sort is much 
cultivated in France for the earliest crop, heart- 
ing early, and being less liable to run to seed 
than some others. It is so small and so prostrate 
that it is difficult to tie up. It is known as the 
fine-curled, and is the Chicoree fine d'gte, Chi- 
coree frisSe fine d'ltalie, and Chicoree d'ete, of 
the French. 

Dutch green curled. — So near in aU respects to 
the large green curled as not to be worth grow- 
ing as a separate sort. Like the other, it is 
hardy, and blanches well. 

Long Italian green curled, or Endivia longa. — 
Similar, if not inferior, to the following. 

Italian green curled, or Endivia riccia. — So 
similar to the last as not to be worth cultivating 
as a distinct sort; indeed, neither is worth cul- 
tivation in a climate like ours. 

Triple-curled moss. — A curious new sort, ex- 
ceedingly well curled, and, although a variety of 
the following, is worth cultivating to a limited 



extent. It is the Chicorfie mousse of the 

Staghorn endive. — A variety of no long stand- 
ing ; leaves upright, much cut and jagged at their 
points, which accounts for the name. It hearts 
well, but is very tender, running to seed too 
soon, and being impatient of wet and cold. Use- 
ful as a summer endive, but useless for winter 

Insects and diseases. — Endive is pretty well 
exempt from both, but, like most tender escu- 
lents, is often attacked by slugs (Lknaa) and 
snails {Helix) ; but these can readily be subdued 
, by dusting over with powdered lime, or watering 
with lime-water. Several species of the genus 
lulus, or snake millepedes, attack the roots of en- 
dive. We have lately discovered lulus pulchellus, 
fig. 48, /. terrestris, and /. complinatus, abun- 
dant about the roots of endive plants in a cold 
pit. In the quarters where they grew, hundreds 
have been dug up during November and Decem- 
ber, notwithstanding the plants were repeatedly 
watered vrith lime and soot water during their 
growth; and even nitrate of soda was pretty pro- 
fusely applied at the time of digging the ground. 
In some seasons, however, lime and soot water 
have been found to save the plants; and a single 
experiment made this last season seems to argue 
in favour of flowers of sulphur being sown in 
the drills previous to the plants being planted 
out; and this, no doubt, would have acted better 
had the sulphur been buried deeper. 

General remarks. — The seeds of endive are 
saved in the same way as those of chicory and 
lettuce (which see). The European names are 
Chicor^e des Jardins in French ; Endivia in 
Italian ; and in German and Dutch the same ; 
Endibia in Spanish. 

§ 5. — SUCCORY. 

Natural history. — Succory, chicory, or wild 
endive (^Oichorium intybus L.), belongs to the 
natural order Compositse, sub-order Cichoracese, 
and tribe Cichoreas, and to the class Syngene- 
sia, and order jEqualis. The generic name is of 
Egyptian origin, adopted by the Greeks. The 
plant has been used by the Egyptians from the 
earliest ages, and it is most probable that they 
would communicate to the Greeks its name, as 
well as the manner of using it. Forskahl says 
the Egyptian name was Chikouryeh. They did, 
and still do, make their chicory of much conse- 
quence ; and it is well known that it, along with 
similar plants, constitutes half the food of the 
Egyptian peasantry at this very day. The spe- 
cific name intybus is derived from the Arabic 
name Hendibeh ; and Pliny informs us that in 
his day they called the wild endive (our chicory) 
Ciohorium, and the cultivated sort (our endive) 
they call Serfs. According to Phillips, the gar- 
den endive was cultivated in England in the 
reign of Edward VI. ; " but the wild endive or 
succory," he adds, " intubus, being indigenous 
to the soil, was grown in aU probability at a 
much earlier period, both as a pot herb and as 
a salad ; " and Gerard informs us that " the leaves 
of these wild herbs are boiled in pottage, or 

broths, for sick and feeble persons ; " and this 
generally correct authority adds that the wild 
endives (our chicory) " do grow wild in sundry 
places in England, upon wild and untilled barren 
ground, especially in chalk and stony places." 
There can be therefore no doubt that, culti- 
vated or uncultivated, the chicory was in his day, 
1548, sufficiently well known. 

The chicory is indigenous to many p^rts of 
the south of England, particularly in chalky 
soils, and it has been long cultivated in Italy, 
France, and other parts of the Continent as an 
agricultural plant, the leaves being used as green 
food for cattle, and the roots, when kiln-dried 
and ground, as a substitute for coffee. It has 
also been long used in these countries as a salad 
herb, the leaves and roots both being used ; 
" yet in this country," says Loudon, " it had not 
attracted the notice of horticulturists till after 
the time of Miller." A revival of its uses was 
no doubt brought to England, from the Conti- 
nent, after the general peace in 1814-15. 

Use. — In other countries, as we have stated 
above, it has been extensively and profitably 
grown, particularly in Holland and Flanders, 
and has occupied a place in gardens for an un- 
known length of time, the leaves being blanched, 
and used as one of their most popular winter 
salads. The blanched leaves are called Barbe 
de Capucin, or Friar's beard. In Belgium the 
roots are scraped and boiled, and eaten along 
with potatoes, or with a sauce of butter and 
vinegar. The roots have been taken on board 
ship, and planted in boxes filled with sand, and 
in this way afforded wholesome salads for 
months together. Its principal use is as a sub- 
stitute for endive, and it is employed for the 
same purposes. 

The mode of propagation is by sowing 
the seed. A quarter of a pound will, be 
suificient for an ordinary private garden, 
as it is light, somewhat like endive, to 
which it is closely related. 

Sowing and planting. — The seeds ai'e 
sown, towards the end of June, in rich 
deeply-trenched ground. Sow thin, and 
cover about one quarter of an inch. When 
the plants come up, thin them to the dis- 
tance of 6 or 7 inches apart, transplanting 
those thinned out into another piece of 
ground equally manured and trenched, to 
allow the long fusiform roots to extend 
deep into it. Some sow, after the Flemish 
manner, in the broadcast way, and trans- 
plant on the same system. The drill mode 
is, however, better in both cases: the 
drills should be 9 inches apart, and the 
plants 6 inches distant in the row; for 
the stronger the plants are, and the more 
room the foliage has for development, the 
more elaborated matter will be thrown 
into the roots ; and it is this prepared 
matter, stored up in them during their 



growing season, that will supply the 
means for the young coming leaves dur- 
ing winter forcing, for they of themselves 
can collect little or nothing towards the 
support of the crop. 

Subsequent culture. — About the beginning 
of October the roots should be lifted, the 
leaves being carefully cut off, but not so 
close to the crown as to endanger the hearts 
of the plants. Amateurs had better leave 3 
inches of the base of the old leaves, to pre- 
vent accident. The roots are then planted 
as thick as they can well be done in a bed 
of sand on the floor of a mushroom-house, 
packing the sand closely about them, and, 
when finished, giving a good soaking of 
tepid water. Old boxes may be filled with 
them, and casks, as is usual on board of 
ship, having their sides perforated with 
holes 1^ inches in diameter, and 7 or 8 
inches apart. Lay a few inches of sand 
in the bottom of the cask, and on that lay 
the roots horizontally, with their crowns 
in the centre of the holes ; on this layer 
of roots lay more sand and roots until the 
cask is filled, watering each layer of roots 
as they are covered with the sand. Large 
flower-pots may also be used, or indeed 
anything that will keep the sand together. 
It may be convenient to fill many of these 
at once ; and by placing them in a dry 
cellar or open cool shed, they will remain 
for a month or two stationary. For the 
first gathering, one or more of these should 
be removed to a warmer place, where a 
temperature of from 45°, 50°, to 60° can 
be maintained, and where light can be 
completely excluded. In a week after- 
wards place another supply in, and so on 
during winter, or as long as the stock of 
roots lasts. They will seldom afford more 
than one gathering, and may be then 
thrown away, and the boxes or casks filled 
again with roots from the open ground. 
In this way a constant succession of salad 
may be kept up from the beginning or 
middle of November till April. Some 
recommend taking up all the crop of roots 
at once : this is unnecessary, until the be- 
ginning of February, when they will begin 
to become naturally excited into growth. 
It is expedient then to remove them to a 
bin of sand in the cellar, or to bury them 
deep in the ground, to preventtheirgrowth. 
It is also recommended by some to shorten 
the roots and remove the side fibres ; but 
this is only cutting off the resources of the 


plant, and lessening its means of produc- 
ing a crop of large succulent leaves. 

This excellent and wholesome salad was, 
we believe, first brought into notice in 
Covent Garden market by the indefatig- 
able Mr Cuthill, who, in 1839-40, carried 
the first sample of it which appeared 
there in his own hand. It was in C9nse- 
quence of a letter from that individual, 
published in " The Gardeners' Magazine," 
about fifteen years ago, that this plant was 
first grown as an article of field-culture, 
for the purpose of its roots being used for 
mixing with coffee. This is somewhat 
strange, seeing that it has been a common 
marketable article on the Continent time 
out of mind. 

Mr Cuthill sows his chicory about the 
first of June, either broadcast or in drills. 
When the plants are up, they are thinned 
out to a foot apart, and the ground is kept 
free from weeds. The roots are taken up 
in November, and stored by exactly like 
beet. When endive becomes scarce, the 
chicory roots are planted in 1 6-sized pots, 
five roots in each. When the chicory begins 
to spring, invert 24-sized pots over those 
the roots are in ; exclude the air, and place 
them in a forcing house or frame : each 
pot will afford three or four cuttings. A 
dark mushroom-house, where a fire is 
kept, is an excellent place for chicory; and 
a cellar is good for spring crops, but sel- 
dom warm enough, if not artificially heated, 
to depend upon for a regular winter supply. 

The Belgians and Dutch blanch im- 
mense quantities of chicory during winter 
and spring ; indeed, it forms one of the 
most prominent articles in their vegetable 
markets for several months together. The 
roots are taken up in autumn, and all the 
larger ones selected; they are then placed 
in a bed, almost as close as they can stand 
together, with merely a little earth to fill 
up the spaces between them, experience 
having taught the Belgian gardener the 
important fact pointed out theoretically 
by Mr T. A. Knight, that the new annual 
supply of leaves of plants of this descrip- 
tion is derived from the stock of sap ela- 
borated in the preceding year, and requires 
nothing from the soil but moisture. Upon 
the bed of roots thus closely packed toge- 
ther, and defended from frost in winter, 
a slight hot-bed of manure is laid in spring, 
with 6 or 8 inches of earth interposed. 
Into this earth the leaves shoot, struggling 



for light and air, and becoming perfectly 
blanched and crisp, and losing most of 
their natural bitterness. With us who 
have greater convenience in the shape of 
heated cellars, or other places capable of 
having light completely shut out, we ma- 
nage better, by planting the roots in beds 
on the floor, and thus produce the crop at 
less risk and greater certainty as to time, 
without half the labour. Planting in large 
pots or in boxes, and inverting pots or 
boxes of the same size over them, and 
setting them on the floor of a vinery, and 
behind the hot-water pipes or flues where 
they exist, or indeed in any out-of-the-way 
place where there is a temperature from 
50'' to 55°, and exclusion from light, will 
secure this excellent winter and spring 
salad in great perfection, and with little 

Those who desire it during spring may 
readily blanch it in the open ground, leav- 
ing some roots where they grew, and plac- 
ing sea-kale or endive pots over them. 
They will continue to yield a crop until 
they begin to run to seed. 

Taking the crop. — Each head of leaves is 
cut when of 7 or 8 inches long, taking 
with them a thin slice of the crown to 
keep them together, as in cutting sea-kale. 
When washed and tied up into small 
bundles of a handful each, they are fit for 
dressing. Three handfuls will make a 
good-sized salad, and may be eaten alone 
with oil and vinegar, or mixed with a little 
chervil and tarragon, or with young lettuce. 

Sorts amd their qualities. — The Continental 
growers profess to have three sorts — the common 
large-leaved, the Chicoree h navet, or Cafechi- 
cor6e, and the variegated. 

General remarks. — The European names are, 
Chicorfie sauvage in French ; Cicoria in Italian ; 
Gemeine ciohorie in German; Suikerei in Dutch; 
Achicoria in Spanish. In saving seed, select 
some of the strongest roots that have not been 
forced ; support the flower-stalk as it advances, 
and cut them over when flowering is done, and 
treat them as recommended for lettuce. The 
seed will keep three or four years. 


Dandelion (^Leontodon Ta/raxacum L.) belongs 
to the natural order Compositas, sub-order Cich- 
oraceEB, and tribe Taraxaceae, and to the class 
Syngenesia and order .^Equalis in the Linnsean 
arrangement. The generic name is derived from 
Leon, lion, Odon, a tooth, from the tooth-like di- 
visions of the leaves. Indigenous to most parts 
of Britain, particularly in rich soils. 

The young leaves, even in their green state, 
make an excellent ingredient in salads ; and the 
leaves are an excellent substitute for succory, 
and for this purpose they are blanched during 
winter in a similar manner. (See SnccOKT.) It 
is a neglected and despised plant, which might 
be made much use of by the poor, and those liv- 
ing in towns who have no gardens ; for roots of 
it may be got for the digging up, and, if planted 
in sand in a dark cellar, or even in pots set on 
the window-sill, much wholesome matter might 
be obtained from it. The roots are as valuable 
as the leaves. It is produced in great quantities 
in the London markets, although we are not 
aware of its cultivation being tried upon a com- 
mensurate scale to meet the demand. 

The amateur who may wish to grow the dan- 
delion in his cellar for salad purposes, should 
possess the root-extractor, fig. 60, an excellent 
implement for the purpose of taking up such 

Fig. 60. 


roots, which can be carried in the pocket. The 
mode of using it is to thrust it deeply into the 
ground, so placed that the root may be taken 
between the prongs. The bent part near the 
handle, acting as a fulcrum against the surface 
of the ground, greatly facilitates the withdrawal 
of the root without breaking it, when the handle 
is pressed towards the ground. 

General remarks. — The European names are. 
Dents de lion, or Pisse-en-lit, in French ; Amar- 
gon in Spanish; Paardebloem in Dutch; Lowen- 
zahn in German ; Piscia in letto in Italian. Our 
own common English name bears a close re- 
semblance to some of these. 

Tarragon {Artemisia Dracmicnhis L.) belongs 
to the natural order Compositse, sub-order An- 
themideae, and to the class Syngenesia and order 
Superflua in the Linnsean arrangement. The 
generic name is derived from Artemis, one of the 
names of Diana. Pliny, however, informs us 
that in his time there was an opinion that the 
plant was named after Artemisia, the queen of 
Mausolus, king of Caria. The specific name is 
said to have been given from the tortuous form 
of the roots resembling the sinuous tail of a 
dragon; others think it derived from Tarchon, 
the Arabic name of the plant. It is a native of 
the south of Europe, others say of Siberia, and 
was introduced into England in or before 1548. 

It is cultivated for its leaves and the points of 
its young shoots, both of which are used as an 
ingredient in salads, soups, stews, pickles, and 
other compounds. Tarragon vinegar, so much 
esteemed as a fish-sauce, is made by infusion of 
the leaves in common vinegar. It is also added 
to most salads to correct their coldness. Three 
or four plants are sufficient for an ordinary fa- 
mily ; but if required during winter in a forced 



state, twenty or more plants will be required. 
A very small portion is sufficient for a day's 
consumption, either for salads or soups, a small 
handful of the leaves or young shoots being 
quite sufficient. When used with salads, it 
should be cut up very small, and served on a 
plate by itself, so that every guest may season 
his salad to his own taste, as many have a dis- 
like to its flavour. 

Being a hardy perennial, it is increased by di- 
viding the roots ; every portion, however small, 
will grow, if only a bud be left at the top. It 
may also be propagated by seed, but this is sel- 
dom done. 

The seed may be sown in March. The slips 
or roots should be planted at the same time, or 
in autumn. It may also be propagated by cut- 
tings of the young shoots, taken off in July, 
when the plant is in full growth, and these will 
strike freely under a hand-glass in a shaded situa- 
tion. It should be planted in a dry warm soil, 
as it is apt, when planted in cold damp soils, to 
die during winter. 

If seed is sown, it should be in a small seed- 
bed broadcast, and the plants removed, after 
they have attained the height of 6 inches, into 
rows in an open part of the garden, free of shade 
and damp, and where the soil is perfectly dry, 
in lines a foot and a half apart, and the plants a 
foot asunder in the lines. They will speedily 
increase, and become fine bushy plants the same 

Their subsequent cultivation consists in keep- 
ing the ground around them clear of weeds; and 
when the plants are showing flower-stems, they 
should be cut off, unless a plant or two be left 
for seed. This is, however, seldom done, as the 
plant propagates sooner and better by dividing 
the root. Towards November, take up a few of 
the plants, and plant them in large flower-pots 
or boxes, to be placed in a mild heat to produce 
green leaves and shoots during the winter. 

The plants potted in November may be from 
time to time, to suit the demand, placed on the 
floor of a vinery, or in a moderately-heated pit, 
in any temperature from 45° to 60°. 

A very small portion of the green leaves or 
tops of the young shoots should be picked off, 
and served with the salad daily ; a somewhat 
larger quantity when it is to be used for stews 
or soups, and in still larger quantity when to be 
pickled, or for making tarragon vinegar; and for 
the latter purposes it should be suppUed when 
the plants are at their fuUest size. 

General remarks. — No insects that we are 
aware of attack this plant. It should be planted 
in very dry soil, and in a sunny situation. The 
European names are, L'Estragon in French; 
Dragoncello in Italian ; Dragun in German. A 
quarter of an ounce of seed will be sufficient for 
most gardens, but young plants are usually pur- 
chased from the nurseryman. Two dozen will 
be enough to make a plantation. 

Burnet (Poterium Sangmsorba L.) belongs to 
the natural order Eosacese, and to the class 
Monoecia and order Polyandria in the Linnsean 
arrangement. The generic name is derived from 
Poteriow, a cup, because it is used in cooling drinks. 

Indigenous to Britain ; generally found in calca- 
reous soils which have long been under pasture. 

The young leaves are often used in mixed 
salads, particularly when made in the Italian 
style, which, according to an old proverb, is 
good for nothing without them. The branches 
and leaves are also used in soups. It was for- 
merly in higher repute than at present. 

Propagation. — By seeds sown in March or in 
September, in any common garden-soil. Half an 
ounce of seed will be sufficient for any garden. 
It does not propagate so freely by division of the 
plant; and although this is recommended in 
books, it will be found better to transplant the 
young seedlings, when 3 inches in height, into 
lines a foot apart, and the plants 9 inches asunder 
in the line. A plantation thus made will last 
from six to ten years. 

Subsequent cultivation. — All that is required is 
to keep the ground clear of weeds, to prevent 
the plants running to seed, by cutting over the 
flower-stalks as they appear. A few plants 
should be cut over by the ground occasionally, 
to keep up a succession of young and tender 
leaves. Twelve plants will be sufficient for an 
ordinary family. A small handful will be suffi- 
cient for a salad ; for soups, double that quantity 
will be required. 

The European names are — Pimperella in Ger- 
man; Pimprenella in French; Pimpinellainltalian. 


White mustard (Sinapis alba L.) belongs to 
the natural order Cruciferse, and to the class 
Tetradynamia and order Siliquosa in the Lin- 
nsean arrangement. The name is derived from 
Sino, to hurt. Ops, the eye — as its pungency 
hurts the eyes ; by others, from the Celtic Nap, 
apphed to the cabbage tribe. It is indigenous 
to many parts of Britain — found growing in 
corn-fields. It was formerly called Senvia in 
English. Tusser mentions the use of mustard 
in Queen Mary's time ; but it is uncertain 
whether it was the white or the black mustard 
he meant. Gerard informs us that the garden- 
mustard, which produces the whitest seed, was 
not become common in Elizabeth's reign, but 
that he had distributed the seed into different 
parts of England to make it known. Mustard 
was not manufactured in his day, but was 
brought to table whole, or bruised in vinegar. 

The principal use of both white and black 
mustard in gardens is as an indispensable ingre- 
dient in salads, the young leaves and stalks 
being cut close to the ground before the forma- 
tion of the second series or rough leaves appear. 
Formerly the dry seed was pounded with vine- 
gar, and, according to Gerard, " is an excellent 
sauce — good to be eaten with any gross meats, 
either fish or flesh, because it promotes diges- 
tion and sharpens the appetite." 

Propagation always by seed. From a pint to 
ten quarts of seed will be annually required, 
according to the demand. Where a daily sup- 
ply is required, seed should be sown every third, 
fourth, or fifth day throughout the year. As 
the crop is to be cut when in the cotyledon leaf 



state, it should be sown thick ; and, to preyent 
the earthy particles mixing with the leaves, it 
should never, if {)ossible, be covered. Cotyle- 
dons, or seed-lobes, are appendages of the em- 
bryo, enclosing or accompanying the tender 
plantlet, and containing its first nutriment. 
Upon the principle of the presence or absence 
of cotyledons we have the grand and primary 
division of plants that are cotyledonous on the 
one hand, and plants that are acotyledonous on 
the other; as well as the subordinate divisions 
of monocotyledonous, dicotyledonous, and poly- 
ootyledouous plants also. These distinctions 
are deemed to be the true key to a natural sys- 
tem, and form the basis of the arrangements of 
Jussieu. The two first lobe-looking appendages, 
vulgarly called seed-leaves, as shown in this 
plant, exemplify the cotyledon. The London 
market-garden method is to sow the seed thickly 
on the surface of old tan made smooth and level, 
and laid over the floors of their vineries ; for 
to such an extent is this branch of culture car- 
ried for the supply of the metropolitan demand, 
that one grower alone, Mr Chapman of Vaux- 
hall, sows a whole house every other day. The 
tau is well wetted previous to sowing the seed, 
and no covering whatever is put on the seed 
beyond a damp mat, which is laid over to keep 
in the moisture. They vegetate according to 
the degree of temperature kept up, which should, 
however, not exceed 60° or 65°. When the 
plants are about 2 inches high, the mats are 
removed during the day to admit light to give 
the necessary green colour to the young leaves, 
but are put on again at night to hasten the 
growth ; foi-, as with all salads, the quicker the 
growth the better and more tender the pro- 
duce. The crop is cut when from 4 to 5 inches 
in height, and each handful, as it is cut, is put 
into a clean punnet-basket, and is fit for use. 
If thus grown, no washing is required, excepting 
a slight rinse shortly before using. Steeping 
such salads in water, to rid them of sand and 
dust, destroys the flavour, and renders them 
flaccid and tough. They should be cut as soon 
previous to use as possible. The above may be 
called the winter culture upon a large scale. 
For private use, shallow boxes or pans are used, 
and these are placed in any spare corner of hot- 
houses or pits, where the necessary temperature 
is kept up. The boxes should be 4 inches 
deep, and of a length and breadth suitable to 
the accommodation; and sowings should take 
place every third or fourth day, and the crop 
placed as near the glass as convenient, on 
suspended shelves or otherwise. 

Summer culture must be conducted on the 
same principle, in spring and autumn covering 
the crop with hand-glasses ; and, during the heat 
of summer, sowing on cool borders behind a wall. 

To save seed — a process scarcely worth the 
attention of the private grower, on account of 
its cheapness — a crop may be sown thin in an 
open part of the garden in March or April. The 
seed will ripen in August, and, when thoroughly 
dried, may be thrashed out for storing by. The 
European names are — Moutarde in French ; 
Mostazo in Spanish ; Senapa in Italian; Senf in 
German ; and Mosterd in Dutch. 

Blaeh mustard {Sinapis nigra L.) belongsi 
to the same class and order as the last, and is, 
like it, a native of Britain, and found in similar 
situations ; it is also a native of Italy. It is no 
doubt the mustard of the ancients, although 
there are great doubts of its being the mustard 
of Scripture, whose seed is refen'ed to by our 
Saviour. It is by some cultivated as a salad 
plant, the same as the last, but the tender leaves 
are oftener used during spring as a substitute for, 
or as an addition to, spring greens. The uses of 
its seeds for medicinal and domestic puiposes 
are well known. The ancients ate the young 
plants stewed, and the leaves of the older plants 
were boiled like other pot-herbs. The young 
leaves of both this and the white mustard are 
usually mixed with those of cress in salads. 
When grown as a spring green, the seed is sown 
in autumn, and the plants are thinned out to a 
foot or 18 inches each way. Like all oleiferous 
seeds, they greatly exhaust the ground, and re- 
tain their vegetative properties for an unknown 
length of time ; so that, where it has once been 
grown, and the seed allowed to drop and become 
buried, they will come up for a century or more 
afterwards. This is the reason why charlock 
{Sinapis artietms) is so difficult to eradicate out 
of land it has once been allowed to seed on. 
The black mustard has beent'ecommendedto be 
sown on soil infested with wireworm, the roots 
being so acrid that the larvae will not eat it, and 
hence perish from hunger. The European 
names are the same as for white mustard. 

§ 8. — CRESSES. 

Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) belongs 
to the same class and orders as the last. The 
generic name is derived from Lepis, a scale, 
from the scaly form of its silicles, or parts of 
the pods to which the seed is attached. Its 
native country is unknown. Introduced to 
England before 1548. 

Of the same use as the white mustard (which 
see). Of the white mustard there is only one 
variety — of the garden cress there are several, 
all, however, used for the same purposes ; but, 
being somewhat different in their cultivation^ 
we shall notice them under the next head, viz. — 

The common garden or plain-leaved cress, and 
the curled-leaved, are the two sorts most gene- 
rally cultivated, and in this respect they differ 
not from that of the white mustard already de- 
tailed. In respect to merits, the former is the 
most delicate, as it is used younger; but the 
latter is preferable, particularly for garnishing. 

Golden cress. — A variety of slower growth, 
and of a yellowish-green colour. Seldom grown. 

Broad-leaved cress. — A coarser variety, with 
broad spatulate leaves, seldom forced, but 
usually grown for mixing along with rue, leek- 
tops, nettle-tops, and overgrown mustard, in 
rearing young turkeys and other poultry. For 
soups it answers very well. 

Normandy curled cress. — A very valuable 
variety, by far too little cultivated. It was 
introduced to England about 1814, and in vol. 
vii., p. 38, of the " Gardeners' Magazine," we 
brought it before the notice of the public. Our 



practice, to secure a constant supply from the 
open air, as it is much hardier than any of the 
other varieties, is to sow at the bottom of a 
south wall in September and October ; for 
Scotland, read beginning of September and 
middle of October. This will, with very slight 
protection during severe frosts, afford a supply 
during winter and spring. Sowings made in an 
open border in March and April, and in a rather 
cool shaded place in May, produce crops in regu- 
lar succession. In gathering it for use, the 
younger leaves should be picked off singly, reject- 
ing the older and larger; but on no account cut 
the plants over as is done with common curled 
cress, as the Normandy variety will continue 
sending up fi'esh leaves for a long period. It is 
difficult to procure the seed true, the common 
curled being in general substituted for it. If, 
therefore, one is fortunate enough to obtain it 
genuine, it is better to save the seed for future 

Broad-leaved Normandy. — A sub-variety of 
the last, with broader and more succulent leaves. 
Its culture is the same as the last. To have 
either of these in perfection, they should be 
thinned out to 9 inches or a foot apart. 

General remarJcs. — The European names are 
— Cresson Alenois in French ; Tuinkers in 
Dutch ; Mastinco in Portuguese ; Gemenie 
garten kresse in German ; Cresoione in Italian ; 
and Mastuerzo in Spanish. 

Water ci-ess {Nasturtium officinale H. K.) be- 
longs to the same class and order as the former. 
The name is derived from Nasus, nose ; Tortus, 
tormented— from the effects of most of the ge- 
nera upon the muscles of the nose — a name 
given by Pliny. Indigenous in most parts of 
Britain, growing in small streams, generally 
where the water is pure, and having a slight 

One of the most wholesome of all our salad 
herbs, and one of the oldest in use. Its quali- 
ties are warm and stimulating — the very reverse, 
in some respects, to most other plants used in a 
green or uncooked state. Xenophon strongly 
recommended its use to the Persians; and the 
Romans recommended it to be eaten with vine- 
gar, as a remedy for those whose minds were 
deranged, and hence the Greek proverb — " Eat 
cress, and leam more wit." The Dutch and 
English eat great quantities of this cress in 
spring, as an antiscorbutic. Gerard and Lord 
Bacon wrote strongly in its recommendation. 
The young shoots and leaves are eaten by them- 
selves, often with bread and butter, and also 
used in spring soups and broths, as well as for 
garnishing cold meats. A salad so easily pro- 
cured, and of so much importance to the health 
of townspeople and those of sedentary habits, 
cannot be too highly recommended. The sup- 
ply of water-cresses brought daily to Covent 
Garden market alone has been calculated at 
6000 bunches; and Mr Cuthill remarks that," 
" if 10,000 bunches more than they already re- 
ceived were brought every market morning, 
they would be all sold;" and this is perhaps 
not more than the half of the quantity sold in 
other parts of England daily. 

Propagated by seed, and by planting rooted 
branches of the plants. Plants from seed are, 
however, to be preferred, as they do not run to 
seed so soon. 

Sowing and planting. — Planting should be 
performed in spring or autumn, and sowing the 
seed in February, April, and June, by which 
fine young crops would be obtained. 

Phillips recommends those having large pieces 
of water in their grounds to throw the plants on 
the surface of the water. They will mature their 
seed, and soon propagate an abundant supply. 
Cuthill says, " Few small places are without 
water, and nothing need be easier than to intro- 
duce it into a neatly-formed trench, 2 or 3 feet 
broad, and to plant the cresses," which may be 
gathered in a seedling state on the margins of 
brooks or streams, where they naturally abound. 
Plant three rows along the bottom of such a 
trench, setting the plants 2 feet apart in the 
line. Cover the surface between the plants with 
2 inches of clean gravel or small stones, and 
allow the water to flow in to cover them to the 
depth of 3 inches at first, increasing it to 6 inches 
after they have taken root and begun to grow. 
Very excellent instnictions are given for their 
cultivation in the 4th vol. of the " Horticultural 
Society's Transactions," p. 540, and also in " The 
Gardeners' Magazine," vol. i. p. 151. The fol- 
lowing is the substance of the former : The best 
place for forming a plantation is a clear-running 
stream, not more than an inch and a half deep, 
upon a sand or gravelly bottom ; and if the water 
is supplied from a deep spring, so much the 
better, on account of the increased temperature 
of the water preventing it from becoming frozen 
during winter, and hence securing a constant 
supply of salad. The plants should be placed 
in rows parallel with the course of the stream. 
In shallow water, the plants should be set at the 
distance of 18 inches apart; in deep water, allow 
them from 5 to 7 feet. When the plants begin 
to grow in water one inch and a half deep, they 
soon check the current, so as to raise the water 
to the height of 3 inches about the plants, which 
is considered the most favourable circumstances 
they can be placed in. The cress will not grow 
freely in a muddy bottom, nor will the crop be 
so clean and well-flavoured. They should be 
planted in gravel or chalk. It is also absolutely 
necessary to have a constant current, for the 
plants will cease to prosper if the water is still 
or stagnant. They should be kept pretty thin 
by constant gathering, or pruning away occa- 
sionally superfluous shoots. In winter the water 
should be rather deeper than in summer, say 4 
or 5 inches. 

The beds should be cleaned out and replanted 
twice a-year, with a view of keeping them young 
and clearing away weeds, and any mud that may 
accumulate, as well as keeping the crop always 
clean and fit for use. Young plants are procured 
from the tops of the old ones, choosing those 
best furnished with roots. These are placed at 
the requisite distance on the bottom, with a 
stone on each to keep them in their places until 
they take root. The time of renewing the beds 
is in May or June, and from September to No- 
vember. This renewal should be made progres- 



sively, so as to keep up the constant supply. 
Those replanted in May are fit to cut in August, 
and those planted in November are ready to cut 
in spring. It wUl be expedient to place planks 
in such a way, a few inches above the water, as 
to facilitate the operations of gathering. 

The young shoots, to the length of from 4 
to 6 inches, should be cut (not broken) off, and 
then carried to the vegetable-house, and thrown 
for two or three hours into a tub of clean salt- 
water, to rid them of insects or their larva. They 
should then be rinsed in clean water, and tied up 
in little bunches of about half a handful each. 

Tipula repens (Linn.),T.scricea(Gmelin). — The 
larva of this insect fixes its cocoons very firmly 
to the.under side of the leaves of water-cresses, 
and in this state is unconsciously eaten by thou- 
sands. The precaution stated above, of washing 
them in salt water, seems to be the only way of 
ridding the leaves of these insects. 

The European names are — Creason de fontaine 
in French ; Berro in Spanish ; Brunnenkresse in 
German ; Agriao in Portuguese ; Waterkers in 
Dutch ; Cressione di sorgenti in Italian. Many 
gardens have their water-cress beds; and no 
park in the kingdom, where water is to be had, 
even at the expense of an Artesian well, should 
be without one. The Parisians have formed 
water-cress plantations, and one or two exist in 
the neighbourhood of Edinburgh; and one ex- 
isted a few years ago, and may do so still, at 
Mistley Hall, of 30 acres in extent. 

Aiaerican cress, or Belleisle cress (Barharea 
prcecox Dec), belongs to the same class and 
order with the last. The name is derived from 
its having anciently been called the herb of St 
Barbara. Indigenous to Britain, and found in 
watery places. 

The Winter cress {Barharea vulgaris H. K.) 
belongs to the same genus as the last, and is also 
indigenous to Britain, and found in moist shady 

Both are used as winter and spring salads. 
They are reared from seed ; half an ounce will 
sow 20 feet of drill. Sow in drills a foot apart, 
and an inch deep, choosing a damp shady situar 
tion. Sow about the 20th of August or 1st of 
September for a winter and spring supply. In 
Scotland a warmer and better situation should 
be afforded them. For summer use sow once a 
fortnight from March to July. Water abun- 
dantly in dry seasons. 

Pick the outside leaves for use, and cut down 
flower -stems as they appear. In November, 
afford the winter-standing crop a slight shelter 
of small branches stuck amongst them; and 
if too crowded, thin out to prevent injury from 
damp. The seed of both is produced in abun- 
dance by leaving a few plants to come into 
flower during the summer. 

The European names of the American cress 
are — Cresson d'Amerique in French; Ameri- 
fcanischer kresse in German. It is also called by 
some English seedsmen Black American cress, 
and also French cress. The winter cress is 
known as Cresson de Terre in French ; Hierba 
de Santa Barbara in Spanish ; Winter ki'esse in 
German ; Erba di Santa Barharea in Italian ; 
and Winterkers in Dutch. 

Indian cress, or Narsturtium, abbreviated to 
Sturtion by many (Tropceolum ma jus L.), be- 
longs to the natural order Tropseolese, and to 
the class Octandria and order Monogynia in the 
Linnsean arrangement. This genus forms the 
whole of this order, which is remarkable as being 
the only natural order in which the peculiar acrid 
flavour of the Cruciferae is found to exist. The 
generic name is derived from Tropceum, a trophy. 
The leaf resembles a buckler, and the flower an 
empty helmet, of which trophies were formed. 
It is a native of Peru, and was introduced to 
England in 1686; but the minor variety was 
first brought to Europe by the Spaniards in 
1580. In the first edition of Gerard's " Herbal " 
we find it described by him as growing in his 
garden, where Holborn now stands. Both T. 
majus and T. minus are cultivated in our gar- 
dens — the former most generally. The French 
style the flower La grande Capuchin. 

Both varieties are much cultivated as orna- 
mental climbers; and the fruit, if gathered before 
it ripens, makes an agreeable pickle without the 
aid of spice, and is an excellent substitute for 
capers, which it much resembles. It is accounted 
a good antiscorbutic. The flowers as well as 
the young leaves are used in salads. The 
flowers are also used to garnish dishes, particu- 
larly by artificial light, and were in our early 
days much more employed for this purpose 
than at present. The seeds are pickled in salt 
and vinegar, when made into imitation capers. 

Although both varieties are perennial in their 
native country, the coldness of Britain prevents 
their continuance through the winter;' they are 
therefore treated as annuals, and sown every 
March or April. They are usually sown in 
single rows, one row of a few yards in length 
being sufficient for the culinary purposes of a 
private family. The seed, which is large, is 
deposited in drills 24 inches deep. When grown 
for ornament, they are sown two or three seeds 
in a patch at the foot of a trellis or pyramidal 
support, and, if intermixed with sweat pease, 
have a very good effect. When grown by mar- 
ket-gardeners, or upon a large scale for their 
seed, they are sown in drills 3 feet apart, topped 
when about 2 feet iu height, and treated the 
same as scarlet runners {which see). They trans- 
plant freely, and to have them early in flower, 
particularly in Scotland, they are sown in March 
in pots or boxes placed in a mild frame or pit; 
when 3 or 4 inches in height, they are set in a 
shaded sheltered place for a few days to harden 
off, and are then transplanted to where they are 
finally to grow. This is the best way to manage 
them, as the seed, if too early sown in cold soil, 
is apt to rot ; and if planted out too soon, is as 
apt to be killed by the frost, more than 1° of 
which it will not stand. 

Soil. — This should not be too rich, else a 
gross disposition is induced, rendering them 
rambling in growth, and producing fewer flowers 
or seeds than if on a rather poor light soil. 

Neither disease nor insects seem to attack 
the plants. The blossoms are endowed with 
the power of emitting electric sparks towards 
evening, u, phenomena first observed by the 
daughter of Linnreus. It is most distinctly seen 



with the eye partly closed. The berries should 
be gathered for use while quite green. Abun- 
dance of seed will be found in a ripened state 
when the plants are pulled up upon the first 
attack of frost. They do not retain their vege- 
tative powers above two years. Their European 
names are — Capucine in French ; Mastruco do 
Peru in Portuguese; Kapuzinerblume in Ger- 
man ; Fior cappucino in Italian ; Spaanche kera 
in Dutch ; and Capuchinas in Spanish. 


Purslane {Portulaca sativa Haw, P. saliva, 
Var. Aurea Haw, and P. oleracea L. — all the 
three are cultivated in our gardens) belongs to 
the natural order Portulacese, and to the class 
Dodecandria and order Monogyuia in the Lin- 
nsean arrangement. The generic name is de- 
rived from Porto to carry, Lac, milk, supposed 
medical quality. P. satira is a native of South 
America, introduced in 1652; while P. oleracea 
is a native of Europe, introduced 1582. 

Its young shoots and leaves, which are very 
fleshy or succulent, are used in summer salads, 
and are sometimes used in French and Italian 
soups, and also as pickles. Its existence is only 
to be looked for in gardens of the highest order. 
Being annuals, they are yearly reared from 
seed. A quarter of an ounce will sow a bed of 
32 square feet. For a first crop, sow in Feb- 
ruary or March upon a gentle hot-bed, for all 
the sorts are very tender, and this first crop 
must have the protection of a frame and glass 
lights. A two-light frame will be sufficient. 
As the plants reach the height of 2 inches, thin 
out to the distance of 4 inches apart; the 
soil should be of such light and rich consis- 
tency as that usually employed for cucumbers. 
The second crop should be sown upon a warm 
border in dry light soil in May, and successional 
sowings should be made, if a constant supply is 
demanded, every fortnight till the first week in 
August, after which recourse must be had to 
bottom-heat and the protection of glass cover- 
ings. It is best to grow them where they have 
been sown, but they may be transplanted in 
cases of emergency. 

The shoots are fit for use when from 2 to 5 
inches in length, and should then be cut off 
with a knife and shghtly rinsed in clean water, 
when they are fit for use. The European names 
are — Pourpier in French; Porcellana in Italian; 
and Portulak in Dutch and German. The seed 
is not worth the trouble of saving. 

Chervil (Chcerophyllum sativum, Pers.) be- 
longs to the natural order Umbelliferse, and to 
the class Pentaudria and order Digynia in the 
LinuEean arrangement. The generic name is 
derived from 0/iairo, to rejoice ; Phyllon, leaf — 
that is to say, a plant whose leaves have a plea- 
sant smell. A native of several parts of Europe ; 
by some considered indigenous to Britain. 

Gerard cultivated it in his garden ; and Par- 
kinson says, " It is sown in gardens to serve as 
a salad herb." These are the earliest notices we 
have of its being cultivated iu Britain. Pliny 

tells us that the Syrians cultivated it as a food, 
and they ate it both boiled and raw. It has 
long been cultivated by the French and Dutch, 
and they have still hardly a soup or salad but 
the leaves of chervil make a part of the compo- 

The leaves are used in most salads and in 
many soups, and as a seasoner it is by many pre- 
ferred to parsley, when used for these purposes. 
Being an annual, it is propagated by seed. 
To maintain a constant supply, sow about the 
beginning of February, and make successional 
sowings every month till August, about the end 
of which a larger sowing should be made in a 
warm situation, to form a winter and early 
spring supply. Some only sow in spring and 
autumn, and trust to keeping the plants from 
seeding ; this is, however, precarious. Sow in 
drills 10 inches apart and 1 inch deep. Trans- 
plant only in cases of emergency, unless it be 
in saving seed of the fine-curled variety, which 
will be improved in the fulness of its leaves, if 
transplanted once or twice before it shoots up 
for seed. An ounce of seed is sufficient to sow 
24 square feet. It should be sown thin. A light 
soil, not over-manured, is the best for aU odori- 
ferous plants. 

When the leaves are 2 inches in height they 
are fit for gathering; a small handful is suffi- 
cient for a large salad. 

Plain, chervil is the most common, but except 
that it is hardier than the curled varieties, it 
should be discarded. 

Curled chervil. — This sort, on account of its 
delicately-curled leaves, is much used for gar- 
nishing, as well as for the ordinary purposes for 
which the plain sort is used. Being a larger 
grower, it requires more room for its develop- 
ment; indeed, the plants, to have justice, should 
stand a foot apart each way. When intended 
for winter use it should have the protection of 
hand-glasses, frames, or branches of trees stuck 
thickly around and amongst it. In very un- 
favourable situations it is well to pot a dozen or 
two plants, and shelter them under glass during 

Frizsled-leaved French chervil (Cerfeuil frise) is 
an improved variety of the last, even more 
beautiful, but also more tender. It is best 
adapted for summer crops. 

Few insects attack the odoriferous plants. 
Seeds of all the varieties are easily saved. The 
plants of the two last varieties should be trans- 
planted once or twice when intended for this 
purpose, and a somewhat richer soil will be of 
advantage. The European names are — Cerfeuil 
in French ; Cerfoglio in Italian ; and Garten- 
kerbel in German and Dutch. 


Rape {Brassica napus L.) belongs to the 
natural order Cruciferse, and to the class Tetra- 
dynamia and order Siliquosse. For derivation 
of the generic name, vide section Cabbage. In- 
digenous to Britain. 

It is cut when quite young, and before the 
second leaves are formed, and mixed with cress 



and mustard. Its culture for this purpose is 
the same as these. It is the Navette of the 
French; Mapo salvatico of the Italians ; and the 
Eapskohl of the Germans. 

Corn^salad {Yalerianella olitoria Deo.) be- 
longs to the natural order Valerianeae, and to 
the class Triandria monogynia in the LinnEean 
arrangement. The generic name is a diminutive 
of Valerian. Indigenous to Britain. Another 
species is cultivated — viz., V. eriocarpa, or Italian 
corn-salad, of much larger growth. 

Both are used as a substitute for lettuce in 
spring. The latter sort, besides being used for 
salads, is also used when grown in rich soil and 
of considerable size, as a substitute for spinach. 
They are both much used on the Continent, 
where they appear under the names of Salade 
de chanoine, Mache, Poule grasse, Doucette, 
&o. Sow in August and September for winter 
and spring use, and in February and March for 
Bummer supply. The seed is small. Sow them, 
and cover about the eighth of an inch. An 
ounce of seed will be sufScient for an ordinary 

Brook - lime ( Veronica Beccahunga L.) be- 
longs to the natural order Serophularinse, and 
class Diandria and order Monogynia in the Lin- 
nsean arrangement. The derivation of the name 
is doubtful. Indigenous to most parts of Bri- 
tain, growing in ditches and streams often along 
with water-cresses, and is used for the same 
purposes, and cultivated in the same manner. 

Wood sorrel {Oxalis acetosella L.) belongs 
to the natural order Oxalidese, and to the class 
Decandria and order Pentagynia in the Linnsean 
arrangement. The generic name is derived from 
Oxys, acid — from the acid taste of the leaves. In- 
digenous to most parts of Britain, existing in vast 
quantities in moist woods. It is used as an in- 
gredient in spring salads ; and, although quite 
capable of cultivation, it is found so plentifully 
in April and May, in a natural state, as to render 
its culture scarcely profitable. It is much used 
on the Continent, and is the Oseille of the 
French, Acetosa of the Italians, and Saueramp- 
fer of the Germans. 

Coriander {Coriandrum sativum L.) belongs 
to the natural order Umbelliferse, and to the 
class Pentandria and order Digynia in the Lin- 
nsean arrangement. The generic name is de- 
rived from Koris, a bug, from the smell of the 
leaves. A native of England, in corn-fields. It 
is chiefly cultivated in gardens on account of 
the tender young leaves, which are used in 
soups and salads. It is raised by seed sown 
annually — in February and March for summer 
use, and again in August or September for win- 
ter supply. A very few plants are sufficient for 
an ordinary garden. 

General remarks. — It delights in a light sandy 
soil. The plants should stand 18 inches apart. 
European names — Koriander, German and 
Dutch ; Coriandre in French ; and Coriandro 
in Italian. 

§ 11. — THE RADISH. 

Natural history. — Badish (Raphanus satixus L.) 
belongs to the natural order Cruciferse, sub-order 
Orthoplocese, and tribe Raphanea;, and to the class 
Tetradynamia and order Siliculosse. The generic 
name is derived from Rha, quickly; Phainomai, 
to appear, from its rapid germination. The name 
radish is supposed by Phillips to come from 
Radix, a root. The cultivated radish is thought 
to be a native of China, but it appears, by the 
writings of ancient naturalists, that its culture 
is of great antiquity in many parts of Europe, 
although it was not grown in England prior to 
1548. They were very highly esteemed by the 
Greeks, and were grown largely in Egypt in the 
days of the Pharaohs, for the abundance of oil 
their seeds afforded ; they are still grown to a 
great extent in that country at the present day. 
Pliny speaks of a turnip-rooted kind, and of a 
sweet and tender sort, and of one that con- 
tinued good throughout the winter. Gerard 
cultivated four kinds of radishes in Queen Eliza- 
beth's time. 

Uses.— In the south of France the roots are 
roasted in wood-ashes ; they are also used there 
in soups, to which they give an agreeable fla- 
vour. The Roman physicians recommended 
them to be eaten raw in a morning with salt, 
and before taking any other food, a practice 
in use in some parts of England at present. 
Radishes abound in a penetrating nitrous juice, 
which makes them diuretic, and cleansing to the 
intestines and viscera. They are considered 
also as excellent antiscorbutics. At present 
they are usually eaten raw with salt as a salad, 
with butter and cheese. The leaves are some- 
times boiled as greens, and the roots make 
an excellent dish, when rather too large for a 
salad, by being boiled and served to table as 
asparagus. Neither the roots nor leaves, how- 
ever, afford much nourishment. The roots are 
often sliced and added to mixed salads, and are 
occasionally eaten alone with salt, vinegar, and 
other condiments. The young leaves are also 
eaten along with mustard and cress, and for 
this purpose the seed is often sown in the same 
manner as they are. The seed-pods, when 
nearly full-grown, but still green and tender, 
are added to mixed pickles, and pickled alone 
as a substitute for capers. 

Propagation. — The radish, being an 
annual, is propagated from seed. 

Sowing. — As this salad is in request 
throughout the year, successional sowings 
must be attended to. Where there is 
the accommodation of a tanked pit or 
dung-heated pits or frames, a sowing for 
winter supply should be made every ten 
days from the beginning of November to 
the beginning of March. Where such 
conveniences do not exist, then for win- 
ter use a sowing should be made at the 
end of October, another about the middle 
of November, one at the end of that 
month, and others twice during Decem- 



ber, January, and February ; and from 
the end of that month sow every ten 
days, throughout the remainder of the 
season. These sowings have reference to 
the turnip-rooted and spindle-rooted va- 
rieties in ordinary use. For the black, 
white, purple, and brown Spanish sorts, 
which are hardy, and continue long fit 
for use after attaining their full size, 
these should be sown in August, and 
another crop in September, which will 
carry the supply through the winter, 
whether they be kept in the ground or 
taken up and pitted like potatoes. The 
seeds will in general germinate in less 
than a week, and in six weeks the plants 
will be fit for drawing. 

The ordinary turnip and spindle-rooted 
sorts should be sown broadcast, whether 
in beds, in the open air, or in pits and 
frames. Avoid too thick sowing. Two 
ounces of seed will sow three lights of a 
pit or frame of the ordinary breadth, or 
the same quantity will sow a bed of 50 
square feet in the open ground. They 
are often sown thinly between rows of 
potatoes in pits or frames, as they will be 
gathered off before the potatoes have 
attained a size to injure them. The 
hardy winter sorts should be sown in 
rows, as they occupy the ground much 
longer, and will require the surface to be 
frequently stirred up by the hoe. Cover 
the seed fully half an inch, and, in sowing 
in the open borders, avoid spilling any of 
the seed on the surface, as such will 
attract birds, which are very fond of 
them. Net the ground over to protect 
them; or, better, cover with wire-netting, 
which, although rather more expensive in 
the first instance, will be found the cheap- 
est in the end. Both the tap-rooted and 
turnip-rooted kinds should be sown at 
the same time, as well as those differing 
in colour, to afford a greater variety in 
the salad. For late autumn, winter, and 
early spring crops, choose the warmest 
and driest border the garden affords ; 
while for those for use during the heat of 
summer, a cool moist place should be 

The radish is one of the few exceptions 
to drill-sowing, which has for its chief 
principle the means afforded the cultiva- 
tor for thinning his crops, so that each 
plant may have room to develop itself to 
the extent at which it should arrive, when 


in its fullest state of perfection. The 
radish does not require this care, as the 
strongest seeds vegetate first, and the 
plants produced from them are daiiy 
withdrawn for use, thus leaving room for 
those which follow in succession. It is 
good practice to sow at the same time 
with the radishes such seeds as lettuce, 
leeks, parsley, &,c., because these vegetate 
much more slowly than the radish, and 
as it is removed they come in in succes- 
sion, and fill the space until such time as 
they are of such a size, and sufficiently har- 
dened off, as to be fit for planting in the 
open border of the garden. Indeed, so 
great a difference exists in the germinat- 
ing process of these seeds, that radishes, 
leeks, and parsley may be sown on the 
same day. When the first is withdrawn, 
the second takes its place; and when the 
plants are of a size to be transplanted to 
a nursery-bed, to fit them for final trans- 
planting, the parsley comes in, which 
takes so long a time in germinating as to 
have given rise to the common but vulgar 
saying, " that parsley-seed goes nine times 
to the devil before it begins to grow." 
By following this rather unusual mode, 
time and space are economised ; and as 
lettuce, leeks, and parsley plants are im- 
proved by transplanting, the advantages 
to them individually must be evident. 

" The London market-garden practice 
for obtaining early radishes in the open 
air is to sow from the first to the last 
week in December, choosing as warm a 
situation for the purpose as possible. 
The ground being prepared, the seed is 
sown broadcast. The alleys are marked 
out, and the mould from them is thrown 
over the seed. A, wooden rake is used to 
make all level ; no iron rakes are used in 
market -gardens. After sowing, straw, 
which has been previously shaken out of 
the London stable-manure, is put over 
the beds 2 or 3 inches in thickness. When 
the plants come up, which depends upon 
the winter, the straw is removed every 
day, and put on every night, until all 
danger from frost is past. It takes 5° of 
frost to hurt a radish after it is half- 
grown." CUTHILL. 

It is only in the most favourable situa- 
tions that radishes, with the exception of 
the winter kinds, can be advantageously 
grown in the open air during winter. 
Did they even, by covering or otherwise, 




survive the frost, they would be hard and 
stringy compared with such as are grown 
rapidly on a mild bottom temperature ; 
and, indeed, apart from their quality, 
what with covering and uncovering during 
winter, the cost in labour would be as 
much, if not more, than would attend 
their production in a heated pit or frame. 
Radishes grown in artificial heat require 
abundance of ventilation, and as little 
exclusion from the light by coverings as 
possible. The temperature should range 
from 48° to 58°, but may be increased to 
70° with impunity; and tepid water should 
be frequently applied, for the radish is 
fond of moisture; but pouring cold water 
upon them, or any other forced vegetable, 
during winter, when the soil is already 
too cold, is extremely injurious. 

Subsequent cultivation. — In the open air, 
radishes require protection during win- 
ter, either by the means practised by the 
London market-gardeners stated above, 
or by other means, such as hooping the 
beds over and covering with mats, &c., 
all of which we think are far behind the 
conditions of the present age. If they 
are wanted during that period, glass as 
a covering should be employed; and 
where that is the case, either a tanked 
pit, or frames placed over vegetable mat- 
ter in a state of fermentation, may be em- 
ployed ; the latter of itself, when broken 
down by decay, will, as a valuable ma- 
nure, repay the expense of collecting and 
working. ' 

Soil and manure. — The soil should be 
deep, light, and mellow, and thoroughly 
pulverised by deep digging or forking, 
without which radishes will ever be hard 
and unfit for use, and this is more especi- 
ally the case with the long or spindle- 
rooted kinds. Strachan, a writer in " The 
Horticultural Society's Transactions," vol. 
iii., p. 438, observes on this subject, " The 
character of a good long-rooted radish is 
to have its root straight, long, free from 
fibres, not tapering too suddenly, and 
especially to be fully formed on the top, 
or well shouldered as it is called, and 
without a long neck; the roots should be 
ready to draw while the leaves are quite 
small, whence the name of 'short-top 
radish ; ' and if they soon attain a, proper 
size, and also force well, they are then 
called earlj/ and frame radishes." To at- 
tain these properties the soil should be 

light and rich, but not made so by i-ecent 
manuring, unless of a very decomposed 

Taking the crop and subsequent preserva- 
tion. — Radishes are gathered day by day, 
and hence serve the purpose of thinning ; 
still they should on no account be sown 
thick ; but, supposing the seed good, the 
plants at germinating should stand 1 inch 
or 1^ inches apart. The strongest-leaved 
ones, therefore, may be taken as the 
largest, but not always the best root ; 
these should be drawn first. When col- 
lected and in the vegetable-house, they 
should be washed quite clean, the thready 
fibres, where they exist, cut close off, also 
a small part of the tips of the root, and 
all the leaves removed excepting two or 
three of the last-formed ones on the 
crown, which should be retained. Care 
must, however, be taken that the roots 
do not become too old and hard ; a good 
criterion is to break them over, and if the 
parts separate freely, then they are fit for 
use; but if they do not, then they are too 
old for salad purposes. The winter or 
Spanish kinds should be dug up about 
the beginning of November, deprived of 
their tops, and pitted like potatoes, or 
buried in sand in the root-cellar. This 
sand, however, should not be too dry, for 
reasons given elsewhere. 

Approved sorts and their qualities. — An excel- 
lent paper on the classification of radishes will 
be found in the 4th vol. of the " Transactions 
of the Horticultural Society," p. 13. By this 
arrangement they are divided into three classes, 
namely, Spring and Summer ki>ids,Autumn kinds, 
and Winter radishes. 

The Spring and Summer Mnds consist of scar- 
let or salmon-coloured — and its sub-varieties, 
short-topped scarlet, and early-frame scarlet; 
and to these we may add, as improvements on 
the originals. Wood's early frame, not very long, 
but very early, and well calculated for forcing ; 
Beck's superb short-top, a long-rooted variety, 
of good shape and colour, with leaves particu- 
larly small; long white Naples, an improvement 
on the old long white cultivated in Gerard's 
time — a very good variety,and esteemed bysome 
on account of its semi-transparent white colour. 
Purple-rooted only grown as affording a variety 
in point of colour. 

Of turnip-rooted sorts we have the white and 
red; and of these some sub-varieties, particu- 
larly of the latter — such as the pink, rose- 
coloured, scarlet, and crimson, which are mere 
shades of difference in colour. The scarlet olive- 
shaped, a quick grower, tender, and considered 
rather milder than most other sorts. There is 
a grey turnip-rooted sort grown by some; we 
have found it to be merely a dirty white, and 



the large and small yellow turnip-rooted variety 
stand no higher in our estimation. 

The Autumn kinds are the round brown, large 
in size, not very handsome in shape, nor of a 
decided colour. White Russian, a very large 
sort, of good form, somewhat resembling a well- 
formed white carrot; in flavour resembling 
rampion. Not in general cultivation in Britain, 
but much grown in the north of Europe. The 
red metz, a French variety esteemed in the Paris 
markets, in which it forms the principal supply; 
roots of moderate length, rose-coloured, with 
few leaves, and those very small. 

Winter radishes.- — Of these, the best is the 
large Spanish black-rooted. The skin is black, 
with numerous white dots; irregularly pear- 
shaped ; flesh white, firm, and solid ; much 
hotter than any other kind. Esteemed on ac- 
count of its hardiness, and as affording an agree- 
able winter salad when cut into slices. Large 
white Spanish; skin white, tinged with green; 
flesh firm, solid, and white ; form oval ; flavour 
hot and pungent. Purple Spanish is only a sub- 
variety of the black ; the skin is purplish ; flesh 
firm and white. Oblong brown, another sub- 
variety, with brownish skin; shape pyriform; 
plant very hardy. The Chinese rose winter 
radish is also a sub-variety of the white Spanish. 

Insects and diseases. — The plants, when in 
their seed-leaf state, are preyed upon by the 
aphides, and other insects, which are destructive 
to all plants of the order Cruciferse : vide Cab- 
bage and Turnip. 

General remarhs. — Some of the best plants 
should be saved from the principal spring sow- 
ing, for seed. Take them carefully up in May, 
preserving the leaves entire; select the most 

perfectly formed roots, and transplant them into 
rows 3 feet asunder each way, inserting the 
roots with a large dibber so deep that their 
crowns will be just level with the surface of the 
ground. It is unwise to save seed from more 
than one variety flowering at the same time, as 
the plants are liable to hybridise with one an- 
other, and seed of the previous year's sowing 
should always be sown. To save seed of the 
winter radishes, some of the best-formed bulbs 
should be planted as above in March, and the 
pods gathered when they become brown and 
fully matured. Seed radishes must be covered 
with nets to protect them from birds ; and if the 
quantity of seed to be saved is great, the whole 
stalks should be cut over, and, when dried, 
stacked by until there is time for thrashing 
them out. If the quantity is small, the pods 
may be cut off individually as they ripen. " The 
seeds of the different varieties are easily distin- 
guished by an experienced seedsman. Those of 
the long white radish are small, flat, and pale ; 
of the scarlet and purple long-rooted, large; 
and of the first very light coloured, compared 
with those of the latter; of the white turnip, 
small, round, and brown ; scarlet turnip rather 
larger, and somewhat darker ; purple turnip 
larger and brown, being similar to the long- 
rooted purple, except in size."- — Cottage Gar- 
deners' Dictionary, p. 762. The pods for pick- 
ling should be taken when nearly full grown, 
but still soft and green, which will in general be 
the case in August. 

The European names are — Eadis or Rave in 
French; Rabano in Spanish; Eettig in Ger- 
man ; Rafano in Italian ; and Tamme radijs in 



§ 1. — THE CARROT. 

Natural history. — The carrot {Daucm carota 
L.) belongs to the natural order Umbelliferae, 
and to the class Pentandria and order Digynia 
in the Linnsean arrangement. The generic name 
is derived from Daio, to separate, because it 
dispels flatulency ; the specific name, Carota, 
is from the Celtic Cnr, red, the colour of the 
root. The carrot, in its wild state, is indigenous 
to many parts of Britain, generally in sandy or 
chalky soil ; when and how it became reclaimed, 
or elevated to its cultivated state, is not now 
known. In that state it was known to Diosco- 
rides and Phny ; and the latter informs us, book 
XXV. chap. 9, that the best kinds came to Rome 
from Caudia, and the next best from Achaia. 
Theophrastus, in the 9th book of his " History of 
Plants," says that the best carrots are found in 
Sparta. Gerard calls these plants Daucus cre- 
tensis verus, or Candia carrots, and says that the 
true Daucus of Dioscorides does not grow in 
Candia only, but is found upon the mountains 
of Germany, and upon the hills and rocks of 
Jura, about Geneva. It is possible, therefore, 
that Britain received her first supply from the 
latter situation. Later authorities think that the 
carrot was introduced into this country by the 
Flemings, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, and 
that they were first sown about Sandwich, in 
Kent. Of one thing we are certain, that carrots, 
as well as several other culinary vegetables, were 
imported to London, from Holland, during Eli- 
zabeth's reign, and moreover that the leaves of 
carrots were used in the head-dresses of the 
ladies of her court, in imitation of those of pre- 
vious date, who employed the leaves of the wild 
carrot for a similar purpose. 

Uses. — Few vegetables are in greater demand 
for culinary purposes than the carrot. It is used 
in soups, in stews, as a vegetable dish, and even 
in puddings ; and so much are young carrots in 
demand in good cookery, that they are supplied 
throughout the summer from the open ground 
by repeated sowings, and during winter by arti- 
ficial heat. In some parts of England carrots 
are served up with fish, as parsnips have long 
been, during Lent. Both the seed and the roots 
are used in medicine, the seed of the wild car- 
rot being considered one of the most valuable 
diuretics of native growth. The roots of carrots 

contain a large portion of saccharine matter, 
and have been used in the manufacture of sugar, 
and in distilling, all over the Continent, where 
their cultivation has been longer and more ex- 
tensively pursued than in Britain. Excellent 
bread has been made of white carrots, when 
washed and boiled, and mixed with flour in 
equal proportions by weight : such bread will 
keep good for a week. 

Propagation. — Although the carrot is a 
hardy biennial, the roots, which are the 
only part used in domestic economy, are 
fit for use the same year. Seed must 
therefore be sown annually, they admit- 
ting of no other mode of propagation. 

Sowing.— A. small sowing may be made 
about the beginning of February, choos- 
ing a warm dry border, with a view to 
have young carrots fit to draw for use by 
the beginning of May ; and another should 
follow about the middle or end of the 
month, and again a larger sowing by the 
first week in March : the state of the wea- 
ther must, however, regulate these. These 
periods are adapted to southern culture ; 
in the north, it is seldom that seed sown 
previous to the 1st of March repays the 
trouble. Crops sown so early in the sea- 
son will derive considerable benefit from 
the ground being covered with dry litter 
during the continuance of frosts. The 
early horn only should be employed for 
these early sowings. For general crops, 
the middle of March and during April is 
a proper season, taking advantage of the 
ground when it is dry. For a supply of 
young carrots during winter, sow on slight 
hot-beds in December, January, and Fe- 
bruary. The two later sowings will be the 
most satisfactory. The end of April, and 
even the middle of May, is preferred 
by many for getting in their principal 
crop, they thinking thereby to escape the 



attack of the carrot maggot, Psila rosce : 
this, however, depends to some extent on 
the season, for cold and late springs have 
their effect upon the insect as well as upon 
the germination of the plant. Many also 
defer tiU the beginning of May, from the 
apprehension that, if the seed is sown ear- 
lier, the plants will be liable to run to seed. 
Sow again in June and July, and lastly 
towards the end of August or beginning 
of September — the later crop to supply 
autumn demands. Some depend on this 
sowing for a winter supply, substituting 
them for young carrots, for which they 
are a poor representative, except in form, 
being devoid of the same flavour and co- 
lour ; and although they may pass with 
some for such purposes, they will not 
escape the keen eye of a French cook. 
Forcing carrots during winter is no seri- 
ous matter, if the conveniences of hot- 
beds or tanked pits be at command ; and 
those who will not go to the expense of 
such conveniences must just go without, 
or be content with such as are produced 
by late sowing, and kept in the ground 
till they are wanted. One great advan- 
tage arising from not sowing too early, is 
that the seed has a much less time to lie 
in the ground before germinating, and 
hence brairds as soon as the weeds, and 
therefore admits of earlier hoeing ; where- 
as, if very early sown, the weeds get the 
start of the young carrots, and render the 
operation of cleaning them more tedious 
and less effective. The seed does not come 
up for four or five weeks in spring, and 
for three or four in summer and autumn. 
The seed of chickweed, and many other 
weeds, vegetates in much less time in the 
same temperature, and hence the pro- 
priety of bringing on an artificial germi- 
nation, as afterwards to be noticed, recon- 
ciling as near as may be the germination 
of the carrots and the weeds. 

The ground intended for this crop 
should be trenched not less than 2^ feet 
in depth, and well pulverised during the 
operation. It should be in a sufficient 
state of enrichment from the manuring of 
the previous crop ; hence the ground from 
which celery has been removed is deemed 
the best, on account of its having been 
well wrought during the previous summer 
and autumn, and also as having been suf- 
ficiently enriched. Notwithstanding this, 
trenching is desirable ; and if this opera- 

tion has been carried on as the ground 
became vacant, and thrown up in rough 
ridges, so much the better, as all that will 
be required at the period of sowing the 
carrots will be to level down the ridges 
and break down the clods with a coarse 
rake, rendering the surface sufficiently le- 
vel and smooth for the drawing of the 
drills; for carrots should, for principal 
crops, be always drill-sown. When the 
ground is dry and prepared as above, the 
drills may be drawn with the drill-rake in 
the way described under section Onion, 
p. 33 ; a very slight pressure will give 
them the proper depth — an inch and a half 
The distance at which the teeth should be 
set depends on the distance the rows are 
to be apart from each other; 9 inches 
being the usual distance for horn carrots, 
and 1 foot for the larger-growing kinds. 
The head of the drill-rake being marked 
off in inches, the three screws are to be 
slackened, the teeth set at their respec- 
tive distances, and the screws to be tight- 
ened up again. 

Previous to sowing, the seed should be 
well separated by rubbing between the 
hands with an admixture of a little dry 
sand, or finely-sifted coal-ashes, without 
which preparation the seeds would not 
separate freely, and hence the crop would 
come up unequal and patchy, besides 
wasting much of the seed. A quiet still 
day should be chosen, as the seed is so 
very light that it would be liable to be 
blown away before it could be covered in. 
Sow thinly in the drills ; and as the seed 
is committed to them it should be covered 
in immediately : by walking along each 
drill with a foot on each side of it, and by 
drawing the feet along, one after the other, 
the process of covering will easily be 
effected ; or, if the ground is wet, by go- 
ing down every fourth or fifth space, the 
same number of drills may be covered by 
the head of a wooden rake. In this state 
the ground should be left ; all scratching 
and raking, after the seed is sown, is so 
much labour thrown away, and the ground 
anything but improved by the operation. 
In extremely light soils it may, however, 
be slightly footed over, or trod in, as it is 
technically termed, because such soils are 
improved mechanically by the process of 
compression; hence in old and long- 
wrought market-gardens, where the soil is 
soft and spongy, a hght wooden roller is 



employed; and indeed, in large private 
gardens, rolling is a more business-like 
way of performing the operation, and in- 
volves a less expenditure of time. 

It is a common practice with carrot- 
growers to assist the germination of the 
seed — a process by which several days are 
gained, and which is of advantage in late 
wet springs, and also in gardens, where the 
ground may not be prepared, or where the 
previous crop has scarcely been removed 
from it. This process is effected by mix- 
ing the seed with damp sand, and placing 
it in a warm situation, such as on the floor 
of a hothouse, or indeed anywhere else, 
if in a temperature from 1 0° to 20° higher 
than the soil into which it is to be sown. 
Others place the seed in a bag, and steep 
it in rain-water for about forty-eight hours, 
eight or ten days before sowing is to take 
place. If in quantity, and spread out on 
a floor to the thickness of 9 or 10 inches, 
it will of itself generate sufficient heat, by 
a slight fermentation which will take place 
in consequence of being thus wetted, to 
cause the seeds to chip or germinate ; but 
if in small quantities, it had better be laid 
upon a floor, or in shallow boxes, in some 
warm room, until this takes place. In 
either case, great care must be taken that 
germination is not allowed to go too far, 
else, in the process of sowing, the germs of 
vegetation wiU be liable to be broken ofij 
which will destroy the seed. In careful 
hands, this is a process in seed-sowing 
which might be advantageously applied to 
all seeds that are long in vegetating. On 
the principle of simultaneous cropping, 
many market-gardeners sow a thin crop 
of radishes broadcast along with their 
carrots; the former come off for use before 
any damage is done to the latter. The 
carrot-seed, when not prepared as we have 
stated, will, early in the season, lie in the 
ground for five or six weeks before they 
come up, while the radishes seldom lie 
above a fortnight. Others, particularly 
private gardeners, sow a thin sprinkling of 
leek-seed along with the carrot, which may 
be done in the same drill, to admit of 
early hoeing. Others sow onions, and 
instances have been known where cab- 
bages, savoys, or Brussels sprouts have 
been planted in the same line, and at 4 or 5 
feet apart, as well as where planted pro- 
miscuously over the ground, in which the 
carrot crop has escaped the attacks of 

insects, while crops adjoining, sown alone, 
have been completely destroyed. We have 
seen a case of this sort, in the very old 
garden of the Earl of Morton, which has 
probably existed as such for two centu- 
ries, on which as fine clean carrots were 
produced as could be wished, and not for 
one season only, but for several consecu- 
tive years ; and we were informed by Mr 
Smeal, the gardener, that before he prac- 
tised planting brassicaceous plants along 
with his carrots, none had been produced 
previously in the garden, in the recollection 
of the oldest person living at Dalmahoy. 
The Brussels sprout is the best for this 
purpose, as it grows tall and slender, and 
shades the carrots less than any of the 
spreading sorts. 

Carrot- seed is more liable to be bad 
than most other garden-seeds; it will, 
therefore, be a wise precaution to sow 60 
or 100 seeds in a flower-pot, and place it 
in the heat of a mild hothouse to vegetate. 
By counting the number of plants which 
come up, the quality of the seed will be 
correctly ascertained. One ounce of seed, 
if good, will be sufficient for a bed of 130 
square feet, if sown broadcast ; and if sown 
in drills, the same quantity will be suffi- 
cient for 150 feet. 

Subsequent culture. — When the broad-^ 
cast-sown crop comes above the ground, 
it should be thinned out with the 2- 
inch draw-hoe ; this hoeing, however, is 
more to suppress weeds and keep the sur- 
face of the ground open ; the principal 
thinning should take place when the plants 
have attained the height of from 2 to 3 
inches, and then they should be singled 
out to from 4 to 5 inches, clearing the 
ground at the same time of every weed. 
This will admit of after-thinning for im- 
mediate use ; and, should the demand not 
require them in sufficient time, then a 
third and final thinning should take place, 
leaving the horn sorts 6 or 7 inches apart, 
and the large-growing sorts 9 or 10 inches. 
Those of the former, in drills, may be left 
at 5 or 6 inches apart, and the latter at 
from 6 to 8 inches. 

Much as we advocate deep-stirring the 
ground between the rows of crops gene- 
rally, the carrot forms almost the only 
exception, as, by so doing, it encourages 
the lateral fibres to grow large, and pro- 
duce what is technically called forked 
roots ; flat-hoeing, however, for the 



suppression of weeds, must be attended 

Soil and manure. — A light deep sandy 
soil is natural to the carrot ; in fresh 
loamy soils it also flourishes in great per- 
fection ; a cold stiflf clayey one is the least 
of all adapted to it, and in such soils ex- 
pedients like the following are sometimes 
had recourse to — namely, to thrust a long 
dibber, such as is used for planting horse- 
radish, into the soil, filling up the per- 
foration with sand, and dropping 3 or 4 
seeds into it, to be thinned out to one, 
after they have attained the height of 2 
inches. In this way, carrots of large size 
have been obtained. In well-drained peaty 
soil, they have been successfully grown, 
and in such are usually free of disease, or 
the attacks of underground insects. In 
strong soils, they are often difficult to get 
up : to aid them in this, deep drills are 
drawn, and filled with light soil, such as 
leaf-mould, in which clean sea or river 
sand has been incorporated ; in this the 
seeds are sown, and vegetate freely, and 
establish themselves until of a size and 
strength to penetrate the stronger soil 
below. The manures best suited to this 
crop are those in a liquid state, applied 
during growth : stable-yard manure, un- 
less in a very decomposed state, should 
not be applied; and to keep it until it is 
in a proper state for this crop is an evi- 
dent waste of its fertilising powers, which 
had much better have been employed in 
the feeding of the previous crop. The 
application of fresh manure causes them 
to grow forked and misshapen, as well as 
to be attacked by insects : the only ma- 
nure we apply, and even that is seldom, 
is a light dressing of pigeons' dung; guano 
may also be applied with advantage, espe- 
cially if in a liquid form. The experiments 
made some years ago by Mr C. W. John- 
ston, on the application of salt to various 
crops, gave the following result in the case 
of carrots : Light sandy soil, manured 
with 80 bushels of salt, and 20 tons of 
stable-yard manure per English acre, 
yielded 23 tons 6 cwt. 1 qr. 18 lb. ; the 
same extent, with 20 tons of manure, only 
22 tons 18 cwt. qr. 26 lb. ; manured 
with 20 bushels of salt, only 18 tons 2 
cwt. ; without any manure or salt, 13 tons 
4 cwt. Salt and soot is a favourite manure 
for carrots, and the quantity applied may 
be to the extent of 10 bushels of salt and 

20 bushels of soot per acre. Turf-ashes, 
and the ashes of wood and garden-refuse, 
have been found beneficial jphen applied 
in a newly-formed state to carrot, onion, 
potato, and beet crops ; they contain silica, 
alumina, oxides of iron and manganese, 
sulphates of potash and lime, phosphates 
of lime, magnesia, common salt, and char- 
coal ; they should not only be dug into 
the ground, but sown also on the surface, 
previous to drilling, by which means they 
come in immediate contact with the seed. 

Forcing. — To obtain carrots in a young 
state, fit for use during winter, artificial 
means must be resorted to. A mild hot- 
bed of dung and leaves, or a tanked pit, 
is the proper accommodation for their 
seed ; therefore, if the true early horn, 
which is the best suited for forcing, as 
well as most approved of by cooks, should 
be sown at the periods stated above, 
either the tank or bed should be covered, 
to the depth of 9 inches, with light rich 
sandy soil, and the seed sown in the broad- 
cast manner, and covered about half an 
inch with sharp dry sand ; a temperature 
ranging from 55° to 65° will be sufficient, 
and instead of raising this temperature by 
additional fire-heat, during frosty weather, 
rather cover up the glass roof to exclude 
the extra cold. Where a less abundant 
supply is wanted, seed may be sown in 
shallow pots, and these placed in a mildly- 
heated pit, close to the glass. Radishes 
and young onions may be obtained in the 
same manner. 

The London market-gardeners' practice 
is to sow the early horn only, in frames 
and beds to be hooped over, and covered 
with mats. A sowing is made in Novem- 
ber, and another in January. When the 
plants are up, they are thinned to 4 inches 
apart. The hooping-over and mat-cover- 
ing practice is behind the intelligence of 
the present times. Private gardeners act 
better, and grow their winter carrots un- 
der the protection of glass coverings, either 
in pits or in frames. 

Taking the crop, and subsequent preserva- 
tion. — Carrots should be taken up on the 
approach of winter, and when their grow- 
ing season is over. To leave them in the 
ground injures their flavour and colour ; 
and if so left after the turn of the year, 
they begin to become hard, fibrous, and 
ultimately, when their spring growth com- 
mences, unfit for use. Besides, it is evi- 



deuce of bad cultivation to allow any 
ground to be occupied with a crop during 
winter, which might as well be dug up 
and stored by, and so give an opportunity 
for the improvement of the soil by manur- 
ing, trenching digging, <fec. Dry weather 
should be chosen for taking up the crop, 
and the implement employed for loosening 
them in the soil should be a fork, and not 
a spade. When they are withdrawn from 
the ground, the tops should be cut off: 
on this part of their management opinions 
are somewhat at variance, some recom- 
mending cutting the tops off an inch 
from the crown, others close to it ; while 
some say a slice about the thickness of a 
shilling of the crown of the root should 
be removed at the same time. Those 
who advocate the latter process, do so 
with a view to prevent any further vege- 
tation ; while others say that thus cutting 
into the root causes it to rot. Those who 
favour the former do so with a wish to 
preserve the capability of vegetation, 
though certainly not to encourage the 
tendency to grow. In either way they 
will keep equally well, if dried in the sun 
when taken up, and pitted, like potatoes, 
in long narrow pits, or packed in sand not 
over dry in the root-cellar, placing 3 or 4 
inches of sand between each layer of roots; 
for both here and in pits, if laid in thick 
masses together, fermentation takes place, 
and in a short time the whole will become 
a mass of putrefaction. Their keeping 
till spring depends greatly on the low 
temperature they are kept in, and also 
on vegetation not being encouraged. 
When packed in sand, they can readily be 
examined during winter ; and should any 
signs of vegetation appear, the embryo 
leaves can be rubbed off. Packing them 
in too dry sand has a tendency to absorb 
the natural juices in them, and cause 
them to become hard and tough, and in- 
deed unfit for use. Although they will keep 
in the ground all winter unscathed by frost, 
yet, when taken up and exposed to it, they 
are very susceptible of injury from it. In 
storing carrots for winter and spring use, 
we may observe that all the small fibrous 
roots should be cut clean away, as, if left 
on, they are liable to decay, and cause the 
decay to spread through the whole bin. 
In cutting off the tops at lifting, remove 
a slice from the crown sufficiently thick 
to divest them of those latent buds which 

surround the crown, and which would 
burst out into leaves and begin to grow 
upon the least rise of temperature in the 
bin or cellar. Carrots so treated do not 
wither, owing to the evaporation from 
the wound j nor do they at all decay. If 
allowed to sprout into growth, the natu- 
ral sap is drawn from them, and they be- 
come hard, dry, and destitute of flavour. 
If carrots are left in the ground all win- 
ter, they should, on the approach of severe 
frost, be covered over with litter ; for it 
not unfrequently happens, if left unpro- 
tected, that the frost wiU destroy them. 

Approved sorts and their qualities. — Carrots 
are divided into two pretty distinct classes — 
namely, Horn carrots and Long carrots; the 
former are nearly cylindrical, terminating ab- 
ruptly at the point : being considered of supe- 
rior flavour and delicacy, they are preferred for 
garden culture. The latter have long tapering 
roots, are of larger size, and are more fitted for 
field culture than for domestic purposes. 

Early or common horn. — The most esteemed 
of all garden carrots for general culinary pur- 
poses, on account of the smallness of its heart 
and tenderness of its fibre; form thick, short, 
and terminating abruptly. Crown hollow, with 
very small neck and short thin foliage. Known 
also as Dutch carrot, or Dutch horn. Average 
size from 6 to 7 inches in length. Is the same 
as the early scarlet horn. 

Early fording horn. — Boot somewhat conical, 
seldom exceeding 3 inches in length; well 
adapted for forcing for winter use. 

Early short horn. — This appears intermediate 
between the early forcing and orange carrot in 
size, shape, and period of arriving at maturity ; 
probably a hybrid between them. It appears 
to be little known in Britain, but is much 
grown on the Continent, where it is known as 
Carotte courte hative, and in our seed-shops as 
red horn, short red, and short orange. 

White Belgian horn. — Resembling the last, ex- 
cept in colour. A delicate and excellent sort; 
but its colour is objected to by cooks. Is also 
known as transparent white. 

Long red horn. — Merely a variety found in 
seed- lists, differing little from the first. Is 
known also as long red horn. 

Of Long carrots, the following are most in 
estimation for culinary purposes — 

Altringham. — " This sort is easily distin- 
guished from the orange and long red by its 
roots growing more above ground, also by their 
having more convex or rounded heads, tapering 
rather more irregularly and terminating more 
abruptly at the point; in colour most resem- 
bling the orange, but having a smaller heart. 
This variety is more difficult to procure genuine 
than any of the others, from its being remark- 
ably liable to sport, even although the roots 
grown for seed be selected with the utmost 
care." It is of Cheshire origin, having appeared 
at Altringham, a village in that county, about 



forty years ago. It is known also as green- 
topped and superb. 

Long red. — Colour deep red ; heart small ; 
roots long, not remarkable for their thickness. 
A popular sort in some parts of England, where 
it is known as long Surrey, Surrey, Chertsey, 
and Studley. It is the Carotte rouge longue of 
the French, and pretty extensively grown over 
the Continent. 

Long orange. — A large variety, less esteemed 
for cidinary purposes than the red sorts, on 
account of its colour. It was formerly much 
grown in gardens in Scotland. The roots are 
produced entirely under ground, and it is, 
therefore, less liable to the attacks of hares 
than those which grow partly above ground. 
Roots thick at the top, regularly tapering to a 
point Heart large, hard, and not readily soften- 
ing in boiling. It is known as the large red, 
large field or cattle carrot. Sandwich, and is the 
Carotte rouge pale de Flanders. 

Pwple-coloured. — Roots of medium size; deep 
reddish purple; heart large and yellow. It is 
better suited for wet soils than any other, and in 
such is often cultivated by the French. It is 
known also as red, deep red ; and is the Carotte 
violette, La violette, &c. of the French seed-lists. 
White. — Seldom grown in gardens. Of it 
there are two varieties, the common white, not 
worth cultivating, and the large white green- 
top. Produces immense crops, and is deUoate 
and well-flavoured when cooked, but does not 
keep well through the winter. The large white 
green- top has roots short, of large size and great 
thickness while under ground ; greenish-coloured 
on the top, which rises considerably above the 
surface. On account of the shortness of its 
roots and their standing so high above the 
ground, it is better suited for shallow soils than 
any of the others. The French possess a much 
greater variety of carrots than we think worth 
cultivating in Britain. 

Insects and diseases. — " Insects infest the car- 
rot crop in the root, stem, and flower. The 
plant no sooner makes its appeai'ance than it is 
attacked by aphides, which are scarcely larger 
than cheese-mites, of a uniform pale-green co- 
lour, with six legs, two horns, and no wings. 
Their presence is indicated by the yellow foK- 
age, and in pulling up the plant the roots are 
sound and clean ; but the crown is not only dis- 
coloiired, but, on opening the embryo • leaves, 
number's of the aphides are found concealed. 
Dusting the crop on the appearance of the 
aphides vrith caustic lime is a good remedy. 

" The root of the carrot is affected by a disease 
named the rust, in which the crop gradually 
dies off, loses its saccharine qualities, and, 
changing to a ferruginous colour, becomes of 
little value. This complaint is occasioned by the 
larvae of the carrot-fly, Psila rosce, fig. 61, eating 
galleries along the roots, which they inhabit 
through the summer, when they become pupae 
in the earth; but a new brood hatches in the 
summer every three or four weeks. This fly is 
3 lines long, of a pitchy black; the wings lie 
horizontally along the back when at rest, and 
extend beyond the tail, and when expanded ex- 
tend to 5 lines. The maggots aro ochreous and 

shining, cylindrical, pointed at the head, and 
obtuse at the taU, resembling cheese-hoppers, 
though they cannot leap, and are exceedingly 
transparent, every internal part being visible. 

Fig. 61. 


When the cavities have been opened by this 
maggot in the rest of the carrot, large numbers 
of the millipede (Polydesmns complanatm), and 
of the centipede {Bcolopendra electrica), assist in 
extending the depredations. Another caterpil- 
lar, the larva of the ghost-moth, Hepialis humili, 
fig. 62, also eats into the root of the carrot and 
injures it. The larvse of the flat-body moths, 

Fig. 62. 


AND CHRvsALis. KatuTal Size. 

Depressaria dcutella and depressella, bore into 
the stems of the. carrot, causing the leaves to 
stint and decay; and the larvae of the grey car- 
rot blossom flat-body moth, Depressaria daa- 
Bella, commit great havoc on the umbels of the 
flowers." — Booh of the Farm, vol. ii. p. 96. 



Depressaria applana. — The common flat- 
bodied moth, fig. 63, is another of this genus of 
moths whose 

Fig. 63. 


caterpillars do 
great mischief 
to seed - crops 
of carrots and 
parsnips, by de- 
vouring the 
whole umhels 
of flowers, and 
not unfrequent- 
!y stripping the 
plants of their 
entire stem fo- 
liage. Their 
mode of oper- 
ating is to draw 
the flower- 
heads together 
by many strong 
silken threads, 
which they af- 
terwards ex- 
tend into a net- 
work habita- 
tion, in which 
they remain 
consuming the 
and after a time 
changing to 
pupse, some- 
times within the 
web, at other times rolling themselves up in a leaf 
or within the stem, in which they remain secure. 
The wire-worm (Elater) also attacks them 
under ground from their earliest stages. Copious 
applications of caustic lime are of much use in 
such cases ; and highly-stimulating manures, 
such as guano or pigeons' dung, accompanied 
with deep-trenching, will be found beneficial — 
the former to stimulate the carrots into rapid 
growth, and the latter to derange the economy 
of the insects during their transformation. 

Amongst other means of getting rid of the 
wire-worm is the rather novel one of feeding it 
with rape-cake to repletion. The rape-cake is 
broken up into small pieces about the size of 
marbles; and when the finer particles are re- 
moved by sifting, the larger pieces are sown in 
the drills at the same time as the seed; or a 
better way is to drill the ground from 3 to 4 
inches deep, and in these drills to sow the rape- 
cake, covering it up and drilling again at the 
usual depth for the carrot-seed. The month of 
March or beginning of April is the best time to 
BOW the rape-cake, and which may be done 
weeks before the carrots are sown, because at 
that time the worm is resuming its depreda- 
tions after awakening from its winter torpid 
state. The drier the season the more effective 
it will be in destroying the worm, as the cake 
will not BO soon dissolve as it would in wet 
weather. The insect will devour it greedily, 
and continue to do so till it actually dies of 
repletion. Small pieces of rape-cake fastened to 
the end of a wooden skewer, and placed from 3 
to 6 inches in the groundj form an excellent bait 

for catching this insect, managed as we have 
noticed at p. 69. 

Old garden-soils have been long considered 
unfavourable for carrots, and as a remedy in 
such cases, it has been recommended to trench 
the ground 18 inches in depth, and to fork into 
the bottom of each trench quicklime laid over 
it to the thickness of an inch, applying it in 
autumn. In spring, at the period of sowing, a 
slight dressing of quicklime is laid on the sur- 
face, and mixed with the BoU during the process 
of drilling and sowing. The rationale of this 
appears to be, that the Hme acts chemically 
upon the inert matter contained in most soils 
in which a superabundance of humus exists, 
bringing it into a more active condition. It is 
possible that sharp river or sea sand would have 
much the same effect. Active manures, such as 
guano and pigeons' dung, act much in the same 
way, and excellent carrot crops have been pro- 
duced when the latter has been laid on from 
3 to 4 inches in depth, and thoroughly amalga- 
mated with the soil. 

To save seed, transplant the roots, if the 
weather will permit, about the beginning of 
January ; set them in rows 3 feet apart, and the 
roots 2 feet distant in the line; and that they 
may have sufficient scope to work in, trenches 
at least IJ feet in depth should be dug and the 
roots set in them, placing in the bottom of each 
trench a slight dressing of decomposed manure 
or a thin sowing of guano. If the ground on which 
the crop has been grown is in sufficient condition 
to mature the crop of seed without manure, it 
would be advisable to mark the carrots at the 
above distance and to dig up all the rest, leaving 
them where they grew from seed. This may safely 
be done if the crop at taking-up indicates proper 
form and pureness as to variety ; if otherwise, it is 
better to take them up entirely, and select the 
best-formed roots for replanting. The best seed 
will be produced where the plants are sufficiently 
apart to admit light and air amongst them. The 
first seed which ripens is also the best, and in mo- 
derate situations will begin to ripen about the Ist 
of September, when care must be taken that all 
the heads as they ripen are cut off with a sharp 
knife and placed under covering to dry. The 
umbels of seed, if 'once wetted by rain when 
nearly ripe, will often rot altogether ; or if not, 
the seed will be of a bad colour and of inferior 
quality. As the seed dries it should be rubbed 
out and stored by for use ; it is injudicious to 
thrash it, unless the quantity be very great, and 
that with a very light flail, as the seed is apt to 
be injured by the process. One plant saved for 
seed will be sufficient for a small garden, and so 
on in proportion to size. 

General remwrks. — The European names are — 
Mohre, or Gelbe rube in German; Carota in 
Italian ; Garotte in French; Geele wortel in 
Dutch ; and Chlrivia zanahor in Spanish. 

" The nutritive matter contained in a crop of 
25 tons, or 56,000 lb. per acre of carrots, con- 
sists of husk or woody fibre, 1680 lb.; of starch, 
sugar, &c.,.5600 lb.; of gluten, &c., 840 lb.; of 
oil or fat, 200 lb. ; and of saline matter, 800 lb. 
— Stephens ex Johnstok's Lectures on Agricul- 
tural Chemistry, second edition, p. 928. 



§ 2. — THE TURNIP. 

Nataralhistory. — Thetnvnip (Brasdcarapah.) 
belongs to the natural order Cruciferee, sub-order 
Orthoplocese, and tribe Braaaicse or Orfchoplooese 
siliquossB, and to the class Tfetradynamia and 
order Siliquosa. The generic name is derived 
from Bresic, Celtic name for the cabbage. It is 
found wild in various parts of Britain, chiefly in 
corn-fields and cultivated places. The ancient 
Greeks, to whom the turnip was well known, 
called it Gongyle, from the roundness of its root. 
At what period it became known in Britain, 
where it came from, or how its improvement 
from its native wild and useless state was 
brought about, is unknown. It appears to have 
been well known in Greece in the time of De- 
mocritus and Diouysius. Both the Greeks and 
Romans were well acquainted with its cultiva- 
tion ; and there are also faint traces in history 
that it was brought from Gaul and other north- 
ern provinces of the empire to Rome. It is also 
well known that, during the fifteenth century, 
the Flemings were considerably advanced in the 
art of cultivation, and that the turnip formed 
one of their important crops. From the re- 
marks of Gerard, it would appear that turnips 
were not grown much in his time, except for 
domestic purposes. " It groweth," he says, " in 
fields and divers vineyards and hop-gardens in 
most parts of England. The small turnip grow- 
eth by a small village near London, called Hack- 
ney, in a sandy ground, and are brought to the 
Cross in Cheapside by the women of that village 
to be sold, and are the best I ever tasted. The 
bulbs, or knobbed root, which is properly called 
Rapum, or turnip, and hath given the name to 
the plant, is many times eaten raw, especially 
by the poor people in Wales, but most com- 
monly boiled." The early Dutch white turnip 
is that noticed by our earhest horticultural writ- 
ers. This, coupled with the well-known fact 
that, in Elizabeth's time, turnips, as well as 
other garden products, were quite common ar- 
ticles of importation to the English court, leads 
us to beUeve that our first garden varieties were 
introduced from Holland and Flanders, probably 
in the preceding reign. Those used for agricul- 
tural purposes were introduced long afterwards, 
mainly through Lord Townsend, who, when am- 
bassador to the States-General in 1730, seeing 
the importance of this plant as there cultivated, 
introduced both the plant and its cultivation 
into his own estate in Norfolk. In "Miller's 
Gardeners' Dictionary," 3d ed. fol. 1737, six var 
rieties of garden turnips only are described, two 
of which, " the round turnip with a white root, 
and the round turnip with a purple root," he 
says, " are cultivated for the table in England." 
The introduction of the Swedish turnip, often 
grown in gardens in cold localities for winter and 
spring use, where the other sorts would perish, 
for the excellent greens or tops it produces, when 
other greens are scarce, and which are now also 
blanched and forced as a substitute for sea-kale, 
is more clearly traced ; but whether it is of Lap- 
land or Swedish origin, is not so satisfactorily 
determined. Sir John Sinclair says it was in- 
troduced to Scotland in 1781-2 from Qottenburg; 

others date its introduction from the same place 
at a somewhat earlier date. Miller, in the work 
quoted above, describes a yellow garden-turnip, 
and that it, as well as a long-rooted sort, "were 
formerly more cultivated than at present" (his 
time), " for it is now very rare to see either of 
these brought to the markets, though some 
years since they were sold in as great plenty as 
the common sort." The conjecture, therefore, 
by Professor Low, in " Elements of Practical 
Agriculture," p. 290, with regard to the yellow 
turnip, that it was a cross between the white 
turnip and the Swedish sort, admits of doubt. 
Yellow turnips being well known about the be- 
ginning of the eighteenth century, may have 
formed the type of most of those of the present 
day having globular roots, as, no doubt, the 
whites of the same period did of the majority of 
white globular ones as at present grown. Nor 
are we justified in presuming that the first re- 
moves towards improvement, in either case, took 
place in Britain, as at that time turnip cultiva- 
tion was much more extensively pursued and 
understood in the Netherlands than it was vrith 
us in our then rude state of cultivation. In im- 
proved varieties, as well as in improved cultiva- 
tion, Scotland, as far as regards this plant, stands 
pre-eminent at the present day. " Mr Morton, 
and the most eminent English authorities, now 
admit one turnip of Scotland to be equivalent 
to two of England ; and that they cannot, in the 
latter country, raise turnips equal to those grown 
in Scotland. This superiority (of not only the 
Swedish, but other varieties) is not solely to be 
attributed to the soil aiid climate being more 
favourable to their growth, or to any improved 
method of cultivation adopted — these undoubt- 
edly exercise considerable influence on the crop 
— but the principal cause of the superiority is to 
be traced, unqijestionably, to the care bestowed 
in the growth of the seed." 

Use. — " The use of the root in broths, soups, 
stews, or entire and mashed, is general in all 
temperate climates, and also the use of the 
tender radicle and stem-leaves, and the points of 
the shoots when the plant is coming into flower, 
as greens (or turnip-tops). The seedUng-plants, 
when the rough leaf is beginning to appear, like 
those of all others of the Brassica family, are 
used in small salading. The earliest crop of 
turnips (without forcing) comes into use about 
the end of May or beginning of June" in the 
neighbourhood of London, and ten days or three 
weeks later about Edinburgh ; " and a succession 
is kept up throughout the summer by subse- 
quent sowings ; and turnips may be had through 
the winter, partly from the open garden, and 
partly from roots stored up in the manner of 
potatoes. Hence a large portion of the kitchen- 
garden is devoted to this crop. A well-grown 
turnip has a large smooth symmetrical bulb, a 
small neck, and a small root or tail, with few 
fibres, except nearest its lowest extremity." — The 
Sub. Eort, p. 647. Boiled turnips, mashed or 
whole, is the orthodox accompaniment to a boiled 
leg of mutton. In the time of Henry VIII., tur- 
nips were used baked or roasted in the ashes, 
and the young shoots were used as a spring salad 
in those days, as well as boiled as a, substitute 



for spinach. They mate an excellent white soup. 
In France they are served as a sauce for ducks, 
and are much used for garnishing tongues, hams, 
stewed beef, &c.) being cut into roses and other 
devices. Turnip-tops, in spring, are the most 
wholesome of all green hardy vegetables, acting 
as a powerful antiscorbutic. The first settlers 
in Virginia were greatly afflicted with scurvy, 
until they were able to cure themselves by the 
turnips they cultivated. Turnips are nutritious 
and wholesome, and certainly ought to occupy 
a place on our tables more frequently than they 
do, particularly in Scotland, where the best tur- 
nips are grown and the fewest eaten ; and this the 
more so, as potatoes are neither so nutritious, 
so wholesome, nor are they now so abundant. 
Turnips have also been converted into meal. 

The French turnip, or mmet, yellow or petit 
Berlin, is much cultivated all over the Continent 
for culinary purposes, and forms an important 
ingredient in almost all foreign soups. Stewed 
in gravy or stock, it is much prized ; few dinners 
are served at which it does not in one way or 
other appear. The peculiar flavour is in the 
outer rind, so that, in using it, it should not be 
peeled. It was at one period much cultivated 
in Britain for cooking purposes, and is mentioned 
by Justice of Chichton as giving a higher flavour, 
if two or three are used, to dishes, than a dozen 
other turnips. It is occasionally met with in 
the London market, both of home growth, and 
also imported from Berlin and Altona. It is in 
demand in all families where high cooking is 

The bulbs, i;aken up in the beginning of win- 
ter, and planted in any light soil, rotten tan, or 
leaf-moujd, and placed in dark cellars, the floor 
of a mushroom-house, or indeed anywhere, where 
a temperature of from SO" to 60° can be main- 
tained, and light excluded, will send up their 
leaves in provision, which, when from 6 to 9 
inches high, and blanched white, form an excel- 
lent substitute for forced sea-kale — a luxury any 
one may enjoy by purchasing a few dozen roots 
in November, and growing them as above in a 
cellar, stable, or outhouse, in a moderate tem- 
perature, and in darkness. 

Propagation. — By sowing the seed where 
it is to remain, excepting in the case of the 
Swedish or Rutabaga and Teltow, which 
readily admit of transplanting. 

Somng and planting. — For the earliest 
crop, seed of some of the most approved 
early varieties should be sown on slight hot' 
beds about the 1st of February, and treated 
as already recommended for radishes, p. 
172. The first crop in the open air may 
be sown in the middle of March in Eng- 
land, the first week in April in Scotland, 
in both cases choosing the warmest border 
the garden afibrds. These will come into 
use, in the former case, in May and June, 
and in the latter about the end of May to 
the end of June — much, in all cases, de- 
pending on the locality, for there are some 

where it may be considered early if fit for 
use in July. A second sowing should be 
made about the middle of April in the one 
case, and the end of the month in the 
other. The first principal summer crop 
in both cases should be made from the 
middle to the end of May, for crops to 
come in from the beginning of July, and 
last throughout most of August. Sow 
again in June and July for the principal 
autumn crops j and indeed, in many places, 
it is sufficiently late to sow at the end of 
July for such as are to be used during win- 
ter. For nice small roots, to serve during 
winter and until spring, a sowing should 
be made on a well-exposed spot, both in 
the second and also in the third week in 
August; and in situations so fevourable as 
around Edinburgh, and along the sea- 
coast, a last sowing should be made about 
the middle or towards the end of Septem- 
ber. This last crop we sow broadcast, 
and find them succeed very well, to be 
drawn for use through the winter, about 
the size of from a pigeon's egg to that of 
double that size. These also last much 
longer in spring, when taken up lefore ve- 
getation commences, and buried in deep 
pits in a cold shaded place, to retard their 
growth. They serve for soups, and for that 
insatiable source of consumption, a French 
cook's stock-pot. Where very small young 
turnips are in constant demand, two or 
three intermediate summer sowings will be 
required ; but these need not be so exten- 
sive as the general ones. It is unwise to 
depend for such a supply on the thinnings 
of other crops, because all turnips should 
receive their final thinning long before 
they are fit for such a purpose ; and leav- 
ing them to attain the necessary size would 
only injure the principal crop. 

The French turnip, or navet, should be 
sown during the first and third week in 
April, the first and third week in May, 
and again the second and last week in 
June, choosing the poorest light sandy soil. 

The two earliest spring-sown crops 
should be sown broadcast in 3^-feet wide 
beds, for the convenience of affording 
temporary shelter in the event of late 
spring-frosts, and also because they are 
to be drawn young, and do not occupy 
the ground long after they are up. The 
latest crop of all may be sown in the 
same manner over the ground, without its 
being divided into beds; for, unless the 



ground is in a very bad state, they will 
require no further care after thinning 
with the turnip-hoe, fig. 64, as the season 
of weed-growing 
Fig. 64. -svill have about 

na^-ss^:s=^.^sssiszs:s> ceased ; besides, 
n|& their leaves cover- 

>!» ing the ground will 

TURNIP-HOE. tend to keep weeds 

down. AU the 
other crops should be sown in drills, 1 
inch in depth, and at a distance between 
according with the variety, as some have 
very small leaves, like the Maltese, while 
others have them larger, like the Robert- 
son's yellow-stone, &c. For the former, 

1 foot is sufficient, thinning out the plants 
to 6 inches apart ; while for the latter, 
18 inches between the rows, and 10 inches 
from plant to plant, will be a proper al- 
lowance when thinned out for the last 
time. In all crops there is an evident 
mistake in too close cropping, and in few 
more so than in the turnip. These dis- 
tances would be ill adapted for field culti- 
vation, where bulk of crop is the object 
aimed at : the case, however, is different 
in garden culture, where no turnip should 
exceed the diameter of 4 inches; and from 

2 to 3 inches is a better size. The ground 
should be in a highly-enriched state, that 
quick growth may be induced. It is of 
vast importance, in securing a good braird, 
and also a means of escaping the fiy, that 
vegetation should be rapid. This natu- 
rally ensues when the seed is sown imme- 
diately before rain ; but as this cannot be 
at all times calculated upon, the drills, if 
the ground is very dry, may with advan- 
tage be well soaked with water before 
sowing, using soft rain or river water in 
preference to cold spring-water, that the 
temperature of the soil may not be low- 
ered ; and for this purpose it is advisable 
to drill and water early in the morning, 
and to sow towards the afternoon, for, if 
the day be warm, the soil will have regained 
its former temperature. It is well also 
for this crop to mix guano and salt with 
the water, to the extent of a pound- weight 
of each to 25 gallons of liquid. The seed, 
also, may be steeped for six or eight hours 
in soft tepid water before sowing ; and if 
soot or flowers of sulphur be mixed in 
the water, both will adhere to the seed, 
and render it less palatable to birds. In 
drilling, as for carrots, the drill-rake 

should be used for opening them equi- 
distant, speedily, and of uniform depth ; 
and the drill sowing and covering ma- 
chine {see section Potato) will be found a 
great economiser of labour. The ground, 
after sowing, should be left quite open, 
and by no nieans scratched over with a 
rake, as if it were a border of inignonette 
in a highly-dressed parterre. The agri- 
culturist rolls his turnip-rjdges down 
after sowing, to break down the hard 
clods of earth, and render the process of 
singling more easily effected, as well as 
more completely to cover the seed in the 
drills. The gardener has seldom the same 
reason for doing this, as his soil is pre- 
sumed to be sufficiently pulverised by 
previous working; and it can only be 
where his soil is strong and lumpy, and, 
even then, when it is sufficiently dry 
that the roller may mellow down the 
clods, that he is justified in the operation. 
The evil of finely raking kitchen-garden 
ground is sufficiently obvious : it prevents 
the admission of heat and air to the roots 
or seeds ; in many gases renders it crusty 
and hard on the surface, so as to prevent 
the young plants breaking through it, and 
in fact completely stultifies every argument 
in favour of keeping the ground open and 
pervious to the elements. Many persist in 
raking garden ground from an idea of neat- 
ness and orderly appearance ; but the best 
appearance such ground can have is a 
total absence of weeds, and a loose, open, 
pervious surface. There are no garden 
grounds kept in higher order than the 
market-gardens round London, in many 
of which a rake is scarcely to be found, 
and seldom employed unless in breaking 
in the ground previous to planting or 
sowipg-^rarely otherwise. In ground 
subject to the disease called Anbury, or 
Einger-and-toes, which is occasioned by 
a small species of Ct/nips {vide paragraph 
Diseases and insects), the usual means 
may be adopted at sowing; for, should 
they do no good, they can do no harm, 
and most of them will advantage the crop, 
as manures, sufficiently to repay the la- 
bour. These are, sowing the ground with 
soot, salt, guano, spirits of tar, lime, soap- 
boilers' waste, or any cheap alkaline sub- 
stance : thpsp are best spread over the 
ground before drilling, as that operation 
greatly favours their thorough amalgama- 
tion with the soil. 



" The London market-gardeners sow 
principally the early stone or Dutch, it 
being in great demand in spring. Various 
ways of producing it are practised, such as 
growing it in frames ; but the best plan is 
to raise it, like potatoes, in hooped beds — 
i. e., in trenches, dug out and filled with 2 
feet of hot dung. Sow in February; hoop 
and cover with straw, and expose the plants 
daily ; the quality of the turnip depends 
much upon quick growth and plenty of 
moisture." — Cuthill. This practice, how- 
ever suitable it may be to the climate of 
London, would be found of little avail in 
most parts of Scotland, where, to insure 
success, glass coverings day and night 
must be had recourse to. We may, at the 
same time, take this opportunity of stat- 
ing that, high as the system of cuhnary 
cropping is, as carried on by the London 
market-gardeners, all this hooping and 
covering with straw, mats, (fee, is neither 
profitable, nor up to the present state of 
horticultural science. Let them have pits 
miles in length if they will, 6 feet in width, 
supported on 10-inch piers, and sunk or 
elevated, below or above the surface, ac- 
cording to the dryness of the subsoil; and 
these not less than 4 feet in depth, with side 
walls of 10-inch brick- work, for durability 
and exclusion of cold, and covered with 
cheap glass. In spring, they could forward 
in these turnips, radishes, asparagus, let- 
tuce, small salading, early cauliflower, 
early dwarf pease, French beans, &c.; while 
tomatos, which come in altogether to the 
market, could be spread over three or four 
months. In summer, cucumbers, melons, 
&c. could be produced ; and in autumn, 
late cauliflower, full-grown lettuce, endive, 
&c. could be protected, thus producing 
three crops per annum, and at (after the 
first cost of erection, which would last ten 
or fifteen years) little more expense of 
working than the present antiquated pro- 
cess, and certainty substituted for uncer- 
tainty, and constant success for frequent 
failures. It is quite notorious that a let- 
tuce salad cannot be procured in Covent 
Garden market, after October, equal to 
what is quite common in the Paris market 
all the winter; and asparagus, before New 
Year's Day quite a novelty in London, is 
a common affair in Paris and Vienna by 
the 1st of December. Stable-manure, or 
heat produced by vegetable fermentation, 
must for long yet be the heating medium 

employed by the London growers, on ac- 
count of its cheapness and abundance, and 
the comparative scarcity and expense of 
fuel. The Glasgow and Edinburgh growers 
are differently circumstanced, where a load 
of stable-manure costs nearly as much as 
a load of coal. Were the demand equal, 
and could the same prices be obtained in 
the latter case as in the former, no doubt 
heating by combustion would be adopted 
by the northern growers. In these days 
of cheap timber and cheap glass, there is 
no reason why Mr Solomon of Covent 
Garden market should exhibit in Regent 
Street asparagus purchased in Paris on the 
1st of December, better than is shown in 
Covent Garden market on the 1st of Feb- 
ruary ; and far less reason is there why 
we should be supplied with early potatoes 
and pease from Spain, Portugal, Holland, 
or even Cornwall, when these could be 
produced by every grower round London 
quite as early, of much better quality, 
beinff fresh, and as cheap, were they only 
to cast aside their dependence on the 
identical means employed a century and 
a half ago, which a reference to the writers 
of that period will evidently show. In 
open-air productions they surpass aU Bri- 
tain ; in the production of forced vegetables 
and fruit they are immeasurably behind. 

To insure a speedy germination of the 
seed, care must be taken that it is not 
buried too deep : 1 inch may be taken as 
the maximum depth in garden soils; if 
placed deeper, vegetation is considerably 
retarded; and indeed, if too deeply buried, 
it may not vegetate at all, until brought 
nearer the surface by some future opera- 
tion of digging, &c. Turnip-seed, if new, 
will germinate, and appear above the sur- 
face, in ordinary soils and situations, in 
the month of July, in about eight days ; 
but older seed, which should assuredly be 
employed, will take from ten to twelve 
days ; much' of this, however, depends on 
the state of the weather. 

The Swedish and Teltow turnips, as we 
have stated above, maybe transplanted with 
every success. In gardens where the eco- 
nomy of ground is an object, it is well to 
sow both kinds in beds by themselves, in 
the broadcast manner, and, when the 
leaves are about from 3 to 4 inches in 
height, to transplant them to where they 
are to remain. By adopting this method, 
ground may be got cleared and prepared 



for their reception, which, might otherwise 
be in full perfection of crop at the period 
when these turnips should be sown. In 
lifting them, care should be taken that the 
roots are got up entire : the operation of 
lifting them will be facilitated if the seed- 
bed get a good soaking of water early in 
the morning of the day on which trans- 
planting is to take place ; it will cause 
the roots to part more freely with the 
soil, and they, at the same time, will ab- 
sorb such a portion of water as will greatly 
make up for the evaporation to which 
their leaves wiU be exposed before the 
spongiolets are in a condition to throw in 
a sufficient supply for the support of the 
plants. A dibble of sufficient length and 
thickness miist be used, so that the root 
may be set in the hole in such a manner 
that its natural position may be main- 
tained, and the soil gently pressed around 
it, but not in the way practised by many, 
of thrusting the dibble into the ground 
as soon as the root is set in the hole, in 
an oblique direction, and giving it a twist, 
with a view, as they say, of firming it at 
the bottom. Such a mode of proceeding 
is of aU others the most likely to push 
the root out of its perpendicular position, 
if not to break it entirely. 

Besides the advantage of economising 
space, by following the transplanting prin- 
ciple in the case of Swedish turnips, we 
have the opportunity of rejecting forked 
or apparently malformed roots ; and even 
another, and to us rather unexpected, ad- 
vantage has occurred in Wigtonshire, as 
reported by Mr Stephens, in " The Book 
of the Farm," vol. ii. p. 82, and obtained 
by Mr A. Johnstone, " on transplanting 
swedes on land which he had not got 
ready for sowing them at the proper sea- 
son. He sowed some seeds of Skirving's 
swedes in a bed in April 1 847, and trans- 
planted the plants from them as late as 
the 22d of June. From ten to twenty 
days afterwards, the transplanted plants 
running into flower, some of them were 
pulled up, and others cut over near the 
ground; when, in about fourteen days 
afterwards, bulbs began to form, and new 
stems and leaves were put forth luxuri- 
antly. He then cut over others that had 
flowered, and the same results followed. 
Finding the green leaves succulent, he 
caused them to be puUed as green food, 
and continued to do so during the season. 

three times, never imagining that the 
bulbs would be of any value. Meanwhile, 
however, the bulbs enlarged until the end 
of October, when two were pulled up, and 
one weighed 18 lb. and the other 15 lb., 
with scanty stem and leaves, because the 
former ones had been cut down not long 
before." This appears so far to confirm 
the newly-started opinion that tubers and 
bulbs will increase in size after the leaves 
and stems have been removed from them. 

" The question after such treatment of 
the bulbs" of the Swedish turnip " is. Are 
they deteriorated as food?" From an 
analysis made by Professor Johnston, it 
would appear they were not. 

The Teltow may be set in rows 1 foot 
apart, and the plants 9 inches asunder in 
the row; while the Swedish should have 
18 inches between the rows, and 12 be- 
tween the plants in the line. 

Thick-sowing can only be sanctioned 
on the plea of affording sufficient food for 
the Haltica nemorum (the flea or beetle), 
the Curculio contractus, Tenthredo (or saw- 
fly), and other insect enemies, to satiate 
them during the period of their limited 
existence, and still leave a crop behind. 
Other means have been had recourse to, 
with more or less effect, such as that of 
mixing old and new seed in equal propor- 
tions, dividing the mixture, and steeping 
one half twenty-four hours in water ; aU 
though sown at the same time, four dis- 
tinct brairds will be insured, one of which 
has, so far as our experience goes, a fair 
chance of escaping. It has often hap- 
pened, when one-year and three-year old 
seed have been mixed and sown together, 
that the insect completely ate up the 
braird from the new seed, and had disap- 
peared before the other had come above 
ground. Radish seed, which germinates 
so much sooner than the turnip seed, has 
been sown for a like purpose ; for it should 
be borne in mind that these insects prey 
alike upon all cruciferous plants. No 
better way exists of ridding the crop of 
such intruders than that recommended 
by Mr A. Gorrie many years ago, which 
is to dust the young plants with caustic 
lime in powder, and the simplest way of 
applying it is to put it into a thin canvass 
bag, and to shake it over the plants twice 
a-day, when their leaves are quite dry; 
but this remedy, like most others, greatly 
depends on the quality of the medicine. 



Lime which has been slacked and laid 
by for some time is of little avail; it 
should be brought direct every three or 
four days from the kiln. Nor should 
it be laid on in large quantities, more 
especially when the leaves are wet, else it 
forms an incrustation on them, and shuts 
up their pores of respiration, making in 
such cases the cure as bad as the disease. 
We have no dread whatever of the turnip 
flea so long as a lime-bag is at hand, and 
provided those intrusted with the opera- 
tion will do as they are desired. Heavy 
rains also discomfit the insects, and, as a 
substitute, water let fall from the rose of 
a watering-pot held 3 or 4 feet above them 
will produce a like eifect. All blanks 
which occur in the drills, from whatever 
cause they may emanate, should be speed- 
ily re-sown ; but before doing so, fork up 
the soil in the patches, and drill and sow 
afresh ; and to keep the crop as equal as 
possible, steep the seed to be sown twenty- 
four hours in tepid water to forward its 

Subsequent culthation. — Keeping the 
ground thoroughly stirred by deep hoeing 
with the Vernon hoe, or the grubbers 
attached to the hoeing, sowing, and drill- 
ing machine, which will not only promote 
growth in the plants, but prevent the 
appearance of weeds, are the principal 
operations required, if we except the im^ 
portant duty of thinning the crop as it 
advances. The distances we have stated 
above. The operation of thinning should 
be performed by the turnip-hoe, fig. 64, 
which for this purpose should be kept 
clean, and as sharp as a knife. The 
2 -inch or 2^-inch hoe is the implement 
best suited for this purpose, and a dex- 
terous person, accustomed to such an im- 
plement, will hoe triple the quantity 
with it that an old woman will do with a 
7-inch tool, as recommended and used in 
the sister art. In very dry seasons, tur- 
nips, in all their stages of growth, are 
much improved by watering ; it swells 
the bulbs out rapidly, and prevents their 
becoming hard, dry, and stringy, as well 
as running prematurely to seed. The 
first thinning by hoe should take place 
when the plants have made their first 
rough leaves — that is, those succeeding 
the radicle or cotyledon leaves, and at 
this time about 1 inch in breadth, if sown 
broadcast in beds, which the two earliest 

crops may be, and thinned to the distance 
of 2 inches apart, and in course of a week 
to the ultimate distance of 4 inches apart. 
Those of later crops in rows, when of the 
same size, should be thinned first to 3 
inches, and in course of eight or ten days 
to 6 inches apart in the lines. This, again, 
depends on the size of the varieties, as well 
as the size at which they are to be drawn 
for use ; so that in some cases the 3-inch 
distance may be sufficient, afterwards 
drawing every alternate one for consump- 
tion. In small gardens, where young tur- 
nips are in demand, this is sufficiently ex- 
pedient ; but otherwise it is better to give 
the second thinning, and to depend, as 
already said, for supply upon a small crop 
sown on purpose. Half that distance will 
be sufficient for the French or Teltow tur- 
nip, as neither its roots or foliage are 

Soil and manure. — A turnip soil is al- 
most a synonymous term with a light 
sandy or light loamy soil, for in such they 
succeed better than in stronger and more 
tenacious ground. In the former the crop 
will be much earlier, more easily managed, 
and the roots of better flavoured quality. 
In strong soils the crop is much later, 
more likely to shoot up to seed, particu- 
larly early in the season, and the roots 
are always deficient in flavour. New soils 
produce the best turnips, but all should 
be in an enriched state, either naturally 
or artificially. The richest manures may 
be applied, and, as has been shown prac- 
tically in the case of one of the most 
powerful (pigeons' dung), disease as well 
as insects have been greatly kept imder 
by it. 

The turnip tribe differs from the potato in two 
most important points. First, The quantity of 
water they respectively contain. In the potato 
this forms three-fourths, but in the turnip nine- 
tenths, of the whole weight, when taken from 
the ground ; or they consist of — 






Dry nutritive matter, . 



100 100 

Second, In the presence of starch in the potato, 
while the turnip contains in its stead a substance 
called pectose, or pectic acid, which contains 
more oxygen than starch, but serves the same 
purpose in the nutrition of animals. " In fleshy 
fruits, such as the plum, peach, apricot, apple, 
pear, &c., and in the bulbs or roots of the tur- 
nip, the carrot, the parsnip, &c., there exists no 
starch, but in its stead pectose, or pectic acid. 



This substance is nearly as nutritious as starch, 
and serves the same purposes when eaten. It 
contains, however, less hydrogen and more oxy- 
gen than starch does, and changes more readily 
into other substances, both in the plant and in 
the stomach." — J. F. W. Johnston, in Agriculr 
tmal Chemistry and Geology, p. 46, 325. 

Forcing. — This is seldom attempted in 
this country, excepting in gardens of the 
highest order. It forms an important 
part in Russian and German gardening, 
where otherwise it would be late in the 
spring before they could be obtained from 
the open ground. Slight beds of leaves, 
or of leaves and stable-yard litter com- 
bined, about 3 feet in height, are, for the 
purpose of forwarding an early crop in 
some British gardens, made up in Febru- 
ary ; and when the heat has risen to the 
surface, they are earthed over, to the depth 
of 3 or 4 inches, with light rich soil. The 
seed is sown broadcast, and covered to the 
depth of half an inch, choosing the true 
early white Dutch, or early six-weeks, as 
coming soonest into use. Air must be 
freelyadmitted on all favourable occasions, 
and, in severe weather, the glasses covered 
during the night. When the plants have 
shown their iirst rough leaves, about the 
size of a shilling, they should be thinned to 
the distance of 3 inches apart; and when 
pulling commences, which will be when 
they have attained the size of a pigeon's 
egg, a regular system of thinning should 
take place by removing the largest first. 
Shght watering will be required, and that 
should be applied at from 60° to 80° of 
heat, with a view of adding to the warmth 
of the soil rather than abstracting heat fi'om 
it. The turnip does not, however, require a 
temperature of more than from 50° to 60°. 
Talcing the crop, and subsequent presena- 
tion. — From the time the bulbs are of the 
size of a pigeon's egg, until they attain a 
diameter of about 4 inches, they are fit 
for use, and are drawn progressively. 
When gathered and removed to the vege- 
table-house, they should be clean washed, 
the tops cut off close to the crown, and 
the tail-root close to the bottom of the 
bulb, in which state they are ready for 
the kitchen. Those that are intended for 
winter use may for the most part, in fa- 
vourable situations, be left in the ground, 
securing a few for supply in the event of 
frost, which should be stored by in the 
root-cellar. In cold, wet, and unconge- 
nial localities, it is quite necessary that 


the crop be taken up and stored for win- 
ter and spring use, after the manner of 
potatoes {which see). To prepare them 
for this a dry day should be chosen, and 
also one when the ground is dry to pull 
up the roots, to divest them of their tops 
and tails, cutting both off close to the 
bulb. Some, however, object to this, and 
leave about an inch of the tops, and the 
whole tail or root entire, alleging that 
the sap is better retained in the bulb when 
these curtailments are not made. 

Approved sorts and their qualities. — Garden 
turnips may be divided into two classes, the 
yellow and white bulbed sorts. The white va- 
rieties are most esteemed for table use in Eng- 
land; while the yellow, particularly during win- 
ter, hold the same rank in Scotland. French 
cooks rarely use the yellow sorts; they are, 
therefore, less generally grown in gardens, being 
considered less mUd in flavour than the white ones, 
while many prefer them on this very account. 

Yellow Malta. — This is a beautiful small- 
bulbed variety, from 14 to 2 inches in diameter, 
of great symmetry in form, slightly flattened 
above, somewhat concave on the under side to- 
wards the tap root, which, as well as the neck, 
is remarkably small; skin very smooth, of a 
bright orange-yellow colour ; leaves also small, 
admitting of their standing close on the ground. 
This is the very best, for summer use, of all the 
yellows, and, from its fine small size and form, 
is usually dressed whole. It is rather tender for 
winter use. Known also as the Maltese golden. 

Robertson's golden stone. — A comparatively new 
and excellent variety, brought under our notice 
three years ago by Mr Robertson, Paisley. In 
shape it is nearly globular, and of a deep orange- 
yellow colour throughout, very slightly tinged 
with green on the top, often none; the best 
yellow for autumn and winter use, as it keeps 
well, and is exceedingly hardy. It attains a 
pretty large size. 

Finland. — Is thus described in Messrs Peter 
Lawson and Sons' " Vegetable Products of Scot- 
land," p. 13, div. iii. : " This is a beautiful little 
turnip, of a bright yellow throughout, even to 
the neck, somewhat similar to a small firm yel- 
low Malta, but differing in the fine colour, and 
having the under part of the bulb singularly 
depressed, from which issues a small mouse-tail- 
like root. It is also somewhat earlier than the 
yellow Malta." We believe it is also hardier. 
Our knowledge of it extends to having seen it 
growing in Messrs Lawsons' experimental 
grounds, and from its appearance we would 
judge it, along with the yellow Malta, well suited 
to small gardens. 

Yellow globe. — Bulbs of medium size, globular, 
and always nearly under the surface of the ground ; 
top greenish; leaves rather small and spread- 
ing. This is a most excellent turnip for garden 
culture, and, with Robertson's golden stone, the 
two most valuable where the larger-sized garden 
turnips are required. To these may be added 
the old and long-cultivated yellow Dutch and 

2 B 



yellow stone, the last probably the type from 
■which the third has been obtained. The yellow 
Preston, or Liverpool Preston, and the yellow 
Altringham, are both much grown in the north- 
west of England. We consider them good, but 
coarser in growth and delicacy of fibre than 
those we have described above.) 

White Dutch. — One of the oldest in cultiva- 
tion, and most esteemed for early crops; round 
and much flattened; leaves medium-sized. While 
young, it is juicy and of excellent flavour, but 
apt to become spongy and dry when too old, 
particularly in dry seasons. In perfection when 
from 14 to 24 inches in diameter; after that 
size it is next to useless. It will not keep either 
in the ground or in pits through the winter, 
compared with the following. 

White stone. — Shape of the bulb much more 
globular than the last, and firmer in texture and 
rather stronger in fohage. According to the 
Messrs Lawsons' description in " Vegetable Pro- 
ducts of Scotland," div. iii. p. 14, " it is not, 
however, so well adapted for early spring-sow- 
ing, being more apt to run to seed, and has 
acquired the name of early from the circum- 
stance of its arriving soon at maturity when 
sown at a late period of the season. A care- 
fully selected and improved variety of this is 
known in some parts of England by the name of 
mouse-tail turnip ; and, in addition to this, some 
seed-catalogues present us with the names of red- 
topped, mouse-tailed, and we think we may add 
the name of snowball also. It is sometimes also 
called the white garden stone. 

Early six-weeks. — Bulbs of an irregular globu- 
lar shape, produced for the most part above the 
surface of the ground. It arrives soon at per- 
fection — hence the name ; a go6d- tasted turnip, 
soft, and not adapted for winter use. We sow it 
as an intermediate crop during summer, for the 
supply of young tender turnips. It is known as 
the autumn stubble, early dwarf, and early ball. 

Stone globe. — A well-shaped globular bulb, 
produced generally almost under the surface, 
which circumstance, together with its hardiness, 
renders it the best winter-keeping sort. Its 
leaves are stronger than any of the above, and 
of a much darker colour. 

The French turnip or natet. — Of an oblong 
fusiform shape, from 3 to 6 inches in length, 
about I inch in diameter at the top ; dull, semi- 
transparent, whitish colour ; possessed of pecu- 
liar qualities, for which it is esteemed in French 
cookery. Vide Z7s«s, p. J 84. 

Swedish turnips, we have remarked, p. 183, are 
grown in gardens, particularly in cold and ele- 
vated places, with a view to afford a supply dur- 
ing spring, when other sorts are consumed ; as 
also for the purpose of placing the bulbs in a 
warm dark cellar in November, and succes- 
sively in small lots till February, to produce a 
substitute for sea-kale, or to make an addi- 
tional dish in resemblance of it. For the former 
purpose, a rather scarce and not often grown 
variety is the best— namely, Thorpland globe 
swede — on account of the symmetry of its form, 
which is of a beautiful globe shape, vrithout the 
least appearance of neck, and also on account of 
its being smaller in size than any other variety 

in this section. We are aware that the prevail- 
ing opinion is that the larger the swede the 
more tender the fibre is, and altogether better for 
the purposes for which they are generally grown. 
This may in field culture be quite correct; but we 
have found this variety superior, in our estima- 
tion, for culinary purposes, when grown in garden 
soil, and not sown till the beginning of July. 

Diseases and insects. — The turnip is attacked 
by a multitude of insect enemies, of which 
Athalia centifolia of some, A . spinarum of others 
(the turnip saw-fly, black caterpillar, blacks. 

Fig. 65. 


canker, black palmer, nigger or black grub), 
fig. 60, is one of the worst. It is called saw- 
fly, from the use and appearance of the instru- 
ment with which it deposits its eggs. This is 
placed at the extremity of the abdomen of the 
female, on the under side, and is so constructed 
that it combines the properties of a saw and 
auger. The following excellent description is 
given by Mr Curtis, in "British Entomology," 
vol. xii. folio 617, as quoted by Mr Stephens in 
the "Book of the Farm:" — "Head wider than 
long ; deep black, with three ocelli in the centre; 
eyes oval ; antennae black above, and for the most 
part dull yellow beneath; labrum and pulpi 
hght yellow; thorax black above, vrith a trian- 
gular space in front ; the scuteUum, and a spot 
behind it, reddish orange ; the collar, which is 
rather long and slender, black on the sides and 
yellow in the middle ; abdomen rather short, 
entirely orange yellow, inclining to red, with a 
small black spot on each side of the first seg- 
ment ; legs likewise orange yellow; the tarsi 
paler, approaching to whitish ; the tip of the 
tibiae, and of each of the tarsal joints, black; the 
tibiae, with two spines at the apex and the joints 
of the tarsus, each with a very slender lobe be- 
neath; extremity of the ovipositor black; wings 
yellowish at the base ; the costa and stigma black. 
Length, 3 to 3{ lines, exclusive of the antenna. 
Antennae short and somewhat club-shaped, nine 
or ten jointed in the male, but generally with 
the appearance of eleven joints in the female ; 
the radical joint slightly thickened at the extre- 
mity; the second shorter and oval; the third as 



long, or longev, than any two of the other joints 
taken together ; the remainder decreasing some- 
what in length to the terminal one, which is 
large and oyai. The flies, which appear in the 
early part of summer, and deposit their eggs on 
the young turnip plants, have probably survived 
the winter under groimd in the pupa state, en- 
veloped in their cocoon. Emerging from them, 
as soon as the milder weather is confirmed, in 
their winged state, the females immediately lay 
their eggs, after which they very soon die. The 
eggs appear, for the most part, to be placed 
round the outer margin of the rough leaves. In 
favourable weather they are hatched in a very 
short time, and the young larvaa immediately 
commence their attack on the plant. At first 
these larvae are of a deep black colour, and, of 
course, small size ; but they grow rapidly, and 
in course of a few weeks attain their full dimen- 
sions. In the course of their growth they change 
their skin several times, and most of their moult- 
ings are attended with a slight change in their 
colour. After casting their last skin, they are 
of a dark lead or slate-grey colour, paler beneath." 
Mr Curtis states that they are sometimes green, 
a colour which we never saw them assume, for 
in general they are not liable to much variation 
in this respect. Like most of the other larvae of 
their tribe, when touched or in any way disturbed, 
they coil themselves up and remain motionless. 
When full grown, the larvae cease to eat, and 
allow themselves to drop from the plant that 
nourished them to the ground, in which they 
usually bury themselves ; or they take shelter 
among rotten leaves, moss, &c. When examined 
after a short time, they are found to be com- 
pletely enclosed in a cocoon composed of two 
distinct layers of silk. The inner layer is of a 
fine satin lustre; and when the cocoon is opened, 
it appears as if it had been washed with a solu- 
tion of silver. When the fly is fully matured, it 
makes its exit by gnawing with its mandibles a 
hole in one end. The larvae are known in dif- 
ferent parts of the country by the names we 
have given above. They often destroy the crop 
entirely, and at other times very seriously injure 
it, destroying the leaves either wholly or in part. 
Some have asserted that they do not attack the 
Swedish turnip; but this opinion is not borne 
out by facts : nevertheless, they are less severe 
upon them than on the other varieties. Many 
remedies have been recommended for lessen- 
ing their numbers : as to complete annihilation, 
that is only a thing to be wished for, without 
much expectation of its being realised. 

Brushing them off the leaves, by drawing a 
light broom over the plants, has been recom- 
mended. This recommendation is offered on the 
presumption that they are unable to crawl on 
the ground and recover their position ; but ex- 
perience has shown us that they have the power 
of locomotion sufEoiently strong to enable them 
to ascend again when brushed off. Besides, as 
they are produced in generations following each 
other in succession, from August till near No- 
vember, a frequent repetition of brushing would 
be necessary during that period. Birds greatly 
assist us in reducing their numbers, and heavy 
showers of rain are of great service, while it 

points out to us a remedy in applying water 
from the rose of a watering-pot held somewhat 
elevated, that the force of the falling water may 
be the greater. A fire-engine, or a powerful 
garden-engine, may be brought to play upon 
them with great advantage ; and, if wrought upon 
the walks, a boy may be employed to direct the 
nozzle, BO that the water may not be unneces- 
sarily wasted on the spaces between the drills. 
Lime-water is better than pure water; the trouble 
of applying both is the same, and the difference 
in expense next to nothing. The caustic pro- 
perty of the lime-water will destroy them in vast 
numbers; for falling upon them while young, and 
particularly when they have newly shed their 
skin, it is instantaneously fatal to them. Dust- 
ing the leaves with powdered hot lime once a 
day is very destructive to them, acting upon 
their tender bodies even with more effect than 
when applied in a liquid form. Catching the 
perfect fly before it has laid its eggs is the next 
most effectual plan ; and this can readily be done 
by the aid of an entomologist's net, for they are 
slow flyers, and do not take long flights at a 
time. Each fly caught would prevent the com- 
ing into existence of from 250 to 300 caterpillars. 
Hand-picking the caterpillars would be very 
wholesome advice to give a Chinaman ; butwhere 
labour is high, and large breadths have to be 
gone over, very unsuitable to the British culti- 
vator. Old ducks and old fowls, as well as troops 
of young ones — remedies recommended by most 
writers upon rural affairs for more than a cen- 
tury — in most cases verify the old saying, " The 
cure is as bad as the disease." 

Ceutorhynchus contractus, the turnip-weevil, 
closely resembling the Curculio pleurostigma, 
fig. 47, is often found feeding upon young tur- 
nip leaves in company with Haltica nemormm, 
the turnip flea-beetle. It is a small insect, 
scarcely 1 line in length, of a uniform black 
colour, slightly tinted with metallic blue on the 
elytra, the latter with punctured lines. 

Haltica nemorum. — The turnip flea-beetle, 
fig. 66, is thus described by Mr Stephens in 
" The Book of the Farm," 
vol. ii. p. 73 : « The insect 
which first infests the 
turnip plant, and attacks 
its seed-leaves, is the tur- 
nip flea-beetle, Haltica ne- 
morum, fig. 66, usually, 
though improperly, desig- 
nated the turnip-fly, which 
is a very different sort of 
insect. The flea-beetle is 
a coleopterous or hard- 
shelled insect, capable of 
either penetrating the 
ground or bearing a con- 
siderable pressure." " It 
is a small insect," says Mr 
Duncan, " scarcely one- 
eighth of an inch in 
length. It is smooth, shining, and of a brassy 
black colour, with a slight tinge of green, par- 
ticularly on the wing-cases ; the antennas 
black, with the second and third joints, and the 
apex of the first, of a pale colour. The thorax 

Fig. 66. 




is convex above, and pretty deeply punctured ; 
the wing-cases are much wider than the thorax, 
likewise thickly and irregularly punctured, each 
of them with a pale-yellow or slightly sulphur- 
coloured stripe running along the middle, curved 
inwards posteriorly, and not reaching quite to 
the extremity ; the under side of the body and 
thighs black ; all the tibiaa and tarsi of a pale 
hue. This little insect feeds on the turnip, 
which it attacks both in its perfect and larva 
states. When the plants have acquired some 
degree of strength, and the fohage is consider- 
ably developed, the injury done by it is insigni- 
ficant; but, unfortunately, its favourite food is 
the young plant, just as it is beginning to un- 
fold its cotyledon leaves. These it consumes 
with the utmost avidity, both as a larva and 
a full-grown insect ; and where it abounds, the 
field is often wholly stripped of its crop in a 
very short time. Indeed, their powers of mas- 
tication are surprising for creatures of so small 
a size. They are found to attack the turnip 
plants as soon as the latter make their appear- 
ance ; and one of the difficult points to deter- 
mine is, how they are produced so speedily 
and so opportunely. In regard to the turnip 
saw-fly and lepidopterous insects the process is 
obvious, the eggs being laid upon the plant by 
the parent fly, and the larvse evolved more or 
less speedily, but after the lapse of some consi- 
derable time. The appearance of the plant and 
insect being in the present case almost simul- 
taneous, it has been thought difSoult to con- 
ceive how the same process should be gone 
through." — Quarterly Journal of Agriculture, 
vol. viii. p. 353. Various conjectures have been 
formed to account for the early appearance of 
this insect on the turnip plant. "But these 
conjectures," continues Mr Duncan, " may now 
be referred to merely as matters connected 
with the past history of this insect, and as 
showing the difficulty that has been experienced 
in tracing it throughout its diflerent forms and 
changes. This, however, has been recently done 
by Mr H. Le Keux, and we are no longer in 
doubt as to the points alluded to. This ob- 
server found that the sexes pair from April to 
September, during which period the eggs are 
deposited on the under side of the rough leaves 
of the turnip. The female insect does not ap- 
parently lay above one egg daily ; in a week ten 
pair are found to lay only forty-three eggs. 
These eggs are very minute, smooth, and partak- 
ing of the colour of the leaf. They are hatched 
in ten days ; the maggots (fig. 66) are an eighth 
of an inch long, pale, fleshy, and eyhndrical, with 
six pectoral feet; the eyes dark, and a dark 
patch on the first and last segments of the body; 
they immediately eat through the lower skin 
or cuticle of the leaf, and form winding burrows 
among the pulp, upon which they feed. The 
thickness of the leaf is sufficient to afford them 
ample scope for this, and they may be seen at 
work in their galleries by holding the leaf up to 
•the light. These maggots or larvas are full fed 
in sixteen days, when they bury themselves in 
the earth not quite 2 inches under the surface, 
selecting a spot near the bulb, where the turnip 
leaves protect them from wet and drought ; 

they enter upon their chrysalis state in the' 
earth, and the beetle emerges in about a fort- 
night. About thirty days carry the insect 
through all its diflerent stages, and of these ten 
are passed in the egg state, six as a maggot, and 
fourteen in the chrysalis. There appear to be 
five or six broods in the season." — Transac- 
tions of the Entomological Society of London, 
vol. ii. p. 24. 

On this subject Mr Stephens, in "Book of 
the Farm," vol. ii. p. 74, makes the following 
sensible remarks on the economy of such in- 
sects, and also on the remedial measures that 
might be adopted for their suppression : " In 
the case of those insects which feed on the 
foliage of plants in their larva state, and after- 
wards derive their aliment from other sub- 
stances, the general law seems to be that a 
much longer duration is assigned to the larva 
than to the perfect insect ; and it may be that 
this is not observed in regard to such as always 
consume vegetables, because in either of these 
conditions they serve the same purpose in the 
economy of nature, to which the prolonged ex- 
istence of the larva bears reference in the other 
instance. Parallel examples are of frequent 
occurrence amongst insects. Unless the eggs 
of the common fiesh-fly were hatched with ex- 
treme rapidity, the larvae, when they appear, 
would neither obtain their food in perfection, 
nor fulfil the useful purposes for which they are 
now subservient. The remedies against the 
attacks of this insect," Mr Stephens fears, " are 
of a hopeless character ; at least, it is better to 
prevent their appearance than to wage war 
against them when they do appear, as, even in 
the efforts to eflect their destruction, the culti- 
vator is the chief sufferer." The preventive 
measures, Mr Stephens thinks, are to keep the 
ground clear of weeds, particularly those of the 
cruciferous order, which are especial favourites 
with this beetle, to sow in drUls instead of 
broadcast, " and to sow the seed thick and of 
the same age, for it is found the more rapidly 
the plants grow at first, they are the less often 
attacked; to put the seed for some time before 
it is sown amongst flowers of sulphur, and sow 
the sulphur amongst it." This latter is, we 
know from several years' experience, u, very 
great check to this insect, and, indeed, to all 
others that attack the CruoifersB. We have 
little faith in brushing the insects off the plants, 
as they have the means of taking possession of 
them very shortly afterwards: dusting with hot 
lime, and watering with lime-water, applying it 
with force, are the best remedies we have tried. 
For years we held a strong opinion on the advan- 
tages of sowing turnip-seed of several ages, believ- 
ing that the insect would seize upon and devour 
the crop which first germinated, and which would 
be from the seed of the previous season's 
growth ; and that by the time the older seeds 
had germinated, the brood would have changed 
into another state ; and such, no doubt, might 
be the case, if the insects were all produced at 
once, or from one hatching of the eggs. Subse- 
quent observation, however, has convinced us 
that this is not the case, but that brood after 
brood is hatched ; and severail germinations of 



seed would only be presenting each brood with 
a supply of food in about as regular a succession 
as they themselves are produced. 

Burning the surface of the land is beneficial 
where it can be carried into effect, as by that 
means the chrysalides will be destroyed; and an 
equally certain way is to trench the ground deep. 
Indeed, the destruction of insects alone, were 
no other benefit to arise from trenching, would 
of itself be a sufficient recompense for the 
labour incurred. Sowing the surface of the soil 
with gas-lime two or three mornings after the 
seed has been sown, has been recommended on 
account of the disagreeable smell being so offen- 
sive to the insect as to drive it away. Spirits of 
tar, in the absence of gas-lime, would have the 
same effect. 

Charcoal dust may also be sprinkled over the 
plants when they are either wet with rain or 
dew; and in small gardens the watering-pot 
may be had recourse to to wet the foliage, 
should neither rain nor dew fall. A temporary 
light-frame, stuck full of green alder-branches, 
and drawn over the crop, will discompose the 
enemy, and a stripe of light woollen cloth, 6 
inches in width, and covered with bird-lime, 
tar, or any equally adhesive matter, and nailed 
to a wooden axle attached to two 12-inch 
wheels, and drawn over the crop, will greatly 
lessen their numbers, as the cloth brushing over 
the tops of the young plants will disturb the 
fleas, and cause them to leap from the leaves 
and become attached to the cloth; and, on 
account of its adhesiveness, they will be unable 
to disengage themselves. This operation, per- 
formed about twice a day, will in general secure 
a crop. In small gardens a piece of cloth so 
covered and attached to a handle like a small 
flag, and drawn over the plants backwards and 
forwards, will have the desired effect. 

Aphis rapcB Curtis, A. nastator Smee, j4. di- 
anthi Schrank, figs. 67 and 68, is thus weU de- 

Fig. 67. 


scribed by Mr Stephens, in the "Book of the 
Farm," vol. ii. p. 77 : " Fig. 67 represents the 
winged male of the common turnip plant-louse. 
Aphis rapce, magnified. Its characters are ochra- 
ceous ; horns moderately long, setacious ; two 
first joints black, third ochraceous at the base; 
head blackish ; coUar ochraceous and brown ; 
disc of shining black ; abdomen greenish ; wings 
irridescent ; the nervures light brown ; tips of 
the thighs, shanks, feet, and claws black. Abun- 
dant beneath the leaves of the common turnip 
the whole of July, &c. It is at once distiu- 


guished from the other species by its long tubes 
and small apical cells of the wings. The cross 
lines below represent 
the natural size of the 
body and of the expanse 
of the wings. Fig. 68 
is the female of the same 
species magnified. It 
is bright green, sha- 
greened ; horns fuscous, 
except at the base; eyes, 
tips of shanks, and feet 
black. The small figure 
on the left represents the 
aphis of the natural size ; 
and the figure below re- 
presents one of the na- 
tural size just excluded." 
Rurioola, in "Gardeners' Chronicle," 1847, p. 
21, of this insect says : " It is to be hoped that 
the species of the aphides will be determined, 
that it may be settled whether those found on 
the turnip (of which there are three species), 
the potato, the spinach, &c., be identical or dif- 
ferent. Another object will be to ascertain if 
the aphides actually feed upon the leaves and 
shoots of the later plants, and breed there." 
Of the Aphis rapce, he continues: "I do not re- 
member ever observing it before midsummer. 
In July it becomes abundant, and in favourable 
seasons continues increasing until the end of 
October, or later. The first are hatched from 
eggs, and it is said are all females ; these bring 
forth young until the autumn, when males are 
produced, as well as females furnished with 
wings. These lay eggs, which remain through 
the winter." 

The injury done by the various species of 
aphides, or plant-lice, is incalculable, as may be 
well supposed when we consider that there is 
not a plant that would seem exempt from their 
attacks in one way or other ; and it would also 
appear, from the investigations of some of our 
most eminent entomologists, that almost every 
plant has an aphis natural to it, and upon 
which it is designed to feed. Euricola, in 
"Gardeners' Chronicle," 1842, p. 3, of this ex- 
tensive genus thus speaks : " There is no family 
of insects which deviates in its habits more 
from the general laws of nature than the aphides ; 
for whilst it is an almost universal rule that 
this class of animals should progress through 
the various transformations of egg, larva, pupa, 
and imago, the aphides have the power of evad- 
ing three of these states by the faculty they 
possess of producing young ; for, influenced by 
natural causes, they are both viviparous and 
oviparous — bringing forth young at mild sea- 
sons, when the temperature is not injurious to 
their tender offspring, and laying eggs in autumn, 
which are better calculated to resist the cold of 
winter. But this is not the most curious ano- 
maly in their history, for a succession of young 
aphides can be produced without the presence 
of the male insects. For instance, as soon as 
an aphis is bom, if it be taken away and 
placed upon a plant, under a glass, where 
nothing can possibly gain access to it, it will, 
notwithstanding, produce young; one of which. 



being also removed, and treated with the same 
care, -will possess the same prolific faculty." 
Their power of reproduction, as observed by 
Bonnet and Eeaumer, is such that the count- 
less myriads of them which appear in our fields 
and gardens yearly can be accounted for with- 
out our having recourse to miraculous causes. 
" With such an inexhaustible power of fecun- 
dity, it is fortunate for man that no insects 
are subject to the attacks of such a variety of 
enemies. Ist, There are the lady-birds {Cocci- 
weMo— figs. 14 and 15), which feed upon the 
aphides both in their larvao and perfect states; 
2dly, The aphidivorous Syrphidse, the maggots 
of which are exceedingly useful in diminish- 
ing the number of the plant-lice. Then there 
are the Hemerobii; or golden-eyes, whose larvse 
are called Aphis-lions (fig. 69), a ferocious fa- 
mily nearly related to the ant-lions. Another 
set of insects are parasitic, and deposit minute 
eggs in the old aphides, which then change to 
dull ochreous, horny objects, sticking to the 
leaves on which they had fed, frequently exhi- 
biting a hole in their sides, from where the 
parasitic little ichneumon called Aphidius had 
issued." The earwig and ant wage constant 
war against them, and soft-billed birds work 
wonderful destruction amongst them ; and to 
these we may add, as valuable to man — 

The Aphis-lion, fig. 69, of which there are 
numerous species. They belong to the family 

Fig. 69. 


Hemerobiidas and order Neuroptera. The pre- 
servation of this family should be sedulously 
cared for, as they are bred, live amongst, and 
feed upon the plant-eating species of aphides, 
and are of the greatest importance to man. The 
aphis-lion makes its appearance in May, and may 
be observed walking about upon the leaves of 
plants, resembling more in appearance a small 
mass of cottony-like matter than a living insect. 
This covering is composed of the fragments of 
the skins of the aphides it has destroyed, and 
which, by a peculiar power invested in its jaws, 
as soon as it has sucked the vitals out of its 
prey, it throws upon its back, until, by re- 
peated additions, it at last assumes the form of a 

large semi-globular mass, probably as a means of 
hiding it from its own peculiar enemies, or 
more probably as a covering of protection to its 
soft and fleshy body. When the larva is fiiUy 
grown, it spins a cottony cocoon of a globular 
form, within which it is transformed into a short 
inactive pupa. Its duration in the pupa state 
varies with the season of the year : it, however, 
remains in this state throughout the winter, 
the fly being produced in the early part of sum- 
mer. The flies are generally abroad in the 
evening, remaining quiet through the day ; they 
are by no means active on the wing. On being 
touched they give out a most disagreeable odour. 
The females deposit their eggs on the leaves of 
plants, especially such as are infested with 
aphides, attaching them to the leaf by a long 
slender arm or stalk, of a whitish colour — the 
eggs, when so placed, having somewhat the 
appearance of minute fungi. This stalk of at- 
tachment is composed of a glutinous matter the 
female discharges at the time of laying the egg, 
and this matter, hardening by exposure to the 
air, maintains the egg in a firm position. The 
insects, as soon as they are hatched, finding 
themselves in the midst of masses of aphides, 
commence warfare at once ; and, as we have 
observed above, as the slaughter goes on, the 
skins, or fragments of them, are transferred to 
the back of the aphis-lion, until it becomes 
clothed as we have described. 

And amongst parasitic insects which aid in 
the reduction of the aphides, may be instanced 

Aphidius avence. — This little ichneumon fly 
deposits its eggs in the apterous female aphides, 
and by this means reduces their numbers ex- 
ceedingly. ^ It is black and shining ; horns 
long, and in the male having twenty joints; 
the body is brown, narrowing towards the base, 
which is rough and ochreous, as is also the 
niargin and a patch on the back ; legs rusty ; 
hips and thighs, excepting the first pair, pitchy ; 
feet blackish; upper vrings having a large smoky 
stigma, and a large central cell, the posterior 
ones entirely wanting. 

rapw, fig. 70. — Very similar in ap- 
pearance and 
Fig- 70. habits to the 

last ; the 
horns, how- 
—:.,,_,_.-_ ~ ever,areshor- 
^!!5t O'^l ter, and only 
'"■■■'" y fourteen-join- 
led ; the un- 
der sideof the 
base and the 
mouth ochre- 
ous; stigma of 
upper wings 
smoky ochre ; 
legs bright 
ochreous, variegated with dark brown, and 

Phytomym nigricornis (the black-homed leaf- 
miner), fig. 11, often attacks turnip crops. They 
operate by feeding upon the parenchyma of the 
leaves, in which they form long irregular gal- 
leries on the inside of the lower cuticle; they are 




not visible on the upper side of the leaf. They 
often attack plants in greenhouses. The only 
way we know of is to pick off the leaves as soon 
as the insect appears to have attacked them, 
and to burn them. The larvse of this insect are 
devoured in vast numbers by the Ceraphron 
niger and Microgaster mrides. 

Noctua exclamationis and N. segetum (the heart 
and dart moth, fig. 71,and common dart-moth, fig. 

Fig. 71. 


Natural size. 

72). These insects appear to be either increas- 
ing of late years, or more probably their economy 
is now better understood than formerly. They 

Fig. 72. 


Natural size. 

are of the class called surface caterpillars, or 
surface grubs, and are exceedingly destructive 
to various crops, particularly to turnips, pota- 
toes, and mangold-wurzel. They commence 
hostilities upon the turnip in July, by eating off 
the crowns. They afterwards attack the bulbs, 
and render them unfit for use. In June they 
attack the mangold-wurzel by eating off the 
roots immediately under the surface of the 
ground, and they attack the potato when just 

pushing above ground. They seem to feed by 
night, and towards morning carry away portions 
of the leaves, which they drag into holes, so that 
they may feast upon them at leisure and in 
safety. Like rabbits, they seem to take a plea- 
sure in cutting over the tops from mere wanton 
mischief, as they have been detected decapitating 
plant after plant, without waiting to eat the 

" Where the eggs of N. exclamaiioma are 
laid has not been recorded ; but it is stated that 
the moth of N. segetum deposits hers in the 
earth. The caterpillar of the former is some- 
what cylindrical, but a little d^ressed above, 
having six pectoral, eight abdominal, and two 
anal feet. It is of a dull lilac colour, with a 
broad pale strip down the back, the margins of 
which form a darker line along each side, and 
there is a double dorsal line extending the whole 
length. The head is horny and brown; the 
minute eyes, and two curved lines, as well as 
the jaws, are black. The first thoracic segment 
is rather homy and dotted ; the following seg- 
ments have four little tubercles on each, pro- 
ducing hairs, as well as similar ones on the 
sides. The stigma is black. When full fed, it 
is an inch and a half in length, and buries itself, 
forming an oval cell of the earth, in which it 
changes to a shining rust - coloured chrysalis, 
to pass the winter in; and the following June, 
or perhaps earlier, the moth hatches." The 
moth " is of a clay colour, the wings reposing 
horizontally ; the horns are like bristles, but 
slightly pectinated in the males ; the tongue is 
long; on the front of the thorax is a transverse 
dark patch; on the upper wings there are two 
waved lines near the base ; to the second is at- 
tached a long, longitudinal, deep-brown streak ; 
above it is a spot varying in size and form, and 
beyond it a large kidney-shaped one; then follows 
a transverse, pale, waved line; and near the cilia 
is a more irregular one. The under wings are 
white, the upper margin and nervures brown; 
but in the female the wings are entirely dark 
brown ; their expanse is IJ inch. The caterpil- 
lar of N. segetum " (or Agrotis segetum of Curtis) 
" is more cylindrical than the foregoing species ; 
the sides are greener, and there are three black 
dots on the stigma." An excellent description 
of it will be found in the " Eoyal Agric. Journ.," 
vol. iv. p. 1 06. Ruricola, in " Gardeners' Chrou.," 
1844, p. 619, from whose excellent paper the 
substance of the above is taken, suggests, as re- 
medies, salt-water, lime-water, and an infusion 
of tobacco, as being distasteful to these grubs, 
and also soot applied to the surface early in the 
year, and laid on an inch in thickness. " One lb. 
of soap, dissolved in 16 gallons of soft water, 
and applied warm to the infested ground, espe- 
cially round the roots, the surface caterpillars 
will dart out of their burrows, and may thus be 
readily collected ; but no time must be lost, as 
they will retire under ground as soon as its 
effects have subsided." The use of hot water 
has been too little hitherto understood in the 
destruction of insects. It may be applied at 
nearly the boiling point to most plants without 
injury to them, but with manifest effect upon 
insects, particularly grubs, whose skins are thin 



and tender. We should not be surprised to see, 
ere long, a hot-water apparatus, somewhat simi- 
lar to Mr Fleming's excellent machine for de- 
stroying weeds in walks, in use in every garden 
for the destruction of insects alone. 

Bomhyx tubricipeda (Linn.), the spotted buff- 
moth, fig. 73, is particularly destructive : no plant 

Fig. 73. 

" The maggots produced from them eat 
into the pulp, and form large whitish blisters on 
Fig. 74. 


Natural size. 

seems to come amiss to it ; it feeds on the tur- 
nip, horse-radish, carrot, scarlet-runner, and even 
mint does not escape its ravages. In the months 
of May and June they are observed in pairs on 
walls, plants, &c., when they should be destroyed. 
It is of a pale ochre or buff colour ; antennse 
black, bipectinate in the male ; the eyes, feelers, 
and legs black, with the exception of the thighs, 
which are orange ; tarsi and hinder tibia buff; 
body buif ; the upper wings have one or more 
^dots, with two black spots upon the margin; it 
is, however, very variable in its markings, vary- 
ing from whitish buff to deep ochre, with large 
black spots. The eggs, which the female de- 
posits on the leaves of plants, are whitish, 
round, and smooth. The caterpillars, when first 
hatched, are of a yellowish white, with very few 
long hairs. When of full size, they are about 
an inch and a half long ; they are then of a dark 
green, with a white line down each side. The 
stigmata white, and covered with reddish-brown 
hairs. It has six sharp-pointed pectoral feet, 
eight on the abdomen, and two hind ones, of a 
more fleshy nature. 

Aphis brasaicm (figs. 42, 43), the Aphis floris- 
rapse of some entomologists, is also destructive 
to turnip crops, and indeed to most plants of 
the same natural order. 

Aphis d/iibia (the black-spotted turnip-leaf 
plant-louse) is often found in company with A. 
ra/pai on the under sides of the leaves of turnips. 
Both these species resemble each other closely, 
only in A. dubia the colour is a dull green, sha- 
greened ; horns dusky at their extremities, as are 
also the tops of the thighs, shanks, and feet; the 
eyes and ocelli are black, as are two patches on 
the collar, and several transverse broken strips 
along the back. 

Drotophilafiava (the yellow turnip leaf-miner), 
fig. 74, is a minute fly, which lays its eggs on the 


che upper side. When full-grown, they are pale 
green, and change to chestnut-coloured pupas, 
with two small horns at the head, and from these 
the flies are produced. These are ochreous, with 
black hairs, and two little feathered horns. The 
eyes are black ; there are three ochreous strips 
down the trunk; the six legs and two balancers 
are yellowish and downy ; the two wings are large 
and irridesceut. The larva: of this insect are de- 
stroyed by two little parasitic hymenopterous 
flies, the Ceraphron niger and the Microgaster 

Centorhynchus pleurostigma (the turnip gall- 
weevil) effects the disfiguration, at least, of the 
turnip bulb, by " the female piercing a hole in 
the rind of the turnip with her proboscis, and 
depositing an egg in it ; and the young maggot, 
which is fat and whitish, often of a bright flesh- 
colour, lives on the substance of the bulb," caus- 
ing those excrescences which are so often ob- 
served on turnips, particularly in dry seasons. 
The general appearance of this insect is that of 
a small black seed, and, excepting in colour, it 
resembles the turnip-seed weevil, which latter is 
of a grey colour. 

Triphcena pronuba (the great yellow under- 
wing), fig. 75, in its caterpillar state, is one of 
Fig. 75. 


AND cHUYSAus. Naturul sjze. 




those enemies known as surface-grubs, and often 
attack the turnip-bulb, particularly in gardens 
where the plants are nearly full grown. These 
have also their natural enemies in the genus Cryp- 
tops — Scolopendraof 
Fig. 76. some(thecentipedes), 

fig. 76. Ifthevalueof 
these were rightly 
understood, the vul- 
gar prejudice against 
them would be re- 
moved. They are all 
of the carnivorous or 
flesh-eating section, 
and devour immense 
numbers of underground grubs, larvse, &c. They 
live entirely on the insects they find in the soU ; 
they are of a rusty-red colour, more than an inch 
in length ; antenn8ehairy,having seventeen joints ; 
legs hairy, having twenty-one on each side. One 
species, Cryptops hortensis, is almost entirely 
confined to the southern counties of England ; 
the rest are common everywhere. 

Amongst lepidopterous insects — that is, those 
of the butterfly and moth kind — there are some 
species injurious to turnip crops, which are thus 
described by Mr Stephens in " The Book of the 
Farm," vol. ii. p. 79 : — 

"Cerostoma xylostella (the turnip diamond- 
back moth), fig. 77. — When at rest, the wings are 

Fig. 77. 

colour. " The antennae have white scales ; the 

abdomen is ash grey, with brown, tufts ; the 

Pig. 78. 


closed and deflexed, and the horns are projected 
forward in a straight line. It is more or less 
brown. The upper wings are long and narrow, 
and, when closed, form two or three diamonds 
upon the back. The inferior wings are lance- 
shaped, and of an ash colour, with a very long 
fringe. Its length is 2^ Mnes. The caterpillar 
is green, about half an inch in length, slender, 
and tapering to both ends. They are exceed- 
ingly active, and on the slightest touch wriggle 
themselves off the leaf they are feeding on, and 
let themselves down by a silken thread, and re- 
main suspended tUl the cause of alarm subsides. 
As many as 240 have been counted on one leaf; 
and such is their avidity, that not the smallest 
vestige of a green leaf is left by them. This 
larvse is destroyed by a black ichneumon, named 
Oampoples: pamsoas." 

Mamestra brassicce